The Fairchild PT-19 is an American Fairchild Aircraft monoplane primary trainer aircraft that served with the United States Army Air Forces, RAF and RCAF during World War II. It was a contemporary of the Kaydet biplane trainer and was used by the USAAF during Primary Flying Training; as with other USAAF trainers of the period, the PT-19 had multiple designation based on the powerplant installed. The PT-19 series was developed from the Fairchild M-62 when the USAAC first ordered the aircraft in 1940 as part of its expansion program; the cantilever low-wing monoplane with fixed landing gear and tailwheel design was based on a two-place, tandem-seat, open cockpit arrangement. The simple but rugged construction included a fabric-covered welded steel tube fuselage; the remainder of the aircraft used plywood construction, with a plywood-sheathed center section, outer wing panels and tail assembly. The use of an inline engine allowed for a narrow frontal area, ideal for visibility while the set-apart fixed landing gear allowed for solid and stable ground handling.
The M-62 first flew in May 1939, won a fly-off competition that year against 17 other designs for the new Army training airplane. Fairchild was awarded its first Army PT contract for an initial order on 22 September 1939; the original production batch of 275 were powered by the inline 175 hp Ranger L-440-1 engine and designated the PT-19. In 1941, mass production began and 3,181 of the PT-19A model, powered by the 200 hp L-440-3, were made by Fairchild. An additional 477 were built by 44 by the St. Louis Aircraft Corporation; the PT-19B, of which 917 were built, was equipped for instrument flight training by attaching a collapsible hood to the front cockpit. When a shortage of engines threatened production, the PT-23 model was introduced, identical except for the 220 hp Continental R-670 radial powerplant. A total of 869 PT-23s were built as well as 256 of the PT-23A, the instrument flight-equipped version; the PT-23 was manufactured in the US by Fairchild, Aeronca, St. Louis Aircraft Corporation and Howard Aircraft Corporation and in Canada by Fleet Aircraft Corporation as well as Fabrica do Galeao in Brazil.
During 1943, USAAF Training Command received a number of complaints about durability issues with the plywood wings of the PT-19 and the PT-23 when exposed to the high heat and/or humidity of training bases located in Texas and Florida. Maintenance officers at the USAAF overhaul depots had been forced to order replacement of the wooden wing sections after only two to three months' active service because of wood rot and ply separation issues. Subsequent to this incident, the USAAF incorporated a demand for all-metal wing sections on all future fixed-wing training aircraft; the final variant was the PT-26. The Canadian-built versions of these were designated the Cornell for use by the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, centered in Canada. Compared to the earlier biplane trainers, the Fairchild PT-19 provided a more advanced type of aircraft. Speeds were higher and wing loading more approximated that of combat aircraft, with flight characteristics demanding more precision and care, its virtues were that it was inexpensive, simple to maintain and, most of all viceless.
The PT-19 lived up to its nickname, the Cradle of Heroes. It was one of a handful of primary trainer designs that were the first stop on a cadet's way to becoming a combat pilot; these planes were delivered to various bases all over the country by WASPs between 1942-1944. Thousands of the PT-19 series were integrated into the United States and Commonwealth training programs, serving throughout World War II and beyond. After their retirement in the late 1940s, a substantial number found their way onto the United States and other civil registers, being flown by private pilot owners. PT-19 Initial production variant of the Model M62 powered by 270 built. PT-19A As the PT-19 but powered by a 200hp L-440-3 and detailed changes, redesignated T-19A in 1948, 3226 built. PT-19B Instrument training version of the PT-19A, 143 built and six conversions from PT-19A. XPT-23A A PT-19 re-engined with a 220hp R-670-5 radial engine. PT-23 Production radial-engined version, 774 built. PT-23A Instrument training version of the PT-23, 256 built.
PT-26 PT-19A variant with enclosed cockpit for the Commonwealth Air Training Scheme, powered by a 200hp L-440-3, 670 built for the Royal Canadian Air Force as the Cornell I. PT-26A As PT-26 but with a 200hp L-440-7 engine, 807 built by Fleet as the Cornell II. PT-26B AS PT-26A with minor changes, 250 built as the Cornell III. Cornell I RCAF designation for the PT-26. Cornell II RCAF designation for the PT-26A. Cornell III RCAF designation for the PT-26B. Argentina BrazilBrazilian Air Force CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force ChileChilean Air Force China Colombia EcuadorEcuadorian Air Force El Salvador HaitiArmed Forces of Haiti IndiaIndian Air Force MexicoMexican Air Force NicaraguaNicaraguan Air Force NorwayRoyal Norwegian Air Force ParaguayParaguayan Air Arm received a few Fairchild M-62s in 1940, followed by 15 Lend-Lease PT-19A in 1942-43. In the 1950s, 14 ex-Brazilian Air Force PT-19s were received; the last PT-19 was retired in 1972. PeruPeruvian Air Force PhilippinesPhilippines Air Force South AfricaSouth African Air Force Southern RhodesiaRhodesian Air Force United KingdomRoyal Air Force United StatesUnited States Army Air Corps/United States Army Air Forces UruguayUruguayan Air Force received 17 PT-19As and PT-19Bs under Lend Lease in 1942, with 50 PT-26s being delivered in 1946–1947.
Uruguayan Navy VenezuelaAviación Militar received 20 PT-1
The Fairchild VZ-5 was a 1950s American experimental VTOL research aircraft built by Fairchild Aircraft for the United States Army. Built for the United States Army with the designation VZ-5, this prototype was one of a series of experimental aircraft designed to investigate various aspects and solutions for VTOL aircraft; the VZ-5 was an all-metal high-wing monoplane with a fixed tricycle undercarriage. The fuselage had an open cockpit for a rear-mounted high-tailplane; the unusual aspect of the aircraft was that it had one General Electric turboshaft in the rear fuselage driving four propellers, two each mounted in nacelles on the leading edge of each wing. It had two small four-bladed tail-rotors mounted above the tailplane for control; the wing had conventional trailing edge flaps and ailerons but it had a section of the wing that could be deflected to act as a full-span flap. For a vertical takeoff two-thirds of the wing chord acted as a flap in the slipstream of the four propellers; the VZ-5 was first flown tethered on 18 November 1959 but only had limited testing before the project was abandoned.
See Deflected slipstream for information on the VTOL technology employed with the VZ-5. United StatesUnited States Army General characteristics Crew: One Length: 33 ft 8 in Wingspan: 32 ft 9 in Height: 16 ft 10 in Wing area: 191 ft2 Empty weight: 3,382 lb Gross weight: 3,976 lb Powerplant: 1 × General Electric YT58-GE-2 turboshaft, 1,032 hp Performance Maximum speed: 184 mph Aircraft of comparable role and era Ryan VZ-3 Vertiplane Dornier Do 29 Related lists List of experimental aircraft List of military aircraft of the United States John Andrade, U. S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909, Midland Counties Publications, 1979, ISBN 0-904597-22-9 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing Media related to Fairchild VZ-5 at Wikimedia Commons
The Fairchild 22 Model C7 was an American two-seat touring or training monoplane designed and built by the Kreider-Reisner division of the Fairchild Aircraft Corporation at Hagerstown, Maryland. The aircraft was designed by Kreider-Reisner during negotiations by Sherman Fairchild to take a major share in the company. Marketed as the Fairchild 22 Model C7 the aircraft was certified in March 1931; the Fairchild 22 was a mixed-construction, braced parasol-wing monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear and a braced tail unit. It had two tandem open cockpits and was powered by an 80 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet radial engine. After test flying the prototype the first production aircraft were re-engined with a 75 hp Michigan Rover inverted inline engine; the aircraft was fitted with both radial piston engines. C7 Powered by a 75hp Michigan Rover four-cylinder inverted inline piston engine C7A Powered by a 95hp Cirrus Hi-Drive four-cylinder inverted inline piston engine. C7B Powered by a 125hp Menasco C-4 Pirate four-cylinder inverted inline piston engine.
C7D Powered by a 90hp Wright Gipsy four-cylinder upright inline piston engine. C7E Powered by a 125hp Warner Scarab seven-cylinder radial piston engine. C7F Powered by a 145hp Warner Super Scarab seven-cylinder radial piston engine. C7G Aerobatic version, powered by a 145hp Warner Super Scarab seven-cylinder radial piston engine. XR2K-1 Military designation for one Scarab powered Model 22 impressed into service and used by NACA. NX14768 Experimentally designed wing added to the 1933 Fairchild 22 owned by Charles Townsend Ludington under the Ludington-Griswold Incorporated company, Saybrook, CT. Test flown in 1944, the wing had a series of wing tip fins; the design proved disappointing and the airplane was sold. Data from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 1640General characteristics Crew: two Length: 22 ft 3 in Wingspan: 33 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 11 in Wing area: 173 ft2 Empty weight: 1102 lb Gross weight: 1750 lb Powerplant: 1 × Warner Super Scarab 7-cyliner radial piston engine, 145 hp Performance Maximum speed: 133 mph Range: 350 miles Service ceiling: 20,000 ft Colombia Colombian Air Force The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing, Page 1640 Williams Aircraft Collection - Fairchild 22 restoration and history Media related to Fairchild 22 at Wikimedia Commons http://www.sim-outhouse.com/sohforums/showthread.php/17-The-Ongoing-Mystery-Aircraft-Thread-Part-Deux?p=878843&viewfull=1
Fairchild AT-21 Gunner
The Fairchild AT-21 was an American World War II specialized bomber crew trainer, intended to train crews in the use of power gun turrets or a gun on a flexible mount, as well as learn to function as a member of a crew. It had a brief career as a training aircraft; the United States Army Air Forces laid out a specification for a specialized bomber trainer, ordering two prototypes from Fairchild Aircraft. The XAT-13 powered by two 450 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 radial engines, emerged as a "scaled down" bomber with a single machine gun in the glazed nose and a top turret with twin machine guns and fitted with tricycle landing gear; the concept was to have a single type, able to duplicate the bomber crew positions from piloting, bomb aiming/dropping to aerial gunnery. The second prototype, designated the XAT-14 was similar in layout but was powered by two 520 hp Ranger V-770 inline inverted 12-cylinder vee-type engines. A further refinement to suit the aircraft for bombardier training with the nose gun and turret removed, led to a new designation, the XAT-14A.
Both prototypes featured an unusual construction, being built from "Duramold" plastic-bonded plywood. At the end of the testing period, the USAAC ordered the inline version as the AT-21 Gunner, specialized for gunnery training; the AT-21 had a crew of pilot, co-pilot/gunnery instructor and three pupils. Fairchild Aircraft Company built one aircraft in Hagerstown and 106 aircraft at their Burlington, North Carolina plant in 1943 and 1944, while Bellanca Aircraft built 39 at New Castle, McDonnell built 30 aircraft at their St. Louis plant. Both companies were enlisted to speed delivery to training units; the AT-21 proved to be unsuitable for use as a trainer due to vibration and oscillation tendencies as well as an inherent instability caused by the short distance between the rudders and the gull wing resulting in unacceptable yaw when slight rudder movements were made. Not deemed suitable for its original purpose, The AT-21 was evaluated as an advanced pilot trainer; this did not work out well, due to poor single-engine performance and multiple landing gear problems.
The aircraft was withdrawn from service in 1944 and was replaced by training examples of the actual aircraft in which the gunners would serve. Many of the AT-21s were relegated to target-tow duties. A small number of AT-21s survived as civilian examples, with one still in existence in North Texas as a "basket case" awaiting restoration. In October 1942, the U. S. Army Air Forces ordered two XBQ-3 "aerial torpedoes", based on the AT-21 design. Optionally piloted for flight testing and capable of carrying 4,000 pounds of explosive, the XBQ-3 first flew in July 1944, but the project was cancelled that year. XAT-13 Twin-engined bomber crew trainer powered by two 450 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 engines, one built, serial number 41-19500 XAT-14 AT-13 variant with two 520 hp Ranger V-770-6 engines, one built converted to XAT-14A, serial number 41-19503 XAT-14A XAT-14 modified as a bombardier trainer with dorsal turret and nose gun removed. AT-21 Production version of the XAT-14A with two 520 hp Ranger V-770-11 or -15 engines, 164 built.
XBQ-3 Guided bomb version, AT-21 modified with 4,000-pound explosive charge in fuselage. United StatesUS Army Air Corps US Army Air Forces Data from The Complete Encyclopedia of World AircraftGeneral characteristics Crew: five Length: 38 ft Wingspan: 52 ft 8 in Height: 13 ft 1.25 in Wing area: 378 ft² Empty weight: 8,654 lb Loaded weight: 11,288 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 12,500 lb Powerplant: 2 × Ranger V-770-11/15 12-cylinder inverted-vee air-cooled piston engine, 520 hp eachPerformance Never exceed speed: knots Maximum speed: 195.5 knots Cruise speed: 170 knots Range: 790.7 nm Service ceiling: 22,151 ft Rate of climb: 930 ft/min Armament one 0.3 in Browning trainable machine-gun in the nose two 0.3 in Browning machine guns in a power operated dorsal turret Related development Fairchild BQ-3 Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States Notes Bibliography Fairchild AT-21
Farmingdale, New York
The Incorporated Village of Farmingdale is an incorporated village on Long Island within the Town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, New York, United States. The population was 8,189 at the 2010 Census; as of 2012, the mayor was Ralph Ekstrand. The Lenox Hills neighborhood is adjacent to Bethpage State Park and the rest of the town is within a fifteen minute drive of the park, it is approximately 37 mi southeast of Midtown Manhattan and can be reached via the Ronkonkoma Branch of the LIRR. The Long Island Expressway and Seaford Oyster Bay Expressway is the best way to reach Farmingdale from the city and the mainland. Farmingdale is associated with several unincorporated areas outside the village limits, including South Farmingdale, East Farmingdale. Many nearby places not within the village limits have Farmingdale as their postal address and the same 11735 ZIP code. Residents of East Farmingdale must use Farmingdale as their mailing address, residents of South Farmingdale can use either Farmingdale or South Farmingdale.
Bethpage State Park, in Old Bethpage has a Farmingdale mailing address. Farmingdale Union Free School District includes parts of both Nassau Suffolk County. A road sign on Main Street in the south-east section of South Farmingdale welcomes travelers to Farmingdale. Farmingdale is the name of the local Farmingdale Water District and Farmingdale Fire District, both of which include areas outside the boundaries of the Village of Farmingdale. Farmingdale State College and Republic Airport are in East Farmingdale, both with Farmingdale mailing addresses; the first European settler in the area was Thomas Powell, who arrived in 1687. On October 18, 1695, he purchased a 15-square-mile tract of land from three Native American tribes; this is known as the Bethpage Purchase and includes what is now Farmingdale, as well as Bethpage, North Massapequa, Old Bethpage and Plainview. One of two houses he built in the area still stands on Merritts Road in Farmingdale. In the 1830s, anticipating construction of the Long Island Rail Road, land developer Ambrose George purchased a large tract of land between a community known as Bethpage and an area in Suffolk County called Hardscrabble.
He built a general store in the western part of this property. When the LIRR started service to the area in October 1841, it used the name Farmingdale for its latest stop, here, on the line it was building to Greenport. Stagecoaches took people from the Farmingdale station to Islip, Patchogue, Oyster Bay South, West Neck. In 1886 a fire department was organized; the Village of Farmingdale was incorporated in 1904. In 1912, the State Agricultural and Technical school was established; the Lenox Hills Country Club, an 18-hole private golf course designed by Devereaux Emmet, was developed north of the community in 1923. This golf course was purchased by the State of New York and opened as Bethpage State Park in 1932; the original 1920s era Lenox Hills subdivision and adjacent subdivisions, located between the Bethpage State Park golf course and the Long Island Railroad trackage, encompassing rolling hills and a wide boulevard, are known as the more upscale part of Farmingdale Village. Farmingdale became a locus for the aircraft industry, notably Republic Aviation Company.
In 1899, Mile-a-Minute Murphy rode a bicycle along the Long Island Rail Road's Central Branch through the Farmingdale area at a mile a minute. For many years, the town celebrated its birth with the annual Hardscrabble Fair, with music and games, it was held in May. Farmingdale is located at 40°44′0″N 73°26′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all land. Between the 1990 Census and the 2000 census, the village gained territory. Farmingdale is served by Republic Airport, a major general aviation reliever to the east of New York City. Major roads are New York State routes 24, 109, 110, Southern State Parkway, Bethpage State Parkway, 27; the village is the site of a transit-oriented development centered around the LIRR station. As of the 2010 census The population of the village was 88.2% White, 71.1% Non-Hispanic White, 2.6% African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 4.7% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.7% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,399 people, 3,216 households, 2,051 families residing in the village; the population density was 7,432.2 people per square mile. There were 3,289 housing units at an average density of 2,910.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 87.03% White, 1.61% African American, 0.12% Native American, 3.70% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 5.06% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.57% of the population. There were 3,216 households out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.19. In the village, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% fr
The Fairchild BQ-3 known as the Model 79, was an early expendable unmanned aerial vehicle – referred to at the time as an "assault drone" – developed by Fairchild Aircraft from the company's AT-21 Gunner advanced trainer during the Second World War for use by the United States Army Air Forces. Two examples of the type were built and flight-tested, but the progress of guided missiles rendered the assault drone obsolete, the type was not produced. Development of the BQ-3 began in October, 1942, under a program for the development of "aerial torpedoes" and more referred to as "assault drones", instigated in March of that year. Fairchild was awarded a contract for the construction of two XBQ-3 prototypes, based on the AT-21 Gunner advanced gunnery trainer in United States Army Air Forces service; the XBQ-3 was a twin-engined, low-wing aircraft, fitted with retractable tricycle landing gear and a twin-finned empennage. Power was provided by two Ranger V-770 inline piston engines of 520 horsepower each.
Like the contemporary Fleetwings BQ-2, the aircraft would be destroyed in the act of striking the target. The first flight of the XBQ-3 took place in July 1944. Despite the accident, flight testing continued; as a result, the program was cancelled towards the end of 1944. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 52 ft 8 in Wingspan: 37 ft Height: 31 ft 1 in Gross weight: 15,300 lb Powerplant: 2 × Ranger V-770-15 inline piston engines, 520 hp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 220 mph Range: 1,500 mi Armament 4,000 pounds warhead Related development Fairchild AT-21 GunnerAircraft of comparable role and era Fleetwings BQ-2 Interstate TDR
The Curtiss OX-5 was an early V-8 American liquid-cooled aircraft engine built by Curtiss. It was the first American-designed aircraft engine to enter mass production, although it was considered obsolete when it did so in 1917, it found widespread use on a number of aircraft the most famous being the JN-4 "Jenny". Some 12,600 units were built through early 1919; the wide availability of the engine in the surplus market made it common until the 1930s, although it was considered unreliable for most of its service life. Today, the engine can be found powering many Edwardian automobile racing specials on the historic racing scene; the OX-5 was the last in a series of Glenn Curtiss designed V engines, which started as a series of air-cooled V-twins for motorcycles in 1902. A modified version of one of these early designs was sold as an aircraft engine in 1906, from on the company's primary market was aircraft; the basic design had expanded by adding additional cylinders until they reached the V-8 in 1906.
They started enlarging the cylinders as well, but this led to cooling problems that required the introduction of water cooling in 1908. These early engines used a flathead valve arrangement, which gave way to a cross-flow cylinder with overhead valves in 1909, leading to improved volumetric efficiency; the US Navy ordered a version of this basic design in 1912 for its A-1 amphibious aircraft, which Curtiss supplied as the OX. These improvements and others were worked into what became the OX-5, first built in 1910. By this point engine design was a team effort. Like most engines of the era, the OX-5's high-temperature areas were built of cast iron, using individual cylinders bolted to a single aluminum crankcase, wrapped in a cooling jacket made of a nickel-copper alloy. Versions used a brazed-on steel jacket instead. Cylinder heads were attached to the crankcase, using X-shaped tie-downs on the top of the head attached to the block via four long bolts. Fuel was carbureted near the rear of the engine piped to the cylinders via two T-shaped pipes, the cylinders being arranged so the intake ports of any two in a bank were near each other.
The cylinders had one intake and one exhaust valve, each operated by a pushrod from a camshaft running between the banks. This arrangement caused the outer exhaust valves to have a rather long rocker arm; the pushrods were arranged one inside the other, the exhaust valve rod being on the inside and the intake valve rod a tube around it. The aluminum camshaft bearings were a split type held in place by lock screws; the pistons were cast aluminum. The OX-5 was not considered advanced, nor powerful, for its era. By this point rotary engines such as the Oberursel or Gnome-Rhone were producing about 100 hp, newer inlines were becoming available with 160 hp or more; the OX-5 had good fuel economy as a result of its slow RPM, which made it useful for civilian aircraft. The OX-5 was used on the Laird Swallow, Pitcairn PA-4 Fleetwing II, Travel Air 2000, Waco 9 and 10, the American Eagle, the Buhl-Verville CW-3 Airster, some models of the Jenny; the primary reason for its popularity was its low cost after the war, with almost-new examples selling as low as $20.
It was used in boats as well as in aircraft. The engine was considered unreliable, but unreliable is a relative term: aviation engine technology had not matured at the end of World War I; the JN4 with the OX-5 was underpowered, but the OX-5 proved a much better engine than the Hall Scott A7A, the Achilles heel of the Standard J-1, the substitute primary trainer. In particular the valve gear was fragile, it had no provisions for lubrication other than grease and oil applied by hand, leading to an overhaul interval as short as fifty hours. Additionally the engine featured a single spark plug in each cylinder, a single ignition system, in an era when ignition equipment was less reliable, with dual ignition being fitted to more advanced aviation powerplants like the French V-form Hispano-Suiza 8 and the inline-six cylinder series of Mercedes D. I through D. III German engines. Built by several contractors in large numbers, the OX-5 suffered from uneven quality control. However, while the overwhelming majority of training accidents in the U.
S. were in JN-4s, this was because JN-4s were flown by the vast majority of trainee pilots, the accident rate in the US for primary training was four times less than the advanced training rate in France 2800 flying hours in the US in OX-5 powered JN-4s per fatality to 761 hours per fatality in France in other types. Few fatal accidents were caused by engine failure, although the lack of power may have been the cause of the many stall and spins that took about forty five percent of training lives. Anyone seeing a JN-4 today struggling into the air with an OX-5 can see quickly that the JN-4 had to be flown in a narrow envelope; the replacement of the A7A in Standard J-1s was contemplated, but the cost of $2,000 per aircraft compared with the need led to the rejection of this idea. The successful civilian post-war use of the OX-5 was due to its relative reliability in the more aerodynamically advanced designs of the 1920s, its simplicity of operation, its low cost. By comparison the Hall Scott A7A created such a bad impression during the war that few, if any, were used by civilian operators.
The OX-5 itself would be re