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A fairy is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural. Myths and stories about fairies do not have a single origin, but are rather a collection of folk beliefs from disparate sources. Various folk theories about the origins of fairies include casting them as either demoted angels or demons in a Christian tradition, as minor deities in Pagan belief systems, as spirits of the dead, as prehistoric precursors to humans, or as elementals; the label of fairy has at times applied only to specific magical creatures with human appearance, small stature, magical powers, a penchant for trickery. At other times it has been used to describe any magical creature, such as gnomes. Fairy has at times been used as an adjective, with a meaning equivalent to "enchanted" or "magical". A recurring motif of legends about fairies is the need to ward off fairies using protective charms. Common examples of such charms include church bells, wearing clothing inside out, four-leaf clover, food.

Fairies were sometimes thought to haunt specific locations, to lead travelers astray using will-o'-the-wisps. Before the advent of modern medicine, fairies were blamed for sickness tuberculosis and birth deformities. In addition to their folkloric origins, fairies were a common feature of Renaissance literature and Romantic art, were popular in the United Kingdom during the Victorian and Edwardian eras; the Celtic Revival saw fairies established as a canonical part of Celtic cultural heritage. The English fairy derives from Old French form faierie, a derivation from faie with the abstract noun suffix -erie. In Old French romance, a faie or fee was a woman skilled in magic, who knew the power and virtue of words, of stones, of herbs."Fairy" was used to represent: an illusion or enchantment. Faie became Modern English fay, while faierie became fairy, but this spelling exclusively refers to one individual. In the sense of "land where fairies dwell", archaic spellings faery and faerie are still in use.

Latinate fay is not related the Germanic fey, meaning "fated to die". Yet, this unrelated Germanic word "fey" may have been influenced by Old French fae as the meaning had shifted to "fated" from the earlier "doomed" or "accursed". Various folklore traditions refer to fairies euphemistically as wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair folk, etc; the term fairy is sometimes used to describe any magical creature, including goblins and gnomes, while at other times, the term describes only a specific type of ethereal creature or sprite. The concept of "fairy" in the narrower sense is unique to English folklore made diminutive in accordance with prevailing tastes of the Victorian era, as in "fairy tales" for children. Historical origins include various traditions of Brythonic and Germanic peoples, of Middle French medieval romances. Fairie was used adjectivally, meaning "enchanted", but became a generic term for various "enchanted" creatures during the Late Middle English period. Literature of the Elizabethan era conflated elves with the fairies of Romance culture, rendering these terms somewhat interchangeable.

The Victorian era and Edwardian era saw a heightened increase of interest in fairies. The Celtic Revival cast fairies as part of Ireland's cultural heritage. Carole Silvers and others suggested this fascination of English antiquarians arose from a reaction to greater industrialization and loss of older folk ways. Fairies are described as human in appearance and having magical powers. Diminutive fairies of various kinds have been reported through centuries, ranging from quite tiny to the size of a human child; these small sizes could be magically assumed, rather than constant. Some smaller fairies could expand their figures to imitate humans. On Orkney, fairies were described as short in stature, dressed in dark grey, sometimes seen in armour. In some folklore, fairies have green eyes; some depictions of fairies show them with others as barefoot. Wings, while common in Victorian and artworks, are rare in folklore. Modern illustrations include dragonfly or butterfly wings. Early modern fairies does not derive from a single origin.

In folklore of Ireland, the mythic aes sídhe, or'little folk', have come to a modern meaning somewhat inclusive of fairies. The Scandinavian elves served as an influence. Folklorists and mythologists have variously depicted fairies as: the unworthy dead, the children of Eve, a kind of demon, a species independent of humans, an older race of humans, fallen angels; the folkloristic or mythological elements combine Celtic and Greco-Roman elements. Folklorists have suggested that'fairies' arose from various earlier beliefs, which lost currency with the advent of Christianity; these disparate explanations are not incompatible, as'fairies' may be traced to multiple sources. King James, in his dissertation Daemonologie, stated the term "faries" referred to illusory spirits that prophesied to, consorted with, transported the individuals they served.

Greens Western Australia

Greens Western Australia known as the Greens WA, is the state branch of the Australian Greens in Western Australia. The Greens was formed following the merger of the Western Australian Green Party with the Green Earth Alliance composed of the Vallentine Peace Group and Alternative Coalition in 1990; the Party became affiliated with the Australian Greens in 2003. There are four representatives of the party in the Western Australian Legislative Council: Alison Xamon, Robin Chapple, Tim Clifford and Diane Evers; the party has two representatives in the Australian Senate: Senator Rachel Siewert, elected at the 2004 election, Jordon Steele-John, who replaced Scott Ludlam in 2017 who resigned. The Greens grew out of the growing counter-cultural, anti-nuclear and peace and political concerns after the fall of the Whitlam government articulated by Jim Cairns in the Down to Earth movement that saw community sustainability emerging as an important issue; the Campaign to Save Native Forests and an environmental campaign against the Alcoa refinery at Wagerup first brought together many activists, some of whom were to be involved in the Greens.

The campaign in Tasmania to prevent the damming of the Franklin River, further alerted Australia to environmental issues as never before. Anti-nuclear and peace concerns led to record numbers attending rallies in the 1980s, led by the umbrella group People for Nuclear Disarmament. One of those peace activists, Jo Vallentine, was elected in 1984 as Senator for the Nuclear Disarmament Party, she left the party after its infiltration by an extreme left group and registered the Vallentine Peace Group in Western Australia. Many of these activists from the peace, anti-nuclear and disarmament movements, as well as from environment and political groupings were to become important organisers of future political developments; some were inspired by the West German Greens as well as the many successful community campaigns in WA and throughout Australia. After the victory in saving the Gordon and Franklin Rivers in Tasmania, activists on the east coast established "Committees of Correspondence" to keep in touch and organised a "Getting Together" Conference in Sydney.

At this conference there was a call to establish an Australian Greens political party for the first time. In the mid-eighties there were many looking for an alternative to the Labor Party. Delegates who had gone to Sydney returned and became involved in organising a "Getting Together" conference in Western Australia, held at Hollywood High School, Easter 1987; this brought together various conservation and activist groups all proposing various models of alternative political organisation. One example set up was the WA Ecology Party. For a while there was a Green Alliance. Another example was the group established by Jan Jermalinski and others in the inner-city suburbs of Victoria Park and Carlisle called the Victoria Park/Carlisle Greens which ran Georgina Motion for Swan federal electorate under the banner of Swan Alternative Electoral Campaign. Other local groups calling themselves "green" at the time in 1987 were the Western Suburbs Greens established by The Democrats and the Northern Suburbs Greens.

In 1987 and early 1988, these various “green” groups, along with The Democrats, various far left parties and community activists pushed the establishment of an Alternative Electoral Coalition to plan a campaign for the 1989 State Election. The AEC was much of an inner city leftist and social justice character, it became the Alternative Coalition. The unifying principles of the AEC were modelled on those of the German Greens. In the south-west of the state, Louise Duxbury, running mate with Jo Vallentine in the 1987 federal election, a peace and environmental activist living in Denmark and Christine Sharpe decided to set up a loose network called Green Development to run a candidate for the State Upper House of South West; this network drew on the support of a network of experienced activists living in the rural South-West. However the name "greens", registered with the Australian Electoral Commission was controlled by the Sydney Greens. At this time in Western Australia it was not understood how important this was, although the name "greens" was being used by various groups.

Some coming from the Eco Party and others got permission from the Sydney Greens to formally set up a party called The Western Australian Green Party. This party decided to run a statewide campaign in the 1989 state election. After the 1989 election a single fact became clear, the name “green” was vital electorally. Although the Alternative Coalition campaigned in South Metropolitan Upper House electorate and ran lower house candidates in Fremantle and Cockburn, throwing a lot of resources into this campaign, their percentage vote was matched by The WA Green Party campaigning in most electorates out of a campaign office in North Fremantle with few resources, just relying on the strength of the name “Green”. Hence after the election negotiations began in earnest between these groups for unity. Therein lay the difficulty. To satisfy the demands of the Australian Electoral Commission, the Vallentine Peace Group and the Alternative Coalition formed a Green Alliance renamed the Green Earth Alliance.

The Western Australian Green Party declined to join this. During 1989, things were proceed

2013 Campeonato Acriano

The 2013 Campeonato Acreano was the 67th season of the Campeonato Acreano, the top professional football league of the state of Acre. Plácido de Castro were champions for the 1st time; the championship started 17 February 2013, ended on 26 May. The first stage is in double round-robin; the best four teams qualify to Final Stage. The champion and the runner-up qualify to the 2014 Copa do Brasil; the champion qualifies to the 2013 Campeonato Brasileiro Série D As Independência withdrawn its participation, they were replaced by Alto Acre Futebol Club. Rio Branco and Plácido de Castro qualified for 2013 Copa do Brasil

Collins Avenue

Collins Avenue co-signed State Road A1A, is a major thoroughfare in southern Florida. The road runs parallel to the Atlantic Ocean in Miami Beach, one block west. Collins Avenue was named for John S. Collins, a developer who, in 1913, completed Miami’s first bridge, Collins Bridge, connecting Miami Beach to the mainland across Biscayne Bay. Collins Avenue is home to many historic Art Deco hotels, several nightclubs to the north. North of 41st Street this boulevard lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Creek, lined by palm trees, famous hotels from the 1950s and 1960s such as the Eden Roc and the Morris Lapidus-designed Fontainebleau Hotel, built in the curvy, flamboyant Neo-baroque fashion that defined the 1950s'Miami Beach' resort hotel style; the annual Miami International Boat Show occurs on Collins Avenue. Kleinberg, Howard and cheese holes: the story of Miami Beach hotels, Miami Beach, FL: Greater Miami & The Beaches Hotel Association, 2005. ISBN 0-9771340-0-8 Kleinberg, Miami Beach: a history, Miami, FL: Centennial Press, 1994.

Lejeune, Jean-François, et al. The making of Miami Beach, 1933-1942: the architecture of Lawrence Murray Dixon, Miami: Bass Museum of Art, 2000

Deke McClelland

Donald Hugh McClelland, Jr. known as Deke McClelland, is an American author and expert in Adobe products, most notably Photoshop, but Illustrator, InDesign and Photoshop Elements. A seasoned professional, with more than 30 years of experience in the digital arts, more than 80 video courses here at If that's not enough, I've written more books on Photoshop than anyone on the planet. Sounds like a big brag, but I've written 40 books on Photoshop alone. That's such a misspent youth, and that's not counting the couple of hundred foreign editions. He has hosted over 80 video tutorials, totaling upwards of 2000 hours for different Adobe Applications has a full list of Video Tutorials hosted by Deke McClelland which can be accessed here The Benjamin Franklin Award for Best Computer Book Inducted into the Photoshop Hall of Fame Deke McClelland lives in Boulder, with his two sons Official Site

List of Tofangchi-aghasis

The Tofangchi-aghasi spelled Tufangchi-aqasi, otherwise known as the Tofangchi-bashi, was the commander of the Safavid Empire's musketeer corps. The tofangchi-aghasi was assisted by numerous officers, i.e. minbashis, dahbashis, as well as an administrative staff. Though the tofangchi-aghasi was considered to be a high-ranking office on paper, de facto, it was one of the lowest on the "military totem-pole" compared to the other commanding offices; the post was held by scions of noble families. Mirza Shah Hosein Kur Hasan? Mir Saheb-e Qoshun Mir Saheb-e Qoshun?? Esma'il Beg Zaman Beg Rostam Beg Mir Fatteh Qumesheh'i Aqa Taher Aqa Taher Qalander Soltan Chuleh Budaq Soltan Budaq Soltan Sheikh'Ali Khan Zanganeh Abbas Beg Zanganeh Kaykhosrow Khan Hajji'Ali Khan Zanganeh Eshaq Khan Eshaq Khan Musa Khan Hosein Ali Khan Mohammad Ali Khan Mokri Ahmad Khan Shahverdi Khan Cheshmkazik Floor, Willem. Safavid Government Institutions. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. Pp. 176–188. ISBN 978-1568591353. Matthee, Rudi.

Persia in Crisis: Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan. I. B. Tauris. P. 258. ISBN 978-1845117450