Kingdom of Germany
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire. Like Anglo-Saxon England and medieval France, it began as a conglomerate, East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective. The initial electors were the rulers of the duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, the formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire. The term rex teutonicorum first came into use in the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy, in the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election. Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts, there are nevertheless relatively few references to a German realm and an instability in the terms use. The eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis and it was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum.
The east Franks themselves were the people of Franconia, which had settled by Franks. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae, the term regnum Germaniae begins to appear even in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans and his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope, thereafter, he was emperor. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a clearly conceived German kingdom found no real consolidation. The title of king of the Romans became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome, the reign was dated to begin either on the day of election or the day of the coronation. The election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund, Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval, after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus.
That is, he was emperor elect, a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet fully emperor, at the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperors lifetime resumed. For this reason, the king of the Romans came to mean heir-apparent. The Archbishop of Mainz was ex officio arch-chancellor of Germany, as his colleagues the Archbishop of Cologne and Archbishop of Trier were, arch-chancellors of Italy and these titles continued in use until the end of the empire, but only the German chancery actually existed. The tripartite division of the Carolingian Empire effected by the Treaty of Verdun was challenged early on with the death of the Emperor Lothair I in 855. He had divided his kingdom of Middle Francia between his three sons and immediately the northernmost of the three divisions, was disputed between the kings of East and West Francia, the war over Lotharingia lasted until 925
Battle of Lechfeld (955)
The Battle of Lechfeld was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr. It is often seen as the event in the repulsion of the Hungarians incursions into Western Europe. Located south of Augsburg, the Lechfeld is the plain that lies along the Lech River. The battle appears as the second Battle of Augsburg in Hungarian historiography and it was followed by the Battle of Recknitz in October. It was important in rallying the East Frankish realm against a foreign enemy, the first Battle of Lechfeld happened in the same area forty-five years earlier. Perhaps the most important source is Gerhards monograph Vita Sancti Uodalrici, another source is the chronicler Widukind of Corvey, who provides some important details. The chronicle Gesta Hungarorum provides insight from the Hungarian side, this chronicle was only written in the 12th century. After having put down a rebellion by his son, Duke of Swabia and son-in-law, Duke of Lorraine, Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, set out to Saxony, upon arriving in Magdeburg he received reports of the Hungarian invasion.
The Hungarians had already invaded once before during the course of the rebellion and this occurred immediately after he had put down a revolt in Franconia. Because of unrest among the Polabian Slavs on the lower Elbe, in addition, Saxony was distant from Augsburg and its environs, and considerable time would have elapsed waiting for their arrival. The battle took place six weeks after the first report of an invasion, the King ordered his troops to concentrate on the Danube, in the vicinity of Neuburg and Ingolstadt. He did this in order to march on the Hungarian line of communications and it was a central point of concentration for all the contingents that were assembling. Strategically, this was the best location for Otto to concentrate his forces before making the descent upon the Hungarians. There were other troops that had an influence on the course of the battle, the King was aware of the escape of these Hungarians on the above-mentioned occasions, and was determined to trap them. He therefore ordered his brother, Archbishop Bruno, to keep the Lotharingian forces in Lorraine and he did this with the fear that the Hungarians would follow their plan of retreat on the previous occasions.
However, with a powerful force of knights pressing them in the front from the west, and an equally strong force of knights chasing them from the east. The Bishop Ulrich defended Augsburg, a city of Swabia. Motivating them with the 23rd Psalm, while this defense was going on, the King was raising an army to march south
Hungarian mythology includes the myths, folk tales, fairy tales and gods of the Hungarians, known as the Magyars. Much of Magyar mythology is believed lost, however, a significant amount of Hungarian mythology has been successfully recovered in the last hundred years. In the center of the stands an tall tree, the World Tree / Tree of Life. Its foliage is the Upper World, and the Turul bird dwells on top of it, the Middle World is located at its trunk and the underworld is around its roots. In some stories, the tree has fruit, the golden apples, the gods and the good souls live in the Upper World. Gods have the rank, although the most important figure of them is Isten. He controls the world, shapes the fate of humans, observes the Middle World from the sky, Isten created the world with the help of Ördög. Other gods include, known as Boldogasszony, the major celestial bodies, are located in the Upper World. The sky was thought to be a big tent held up by the Tree of Life, the several holes in it are the stars.
The Sun and symbols of the word, are known from Hungarian grave findings from the period of Hungarian conquest. The Middle World is shared among humans and many mythological creatures, there are ghosts of the forests and waters, who are ordered to scare humans. They have different names in different places, there are females, for example, the sellő, which lives in water and has a human torso with the tail of a fish. The wind is controlled by an old lady called Szélanya or Szélkirály, the Sárkány is a frightening beast, he is the enemy of many heroes in fairy tales, symbolising the psychical inner struggle of the hero. The Sárkány usually has 1-7 heads. The lidérc is a ghostly, mysterious creature with several different appearances, the manók and the törpék are foxy beings living in woods or under the ground. They have both good and bad qualities, favourite creatures are the tündérek, who are beautiful young virgins or female creatures. They aid humans, who sometimes can ask three wishes from them and their opposites are the bábák, who are equated with catty old witches.
The Underworld is the place of bad souls and the home of Ördög, creator of everything bad for humans, for example, annoying animals such as fleas and flies. Another theory ties the religion to that of the Huns and Scythians due to similar or even identical legends to the Hungarian origin myth, speculation about contact with early Varangian settlers and merchants West of Atil prevail due to similarities shared with Germanic / Norse mythology
De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is Πρὸς τὸν ἴδιον υἱὸν Ρωμανόν and it is a domestic and foreign policy manual for the use of Constantines son and successor, the Emperor Romanos II. Constantine was a scholar-emperor, who sought to foster learning and education in the Eastern Roman Empire and he produced many other works, including De Ceremoniis, a treatise on the etiquette and procedures of the imperial court, and a biography of his grandfather, Basil I. De Administrando Imperio was written between 948 and 952 and it contains advice on running the ethnically-mixed empire as well as fighting foreign enemies. To this combination were added Constantines own political instructions to his son Romanus, as to the historical and geographic information, which is often confusing and filled with legends, this information is in essence reliable. The historical and antiquarian treatise, which the Emperor had compiled during the 940s, is contained in the chapters 12—40.
This treatise contains traditional and legendary stories of how the surrounding the Empire came in the past to be occupied by the people living in them in the Emperors times. Chapters 1—8, 10—12 explain imperial policy toward the Pechenegs and Turks, chapter 13 is a general directive on foreign policy coming from the Emperor. Chapters 43—46 are about contemporary policy in the north-east, the guides to the incorporation and taxation of new imperial provinces, and to some parts of civil and naval administration, are in chapters 49—52. These chapters were designed to give instructions to the emperor Romanus II. The books three similar but different accounts of the arrival of the Croats have confounded numerous historians since the 19th century. Historian Barbara M. Kreutz described the report found in the De Administrando Imperio that the Byzantines played a role in the 871 fall of the Emirate of Bari as a probable concoction. The earliest surviving copy, was made by John Doukas confidential secretary and this manuscript was copied in 1509 by Antony Eparchus, this copy known as V=codex Vaticanus-Palatinus gr.
126, has a number of notes in Greek and Latin, a third complete copy, known as F=codex Parisinus gr.2967, is itself a copy of V, which was begun by Eparchus and completed by Michael Damascene, V is undated. There is a fourth, but incomplete, manuscript known as M=codex Mutinensis gr,179, which is a copy of P made by Andrea Darmari between 1560 and 1586. Two of the manuscripts are now located in Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, the partial manuscript is in Modena. The Greek text in its entirety was published seven times and this edition was published six years with no changes. The language Constantine uses is rather straightforward High Medieval Greek, somewhat more elaborate than that of the Canonic Gospels, the only difficulty is the regular use of technical terms which, being in standard use at the time, may present prima facie hardships to a modern reader
The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in Central Europe. It is a subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system. Most of the consists of the Great Hungarian Plain and the Little Hungarian Plain. The Pannonian Basin lies in the part of Central Europe. It forms a discrete unit set in the European landscape, surrounded by imposing geographic boundaries - the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps, the Dinarides. The Rivers Danube and Tisza divide the basin roughly in half and it extends roughly between Vienna in the northwest, Zagreb in the southwest, Belgrade in the southeast and Satu Mare in the northeast. The name Pannonian comes from Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire, in English, the terms Pannonian Basin and Carpathian Basin are used synonymously. The name Pannonian is taken from that of Pannonia, a province of the Roman Empire, the historical province overlapped but was not coterminous with the geographical plain or basin. Pannonia Inferior covered much of the half of the basin. Pannonia Superior included the western fringe of the basin as well as part of the Eastern Alps, the southern fringe of the basin was in Dalmatia and Moesia.
The eastern half of the basin was not conquered by the Romans, the parts north of the Danube were not in the empire, they were considered part of Germania, inhabited by the Quadi. The term Pannonian Plain refers to the parts of the Pannonian Basin as well as those of some adjoining regions like Lower Austria, Bosnia. The lands adjoining the plain proper are called peri-Pannonian. In Hungarian geographical literature various subdivisions of the Carpathian Mountains are considered parts of the Carpathian Basin on the basis of traditional geopolitical divisions, julius Pokorny derived the name Pannonia from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, water, wet. For its early settlers, the plain offered few sources of metals or stone, thus when archaeologists come upon objects of obsidian or chert, copper or gold, they have almost unparalleled opportunities to interpret ancient pathways of trade. The Pannonian plain is divided into two parts along the Transdanubian Mountains, the northwestern part is called Western Pannonian plain and the southeastern part Eastern Pannonian plain.
The plain was named after the Pannon named Medes, various different peoples inhabited the plain during its history. In the first century BC, the parts of the plain belonged to the Dacian state
Taksony of Hungary
Taksony was the Grand Prince of the Hungarians after their catastrophic defeat in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. In his youth he had participated in plundering raids in Western Europe, the Gesta Hungarorum recounts that significant Muslim and Pecheneg groups settled in Hungary under Taksony. Taksony was the son of Zoltán, according to the Gesta Hungarorum, the same source adds that Taksonys mother was an unnamed daughter of Menumorut, a local ruler defeated by the conquering Hungarians shortly before 907. Its unknown author says that Taksony was born in the year of Our Lords incarnation 931, the Gesta Hungarorum reports that Zoltán abdicated in favor of Taksony in 947, three years before his own death. However, modern historians have challenged existing information on Taksonys early life, a nearly-contemporaneous source – Liudprand of Cremonas Retribution – narrates that Taksony led a plundering raid against Italy in 947, which suggests that he was born considerably earlier than 931. His fathers reign was preserved only in the Gesta Hungarorum, its anonymous author lists Zoltán among the grand princes, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus wrote around 950 that Fajsz, Taksonys cousin, was grand prince of the Hungarians at that time.
In that time Taxis, king of the Hungarians came to Italy with a large army, berengar gave him ten measures of coins not from his own money, but from an exaction on the churches and paupers. A source, Johannes Aventinus, writes that Taksony fought in the Battle of Lechfeld on August 10,955, future Holy Roman Emperor Otto I routed an 8, 000-strong Hungarian army. If this report is reliable, Taksony was one of the few Hungarian leaders to survive the battlefield, modern historians, including Zoltán Kordé and Gyula Kristó, suggest that Fajsz abdicated in favor of Taksony around that time. After that battle the Hungarians plundering raids in Western Europe stopped, the Hungarians continued their incursions into the Byzantine Empire until the 970s. According to the Gesta Hungarorum, a great host of Muslims arrived in Hungary from the land of Bular under Taksony, the contemporaneous Abraham ben Jacob recorded the presence of Muslim merchants from Hungary in Prague in 965. Anonymous writes of the arrival of Pechenegs during Taksonys reign, the only sign of a Hungarian connection with Western Europe under Taksony is a report by Liudprand of Cremona.
He writes about Zacheus, whom Pope John XII consecrated bishop, there is no evidence that Zacheus ever arrived in Hungary. Taksony arranged the marriage of his elder son Géza to Sarolt, daughter of Gyula of Transylvania, Taksonys marriage to a woman from the land of the Cumans was arranged by his father, according to the Gesta Hungarorum. The names of two of their sons have been preserved, the following family tree presents Taksonys ancestry and his offspring. *Whether Menumorut is an actual or a person is debated by modern scholars. **A Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian woman ***Kristó writes that she may have been a member of the Rurik dynasty from Kievan Rus
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia and Moravia had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin. They occasionally hired Hungarian horsemen as soldiers, the Hungarians who dwelt on the Pontic steppes east of the Carpathians were familiar with their future homeland when their land-taking started. The Hungarian conquest started in the context of a late or small migration of peoples, contemporary sources attest that the Hungarians crossed the Carpathian Mountains following a joint attack in 894 or 895 by the Pechenegs and Bulgarians against them. They first took control over the lowlands east of the river Danube and they exploited internal conflicts in Moravia and annihilated this state sometime between 902 and 906. The Hungarians strengthened their control over the Carpathian Basin by defeating a Bavarian army in a battle fought at Brezalauspurc on July 4,907 and they launched a series of plundering raids between 899 and 955 and targeted the Byzantine Empire between 943 and 971.
However, they settled in the Basin and established a Christian monarchy. Byzantine authors were the first to record these events, nearly contemporary narration can be read in the Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk. However, De Administrando Imperio provides the most detailed account and it was compiled under the auspices of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in 951 or 952. Works written by clergymen in the states of the Carolingian Empire narrate events closely connected to the conquest. The Annals of Fulda which ends in 901 is the earliest among them, a letter from Archbishop Theotmar of Salzburg to Pope John IX in 900 refers to the conquering Hungarians, but it is often regarded as a fake. Abbot Regino of Prüm who compiled his World Chronicle around 908 sums up his knowledge on the Hungarians in an entry under the year 889. Another valuable source is Bishop Liutprand of Cremonas Antapodosis from around 960, Aventinus, a 16th-century historian provides information not known from other works, which suggests that he used now-lost sources.
An Old Church Slavonic compilation of Lives of saints preserved an account on the Bulgarian-Byzantine war of 894–896. Similarly late manuscripts offer the text of the Russian Primary Chronicle and it provides information based on earlier Byzantine and Moravian sources. The Hungarians themselves initially preserved the memory of the events in the form of folk songs. The earliest local chronicle was compiled in the late 11th century and it exists now in more than one variant, its original version several times extended and rewritten during the Middle Ages. For instance, the 14th-century Illuminated Chronicle contains texts from the 11th-century chronicle, an anonymous authors Gesta Hungarorum, written before 1200, is the earliest extant local chronicle. However, this most misleading example of all the early Hungarian texts contains much information that cannot be confirmed based on contemporaneous sources, around 1283 Simon of Kéza, a priest at the Hungarian royal court wrote the next surviving chronicle
Gyula was, according to Muslim and Byzantine sources, the title of one of the leaders, the second in rank, of the Hungarian tribal federation in the 9th–10th centuries. In the earliest Hungarian sources, the name is only recorded as a personal name. The title name does not have convincing etymologies, but it is probably of Turkic origin, according to the Hungarian chronicles, Transylvania was ruled by a line of princes called Gyula, and their country was occupied by King Stephen I of Hungary. The title Gyula is known from the Hunnic times, the Chinese Shi Ji recorded hierarchy in the Hunnic state, after the Juki Prince followed Luli or Guli Wang, a third grade in the state hierarchy. Other Chinese phonetizations are kokli, and the initial phonetics is not only gu but yu, during the Middle Ages it is known as a title and a personal name Ulug Bek, meaning Great Prince. The first data of the title, recorded by Ibn Rusta and Gardizi, according to these earliest pieces of evidence, the Hungarians were ruled conjointly by two ‘kings’.
The major one, called kende, enjoyed nominal leadership, while power was exercised by his colleague, inferior in rank. This peculiar form of governance is generally supposed to have been imitative of the Khazar Khaganate, the Majgars are a race of the Turks and their leader rides out with horsemen to the number of 20,000. These Majgars are a type of the Turks and their leader rides out with 20,000 warriors. This is the title of the greater of their kings and that leader who appoints the functionaries they call jula. What the jula commands, the Majgars do, following the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 896, the title gyula can be found in the De administrando imperio written by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus. The emperor confirms that around 950 the gyla was one of the two important officers who assisted the leader of Hungarian tribal federation, each tribe had a chieftain. The karchas Boultzous is the son of the karchas Kalis, and Kalis is a name, but karchas is a dignity, like gylas.
The Byzantine Ioannes Skylitzes in the half of the 11th century recounted the baptism of the Hungarian chieftain Gyula in Constantinople in the mid-10th century. According to Ioannes Skylitzes, Gyula stayed true to his new faith and took a missionary bishop, Hierotheos, a Slavic source contains related information. The anonymous writer of the Gesta Hungarorum was the first Hungarian chronicler who compiled the list of the seven Hungarian conqueror chiefs around 1210, at the seventh place we can find Tétény, his son Horka and the latters sons and Zombor. According to the author of the Gesta, Zombor was the father of the younger Gyula, the Gesta narrates that Tétény occupied the land of Transylvania from the Vlach Duke Gelou, neither Tétény nor Gelou are mentioned in other primary sources. As he was in flight, hastening to his castle beside the Szamos River, Tuhutum’s warriors, boldly pursuing Duke Gelou, tuhutum possessed that land peacefully and happily from that day, but his posterity possessed it only up to the times of the holy King Stephen
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri