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Fairlight CMI

The Fairlight CMI is a digital synthesizer and digital audio workstation introduced in 1979 by Fairlight. It was based on a commercial licence of the Qasar M8 developed by Tony Furse of Creative Strategies in Sydney, Australia, it was one of the earliest music workstations with an embedded digital sampler, is credited for coining the term sampling in music. It competed with the Synclavier from New England Digital. In the 1970s, Kim Ryrie a teenager, had an idea to develop a build-it-yourself analogue synthesizer to be called the ETI 4600, for his family's magazine Electronics Today International. Ryrie was frustrated by the limited number of sounds. After his classmate, Peter Vogel, graduated from high school and had a brief stint at university in 1975, Ryrie asked Vogel if he would be interested in making "the world's greatest synthesizer" based on the announced microprocessor, he recalled: "We had long been interested in computers - I built my first computer when I was about 12 - and it was obvious to me that combining digital technology with music synthesis was the way to go."In December that year, he and Vogel formed a house-based company to manufacture digital synthesizers.

They named it Fairlight after the hydrofoil ferry passing before Ryrie's grandmother's home in Sydney Harbour. The two planned to design a digital synthesizer that could create sounds reminiscent of acoustic instruments, they planned to make an analogue synth, digitally controlled, given that the competing Moog analog synthesizer was difficult to control. After six months, the pair met Motorola consultant Tony Furse. In association with the Canberra School of Electronic Music, Furse built a digital synthesizer using two 8-bit Motorola 6800 microprocessors, the light pen and some of the graphics that would become part of the Fairlight CMI. However, the machine was only able to create exact harmonic partials, sounding sterile and inexpressive. Vogel and Ryrie licensed Furse's design for its processing power, decided to use microprocessor technology instead of analogue synthesis. Over the next year, the duo made what Ryrie called a "research design", the bulky and unmarketable eight-voice synthesizer QASAR M8, which included a two-by-two-by-four foot processing box and a keyboard.

By 1978, Vogel and Ryrie were making unrealistic sounds. Hoping to learn how to synthesize an instrument by studying the harmonics of real instruments, Vogel recorded about a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, he discovered that by playing the recording back at different pitches, it sounded much more realistic than a synthesized piano. He recalled in 2005: It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano; this had never been done before... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesizer had churned out. So I realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. Vogel and Ryrie coined the term sampling to describe this process. With the Fairlight CMI, they could now produce endless sounds, but control was limited to attack, sustain and vibrato. According to Ryrie, "We regarded using recorded real-life sounds as a compromise - as cheating - and we didn't feel proud of it."

They continued to work on the design while making money by creating office computers for Remington Office Machines, which Ryrie described as "a horrendous exercise, but we sold 120 of them". In addition to the keyboard, computer graphics and interactive pen borrowed from Furse's synthesizer, the pair added a QWERTY keyboard, a large one-by-1.5-by-three foot box stored the sampling, processing and ADC/DAC hardware and the 8 inch floppy diskette. By now, the biggest problem was the short sample length, which lasted from a half of to an entire second. However, Vogel felt; the Music Composition Language feature was criticized as being too difficult for empirical users. Other primitive aspects included its green and black graphics. Nonetheless, the CMI garnered significant attention from Australian distributors and consumers for being able to emulate sounds of acoustic instruments, as well as for its light pen and three-dimensional sound visualization. Still, Vogel was unsure; the CMI's ability to emulate real instruments made some refer to it as an "orchestra-in-a-box", each unit came with eight-inch, 500-kilobyte floppy disks that each stored twenty-two samples of orchestral instruments.

The Fairlight CMI garnered publicity in the science industry, being featured on the BBC science and technology series Tomorrow's World. In the summer of 1979, Vogel went to the home of English singer-songwriter Peter Gabriel, where his third solo studio album was being recorded, to show him the Fairlight CMI. Gabriel, as well as many other people in the studio, was engrossed by it, he used strange sounds such as breaking glass bottles and bricks on the album. One of those present for the demonstration, Stephen Paine, recalled in 1996: "Th

Marko's Monastery

Marko's Monastery is a monastery located in the village of Markova Sušica, 18 kilometres from central Skopje in North Macedonia. The monastery bears the name of Serbian Prince Marko. Marko's Monastery has been active since its establishment. Marko's Monastery contains a single cross-shaped church dedicated to Saint Demetrius; the monastery grounds consist of lodgings, a belfry, a well, warehouses, a bakery, a mill. The monastery still operates a special oven used to make rakija; the church has a central dome and a smaller dome on the western side. It was built of bricks and stone; the iconstasis is made of stone pillars. The frescoes inside the church were done by a number of painters from the region; the Holy Mother of God, the twelve great feasts, Jesus Christ, Saint Nicholas are some of the subjects depicted in the frescoes. Construction of the Church of Saint Demetrius began under King Vukašin in 1346; the church, including the interior paintings, were completed 30 years later. Before Ottoman rule, the monastery had a school and many monks and priests would write manuscripts.

In 1392, Skopje fell under Ottoman rule, which led to the destruction of many churches and monasteries in the area. Marko's Monastery, suffered no damage. During the Ottoman era, in 1467/8 the monastery is recorded as having 20 monks. Kiril Pejčinović was the hegumen of Marko's Monastery from 1801 to 1818. In 1830, Ottoman aristocrat Hamzi Paşa added an exonarthex to the church

Endangered species recovery plan

An endangered species recovery plan is a document describing the current status and intended methods for increasing rare and endangered species population sizes. The U. S. Endangered Species Act of 1973 requires that all species considered endangered must have a plan implemented for their recovery, but the format is useful when considering the conservation of any endangered species. Recovery plans act as a foundation from which you can build a conservation effort and they can help to make conservation more effective; the United States congress said in 1973 that endangered species "are of aesthetic, educational, historical and scientific value to the Nation and its people." They therefore set laws to protect endangered species. Section 4 of the United States Endangered Species Act from 1973 directs the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce to develop and implement recovery plans to promote the conservation of endangered and threatened species; the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service are responsible for administering the act.

The recovery plan is a document which specifies what research and management actions are necessary to support recovery, but does not itself commit manpower or funds. Recovery plans are used in setting funding priorities and provide direction to local and state planning efforts. Recovery is when the threats to species survival are neutralized and the species will be able to survive in the wild; the International Union for Conservation of Nature create similar documents, Species Action Plans, which are used to outline the conservation strategies of species between set dates. These documents are used to define the status and threats to the species, set aims for conservation so that parties involved can work towards a common goal. An endangered species is a species, to become extinct; the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service has 17 categories of species status; these categories are used in the documents produced for the U. S. Endangered species act; the categories include: Endangered for species “in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range” Threatened for species “likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range” Candidate for species under consideration Species endangered due to “similarity of appearance” Species of concern for species that are considered “important to monitor” but have not been categorized as E,T or C Delisted species removed from the list due to species recovery or extinction The IUCN has categories that it uses to classify species, which are more used in conservation.

These are: Extinct – there are no individuals remaining of that species at all Extinct in the wild – there are no individuals remaining of that species in the wild at all Critically Endangered – there is a high risk that the species will soon go extinct in the wild, for example because there is only a small population remaining Endangered – there is a high risk of the species soon becoming extinct in the wild Vulnerable – there is a high risk that the species will soon become endangered Near threatened – there is a risk that the species will become threatened in the near future Least concern – there is a low risk that the species will become threatened. This category is used for “widespread and abundant taxaData Deficient – there is not enough data on the species to be able to make a reliable assessment on the status of the species Not evaluated – the species has not yet been evaluated The recovery plan must contain at least: A description of what is needed to return the species to a healthy state Criteria for what this healthy state would be, so that the species can be removed from the endangered list when it is achieved Estimates of how long the recovery will take and how much it will costA recovery plan contains the following sections: Background of the species - a description of the species, its taxonomy, population structure and life history.

This includes the distribution, food sources and abundance Threats - the main reasons why the species is now at risk of extinction Recovery strategy - details of how the species can be returned to a healthy state, including the goals, timeline and criteria for delisting. When recovery plans are carried out well, they do not act as stop gaps to prevent extinction, but can restore species to a state of health so they are self-sustaining. There is evidence to suggest that the best plans are adaptive and dynamic, responding to changing conditions. However, adaptive management requires the system to be monitored so that changes are identified; this is not done for species that have been red listed. The species must be monitored throughout the recovery period to ensure that the plan is working as intended; the framework for this monitoring should be planned before the start of the implementation, the details included in the recovery plan. Information on how and when the data will be collected should be supplied.

An alternative method of conserving a species is to conserve the habitat that the species is found in. In this process, there is no target species for conservation, but rather the habitat as a whole is protected and managed with a view to returning the habitat to a more natural state. In theory, this method of conservation can be beneficial because it allows for the entire ecosystem and the many species within to benefit from conservation, rather than just the single target species; the International Union for Conservation of Nature suggest there is e

The Hits of Baccara

The Hits Of Baccara is a compilation album by Spanish duo Baccara released on RCA-Victor in late 1978. This the first international Baccara hits collection yielded one new single release, double A-side "The Devil Sent You To Lorado"/"Somewhere In Paradise", contained their three biggest hits at the time, "Yes Sir I Can Boogie", "Sorry I'm A Lady" and "Darling", but omitted their 1978 Eurovision Song Contest entry "Parlez-Vous Français?". The Hits Of Baccara was launched with a lavish gatefold sleeve picturing the duo visiting Japan and performing at the 1977 World Popular Song Festival held in Tokyo. In 1990 The Hits Of Baccara was to be re-released on compact disc provided with a new title and altered album art, as The Original Hits; the album was issued in Spain as LOS EXITOS DE BACCARA With a laminated G/F cover. "The Devil Sent You To Lorado" - 4:07 "Koochie-Koo" - 4:04 "Adelita" - 2:31 "Sorry, I'm A Lady" - 3:39 "Cara Mia" - 2:59 "Granada" - 4:21 "Baby, Why Don't You Reach Out?" / "Light My Fire" / - 4:46 "Somewhere in Paradise" - 4:12 "La Bamba" - 3:04 "Darling" - 5:28 "Yes Sir, I Can Boogie" - 4:33 Mayte Mateos - vocals María Mendiola - vocals Produced and arranged by Rolf Soja.

Tracks A1 & B2 unreleased. Tracks A2, A4, A5, A6 & B5 from 1977 studio album Baccara. Tracks A3 & B3 from 1978 studio album Light My Fire. Track B1 edited version. Full-length version appears on album Light My Fire. Track B4 from 1978 7" single "Darling". Full-length version appears on album Light My Fire

Edith Sigourney

Edith Sigourney was an American tennis player during the 1920s. Edith Sigourney was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1895, she and her five siblings grew up at the family's home on Beacon Street. She learned to play tennis at the Nahant tennis club. Sigourney's best result at the US championships was the quarterfinals, which she reached twice, in 1920 and 1922. In doubles, she was a finalist alongside Molla Mallory in 1922, where they lost to Marion Zinderstein and Helen Wills in three sets, she was within the US national top ten in 1920, 1923 and 1925. Sigourney crossed the Atlantic three times to play at the Wimbledon Championships in 1921, 1923 and 1924, but lost her initial match in each year. In 1921, she played at the World Hard Court Championships at Paris. In 1928, she won the US Indoor Championships. Along with Hazel Wightman, she won the National Senior Doubles Championships five times in between 1940 and 1947, she moved to Nahant, lived there until her death in 1982. Sigourney was inducted into the New England Tennis Hall of Fame in 1999

RMS Aquitania

RMS Aquitania was a British ocean liner of Cunard Line in service from 1914 to 1950. She was built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Scotland, she was launched on 21 April 1913 and sailed on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York on 30 May 1914. Aquitania was the third in Cunard Line's grand trio of express liners, preceded by RMS Mauretania and RMS Lusitania, was the last surviving four-funnelled ocean liner. Shortly after the Royal Mail Ship Aquitania entered service, World War I broke out, during which she was first transformed into an auxiliary cruiser before being transformed into a troop transport and a hospital ship, notably as part of the Dardanelles Campaign. Returned to transatlantic passenger service in 1920, she served alongside the Mauretania and the Berengaria. Considered during this period of time as one of the most attractive ships, Aquitania earned the nickname "the Ship Beautiful" from her passengers, she continued in service after the merger of Cunard Line with White Star Line in 1934.

The company planned to retire her and replace her with RMS Queen Elizabeth in 1940. However, the outbreak of World War II allowed her to remain in service for ten more years. During the war and until 1947, she served as a troop transport, she was used in particular to take home Canadian soldiers from Europe. After the war, she transported migrants to Canada before the Board of Trade found her unfit for further commercial service. Aquitania was scrapped the following year. Having served as a passenger ship for 36 years, Aquitania became the second longest serving Cunard vessel after RMS Scythia; that record stood until 2004. The origins of Aquitania lay in the rivalry between the White Star Line and Cunard Line, Britain's two leading shipping companies; the White Star Line's Olympic and the upcoming Britannic were larger than the latest Cunard ships and Lusitania, by 15,000 gross tons. The Cunard duo were faster than the White Star ships, while White Star's ships were seen as more luxurious. Cunard needed another liner for its weekly transatlantic express service, elected to copy the White Star Line's Olympic-class model with a larger, but more luxurious ship.

The plan for the building of that liner began in 1910. Several draft plans were conceived in order to determine the main axes of what should be the ship for which an average speed of 23 knots was planned. In July of that year, the company launched the construction offers to several shipyards before choosing John Brown and Company, the builder of the Lusitania; the company chose Aquitania as the name for its new ship in continuity with those of its two previous duo. The three ships were named after the Ancient Roman provinces Lusitania and Gallia Aquitania. Aquitania was designed by Cunard naval architect Leonard Peskett. Peskett drew up plans for a larger and wider vessel than Mauretania. With four large funnels the ship would resemble the famous speed duo, but Peskett designed the superstructure with "glassed in" touches from the smaller Carmania, a ship he designed. Another design feature from Carmania was the addition of two tall forward deck ventilator cowlings. Although the ship's outward dimensions were greater than that of Olympic, her displacement and tonnage were lower.

With Aquitania's keel being laid at the end of 1910, the experienced Peskett took a voyage on Olympic in 1911 so as to experience the feel of a ship reaching nearly 50,000 tonnes as well as to copy pointers for his company's new vessel. Though Aquitania was built with Cunard funds, Peskett designed her according to strict British Admiralty specifications. Aquitania was built in the John Brown and Company yards in Clydebank, where the majority of the Cunard ships were built; the keel was laid in the same plot where Lusitania had been built, would be used to construct Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, Queen Elizabeth 2. In the wake of the Titanic sinking, Aquitania was one of the first ships to carry enough lifeboats for all passengers and crew. Eighty lifeboats, including two motorised launches with Marconi wireless equipment, were carried in both swan-neck and newer Welin type davits. Watertight compartments were installed in order to allow the ship to float with five compartments flooded, she possessed a double hull.

As required by the British Admiralty, she was designed to be converted into an armed merchant cruiser, was reinforced to mount guns for service in that role. The ship displaced 49,430 tons of which the hull accounted for 29,150 tons, machinery 9,000 and bunkers 6,000 tons. Aquitania was launched on 21 April 1913 after being christened by Alice Stanley, the Countess of Derby, fitted out over the next thirteen months. Notable installations were decorations; the fitting out was led by his associate Charles Mewès. On 10 May 1914, she was tested in her sea trials and steamed at one full knot over the expected speed. On 14 May, she reached Mersey and stayed at a port there for fifteen days, during which she underwent a final major cleaning and finishing in preparation for her maiden voyage. Aquitania was the first Cunard liner to have a length in excess of 900 feet. Unlike some four-funneled ships, such as White Star Line's Olympic Class liners, Aquitania did not have a dummy funnel; the superstructure of the ship, painted white to contrast with the black hull in ocean liner fashion, was imposing in appearance, as the absence of a raised forecastle gave it an appearance too wide compa