Ohio's 15th congressional district
The 15th congressional district of Ohio is represented by Republican Steve Stivers. The district includes the southern portions of Columbus as well as communities west and south of the City, it includes the college towns of Athens and Wilmington. From 2003 to 2013 Union County and Madison County were within the district's boundaries as is half of Franklin County; the 15th district included the cities of Upper Arlington, Grove City, Grandview Heights, Plain City and Wilmington. As well as the downtown and western portions of Columbus; the following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent; the character Deanna Monroe, from AMC's The Walking Dead was a former Congresswoman from Ohio's 15th congressional district. Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama and Georgia. While the Appalachian Mountains stretch from Belle Isle in Canada to Cheaha Mountain in Alabama, the cultural region of Appalachia refers only to the central and southern portions of the range, from the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, southwesterly to the Great Smoky Mountains; as of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to 25 million people. Since its recognition as a distinctive region in the late 19th century, Appalachia has been a source of enduring myths and distortions regarding the isolation and behavior of its inhabitants. Early 20th century writers engaged in yellow journalism focused on sensationalistic aspects of the region's culture, such as moonshining and clan feuding, portrayed the region's inhabitants as uneducated and prone to impulsive acts of violence. Sociological studies in the 1960s and 1970s helped to dispel these stereotypes.
While endowed with abundant natural resources, Appalachia has long struggled and been associated with poverty. In the early 20th century, large-scale logging and coal mining firms brought wage-paying jobs and modern amenities to Appalachia, but by the 1960s the region had failed to capitalize on any long-term benefits from these two industries. Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government sought to alleviate poverty in the Appalachian region with a series of New Deal initiatives, such as the construction of dams to provide cheap electricity and the implementation of better farming practices. On March 9, 1965, the Appalachian Regional Commission was created to further alleviate poverty in the region by diversifying the region's economy and helping to provide better health care and educational opportunities to the region's inhabitants. By 1990, Appalachia had joined the economic mainstream, but still lagged behind the rest of the nation in most economic indicators. Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been some disagreement over what the region encompasses.
The most used modern definition of Appalachia is the one defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965 and expanded over subsequent decades. The region defined by the Commission includes 420 counties and eight independent cities in 13 states, including all of West Virginia, 14 counties in New York, 52 in Pennsylvania, 32 in Ohio, 3 in Maryland, 54 in Kentucky, 25 counties and 8 cities in Virginia, 29 in North Carolina, 52 in Tennessee, 6 in South Carolina, 37 in Georgia, 37 in Alabama, 24 in Mississippi; when the Commission was established, counties were added based on economic need, rather than any cultural parameters. The first major attempt to map Appalachia as a distinctive cultural region came in the 1890s with the efforts of Berea College president William Goodell Frost, whose "Appalachian America" included 194 counties in 8 states. In 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frost's map to include 254 counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the following decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of 206 counties in 6 states. In 1984, Karl Raitz and Richard Ulack expanded the ARC's definition to include 445 counties in 13 states, although they removed all counties in Mississippi and added two in New Jersey. Historian John Alexander Williams, in his 2002 book Appalachia: A History, distinguished between a "core" Appalachian region consisting of 164 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, a greater region defined by the ARC. In the Encyclopedia of Appalachia, Appalachian State University historian Howard Dorgan suggested the term "Old Appalachia" for the region's cultural boundaries, noting an academic tendency to ignore the southwestern and northeastern extremes of the ARC's pragmatic definition. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen.
The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian", it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. S. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez' map of 1562. Le Moyne was the first European to apply "Apalachen" to a mountain range as opposed to a village, native tribe, or a southeastern region of North America; the name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania." In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced or.
The cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/ /æpəˈleɪtʃə/, all with a third syllable like "lay". In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are called the, the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /ˈæpəˈlætʃə/, both with a third syllable like the "la" in "latch". This pronunciation is favored in th
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Columbus metropolitan area, Ohio
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area is the metropolitan area centered on the U. S. city of Columbus, Ohio. It includes the counties of Delaware, Franklin, Licking, Morrow, Perry and Union; the population of the MSA is 2,078,725 according to 2017 census estimates, making Greater Columbus the 32nd most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the largest metro area in Ohio, the second largest in Ohio behind the Cincinnati Metropolitan Statistical Area which includes areas of Kentucky and Indiana. The larger combined statistical area adds the counties of Fayette, Knox, Marion and Ross, it includes the Micropolitan Statistical Areas of Bellefontaine, Chillicothe, Mount Vernon, Washington Court House, Zanesville, due to strong ties with Columbus. The population of the CSA is 2,508,498 according to the 2016 census estimates, ranking second in Ohio behind the Cincinnati Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state of Ohio, behind Greater Cincinnati.
It is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the Midwestern United States. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, it is one of the fastest growing metro areas outside the Sun Belt. The public sector dominates the Central Ohio employment landscape, with the State of Ohio, The Ohio State University, the United States Government accounting for an estimated 55,000 to 60,000 employees; when combined with Columbus City Schools, the City of Columbus, Franklin County, the number swells to about 80,000 employees, making government jobs the area's largest employment sector. The financial sector provides the second largest employment sector in Central Ohio. JPMorgan Chase is the area's largest financial sector employer, with Columbus-based insurance company Nationwide Insurance a close second. Headquartered in Columbus is Huntington Bank, with significant presence by banks such as KeyBank, Fifth Third, PNC Financial Services, Park National Corporation, Commerce National Bank. In addition to Nationwide, other insurance-based companies in Central Ohio include Motorists Insurance, Grange Insurance, Safe Auto Insurance, State Auto Insurance.
The manufacturing sector includes Honda, which operates their largest North American manufacturing complex in the Marysville area. In Marysville is Scotts Miracle-Gro Company, the makers of Miracle Gro and various other soil and potting fertilizers. Located in downtown Columbus is AEP, one of the largest electric utility companies in the US. Mettler Toledo, a manufacturer of precision scales and scientific equipment, is based in the area known as Polaris. Worthington Industries, a large steel-processing company, is located on the north side of Columbus near Worthington; the Ashland Inc. company has a large office space within Dublin. Anheuser-Busch operates one of their 12 breweries on the north side of Columbus. Hexion Specialty Chemicals is located in downtown Columbus; the Ross Products Division of Abbott Laboratories, makers of Ensure nutritional drink and Similac infant formula, is headquartered in Columbus. T. Marzetti Company, a large food manufacturer, is headquartered in North Columbus, has distribution centers and food manufacturing operations throughout Central Ohio.
Homebuilders M/I Homes and Dominion Homes are located in Columbus. The retail sector's biggest employer is clothing company L Brands. Retail brands within the L Brands corporate umbrella include Victoria's Secret, Bath & Body Works, La Senza, Henri Bendel. Companies that have been spun off from L Brands that are still headquartered in Central Ohio include Abercrombie & Fitch, Lane Bryant, Tween Brands Limited Too. Another apparel and furniture company located in Columbus is Retail Ventures, their operating stores include DSW, Filene's Basement, American Signature, Rooms Today and Value City. The department store holding company Federated Department Stores was once based in Columbus, included the Lazarus department store chain, before being re-branded under the Macy's brand name in 2005. Central Ohio is home to three large fast food chains. Wendy's has its corporate headquarters in Dublin, while White Castle and Sbarro are located in Columbus. Smaller chains Charley's Grilled Subs and Steak Escape are Columbus-based as well.
Cameron Mitchell Restaurants, Bob Evans Restaurants, Max & Erma's, Damon's Grill and Donatos Pizza are based in the city. In the health care sector is Cardinal Health, the highest-ranked Ohio-based company on the Fortune 500 list, has its headquarters along I-270 in Dublin. In the health services sector is OhioHealth, a leading HMO. Central Ohio has a well established tech sector as well; the Online Computer Library Center is located across from Cardinal on the other side I-270. Microcenter, a retailer of computers and other electronic equipment, was started in Upper Arlington and is now based in Hilliard. A number of science-based companies reside in Columbus, including Chemical Abstracts and the Battelle Memorial Institute R&D company. CompuServe was an independent firm headquartered and operated within Columbus before being acquired by WorldCom and AOL. Sterling Commerce was headquartered near Dublin, adjacent to a large Qwest facility. Columbus has a booming start-up culture. There are several business incubators and multiple resources available to help Central Ohio’s small business community thrive.
There is a yearly Startup Weekend workshop. In
Fairfield is a city in Butler and Hamilton counties in the U. S. state of Ohio, a residential suburb of nearby Cincinnati. Fairfield was incorporated in 1955; the population was 42,510 at the 2010 census. It includes the former hamlet of Symmes Corner, named after Celadon Symmes; the city school district is one of the largest in Ohio, with Fairfield High School graduating 842 students in June 2009. An evolution of Fairfield: 1877 — The Groh family settles in what would become the city of Fairfield. Patriarch Fred Groh purchased 50 acres in Fairfield Twp. 1953 — On August 6, 1953, the Hamilton Journal and Daily News reported a master plan to annex half of Fairfield Twp. taking half the schools and the township's major industries. 1954 — In April, voters said'no' to incorporating the entire township 1,219 to 831. On July 10, township residents said'yes' to incorporating 738 for to 216 against. 1955 — Attempts to detach the village and annex into Hamilton continued. The council pursued to annex a 10-square-mile area known as Stockton.
Results of a special census were announced on September 20 there were 6,202 residents. 1965 — The third, current, Fairfield Municipal Building was dedicated. 1972 — The 11th annual Homearama is held in Fairfield, the first one outside Hamilton County. Homearama's annual showcase returned two more times in Fairfield. 1974 — Jim Boniminio purchases land at 5440 Dixie Highway and after a reluctant planning commission approves his request to open a permanent fruit and vegetable market on the industrial zoned land. Today Jungle Jim's International Market has 50,000 weekly shoppers and annual sales of nearly $100 million. 1979 — The Fairfield Golf team wins a state championship, the first team or individual state title for the school. 1985 - Fairfield wins State HS Baseball Championships. 1986 — Fairfield HS wins state football championship versus Lakewood St. Edwards. 1989 — Forest Fair Mall opens with three anchors and 37 specialty stores. The $200 million mall with 1,700,000 square feet straddles the Forest Park border.
Redevelopment of the mall in 2004 leads to renaming the mall Cincinnati Mills. 1991 — The Fairfield High School baseball team is named USA Today National Champions 2001 — In September, Village Green Park debuted. It was developed to give Fairfield a downtown. 2005 — In May, the Community Arts Center debuted, completing the city's "crown jewel". The Community Arts Center serves as a "bookend" to the Fairfield Lane Library, which opened in Village Green. 2012 — On July 28, the Joe Nuxhall Miracle League Fields, the region's first multi-field complex for tournament play by the disabled, celebrated opening day. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.06 square miles, of which 20.94 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 42,510 people, 17,415 households, 11,372 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,030.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,803 housing units at an average density of 897.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 12.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.0% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.5% of the population. There were 17,415 households of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.7% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the city was 38.3 years. 23.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.8 % female. Insurance company Cincinnati Financial is based in Fairfield; as of March, 2017 Fairfield's largest employers: Fairfield City School District operates Fairfield High School. Fairfield has a branch of the Lane Libraries.
Fairfield is home to Cincinnati Gymnastics Academy, one of the nation's top elite gymnastics program, which has coached various Olympians. The facility is owned by renowned coach, Mary Lee Tracy Bert S. Barlow, W. H. Todhunter, Stephen D. Cone, Joseph J. Pater, Frederick Schneider, eds. Centennial History of Butler County, Ohio. Hamilton, Ohio: B. F. Bowen, 1905. Jim Blount; the 1900s: 100 Years In the History of Butler County, Ohio. Hamilton, Ohio: Past Present Press, 2000. Butler County Engineer's Office. Butler County Official Transportation Map, 2003. Fairfield Township, Butler County, Ohio: The Office, 2003. A History and Biographical Cyclopaedia of Butler County, Ohio with Illustrations and Sketches of Its Representative Men and Pioneers. Cincinnati, Ohio: Western Biographical Publishing Company, 1882. Ohio. Secretary of State; the Ohio municipal and township roster, 2002-2003. Columbus, Ohio: The Secretary, 2003. History of Fairfield. City of Fairfield Website, 2010; the Joe Nuxhall Miracle League Fields at Hatton Park.
City of Fairfield Website, 2012. Life, Well Run Fairfield; the City of Fairfield has produced a video, to assist the city in its residential retention and economic development initiatives. City of Fairfield Website, 2013. Fairfield, Ohio travel guide from Wikivoyage City of Fairfield Official Website Fairfield City Schools Journal News—Most local daily newspaper Fairfield Echo—Local weekly newspaper
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif