The Falklands War was a 10-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and its territorial dependency, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The conflict began on 2 April, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands, followed by the invasion of South Georgia the next day. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands; the conflict lasted 74 days and ended with an Argentine surrender on 14 June, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities; the conflict was a major episode in the protracted dispute over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted that the islands are Argentine territory, the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory.
The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory, a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, favour British sovereignty. Neither state declared war, although both governments declared the Islands a war zone; the conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall and the democratization of the country. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year; the cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it remains a common topic for discussion. Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement.
No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution. In 1965, the United Nations called upon Argentina and the United Kingdom to reach a settlement of the sovereignty dispute; the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office regarded the islands as a nuisance and barrier to UK trade in South America, so whilst confident of British sovereignty was prepared to cede the islands to Argentina. When news of a proposed transfer broke in 1968, elements sympathetic with the plight of the islanders were able to organise an effective Parliamentary lobby to frustrate the FCO plans. Negotiations continued but in general failed to make meaningful progress; the FCO sought to make the islands dependent on Argentina, hoping this would make the islanders more amenable to Argentine sovereignty. A Communications Agreement signed in 1971 created an airlink and YPF the Argentine oil company was given a monopoly in the islands.
In 1980, a new Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Nick Ridley, went to the Falklands trying to sell the islanders the benefits of a leaseback scheme, which met with strong opposition from the islanders. On returning to London in December 1980 he reported to parliament but was viciously attacked at what was seen as a sellout. At a private committee meeting that evening, it was reported that Ridley cried out: "If we don't do something, they will invade, and there is nothing we could do." In the period leading up to the war—and, in particular, following the transfer of power between the military dictators General Jorge Rafael Videla and General Roberto Eduardo Viola late in March 1981—Argentina had been in the midst of devastating economic stagnation and large-scale civil unrest against the military junta, governing the country since 1976. In December 1981 there was a further change in the Argentine military regime, bringing to office a new junta headed by General Leopoldo Galtieri, Air Brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo and Admiral Jorge Anaya.
Anaya was the main architect and supporter of a military solution for the long-standing claim over the islands, calculating that the United Kingdom would never respond militarily. By opting for military action, the Galtieri government hoped to mobilise the long-standing patriotic feelings of Argentines towards the islands, thus divert public attention from the country's chronic economic problems and the regime's ongoing human rights violations of the Dirty War; such action would bolster its dwindling legitimacy. The newspaper La Prensa speculated in a step-by-step plan beginning with cutting off supplies to the islands, ending in direct actions late in 1982, if the UN talks were fruitless; the ongoing tension between the two countries over the islands increased on 19 March, when a group of Argentine scrap metal merchants raised the Argentine flag at South Georgia Island, an act that would be seen as the first offensive action in the war. The Royal Navy ice patrol vessel HMS Endurance was dispatched from Stanley to South Georgia on the 25th in response.
The Feminists known as Feminists—A Political Organization to Annihilate Sex Roles, was a second-wave radical feminist group active in New York City from 1968 to 1973. The group was founded in 1968 as a split from the New York City chapter of National Organization for Women by members who felt NOW was not radical enough, it was called the October 17th Movement after the date that it was founded, but soon changed its name to The Feminists. Ti-Grace Atkinson was the group's central figure and informal leader until she left the group in 1971; the Feminists' best-known action may have been in September 1969, when members picketed the New York City Marriage License Bureau, distributing pamphlets protesting the marriage contract: "All the discriminatory practices against women are patterned and rationalized by this slavery-like practice. We can't destroy the inequities between men and women until we destroy marriage." According to Germaine Greer in The Female Eunuch, The Feminists promoted not having leaders in society, "characterized men as the enemy," described "Love" as "the response of the victim to the rapist", believed that "the proprietary relationship of marriage" and uterine pregnancy would "no longer prevail."The Feminists held that women were oppressed by their internalization of patriarchal sex roles, hence suffered from a kind of false consciousness.
To liberate themselves from such oppressive roles, The Feminists held that the feminist movement must be autonomous from men and came to hold that women should be free of men in their personal lives as well. The group was opposed to the sexual revolution, holding that it was a way for men to get easier access to women's bodies. Ti-Grace Atkinson was one of the first radical feminists to be critical of pornography, they at first advocated that women practice celibacy, came to advocate political lesbianism. The separatist ideas of The Feminists were reflected in their membership quota, restricting women who lived with men to one-third of its members, excluding married women in 1971. After Atkinson's departure, The Feminists moved in the direction of advocating matriarchy and developing a "woman's religion", ideas that came to be known as cultural feminism. Although The Feminists disbanded in 1973, they played an important role in the development of cultural feminism, separatist feminism, anti-pornography feminism, tendencies that were predominant in radical feminism by the late 1970s.
Lesbian Feminist Chronology 1: 1963-1970 Davidson, Sara. "An'Oppressed Majority' Demands Its Rights", Life magazine (includes interviews with and photographs of several of The Feminists. Photographs by Mary Ellen Mark. Echols, Alice.. Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2
The Short Night was a film planned by British-American director Alfred Hitchcock. The project was announced in the late 1960s at the time of Topaz and Hitchcock scouted locations in Finland. A romantic suspense thriller with espionage elements, the script was based on both a same-titled novel by Ronald Kirkbride, the non-fiction book documenting the case of real-life double agent George Blake titled The Springing of George Blake by Sean Bourke, the motion picture rights to both of which Hitchcock acquired. Gavin Brand, a double agent, has escaped from London's Wormwood Scrubs Prison. An American named Joe Bailey, brother to one of Brand's victims, is called on by the CIA to kill Brand through finding his family; the objective, as put by CIA chief Zelfand, is to "find the wife and kids, find the husband." Bailey reluctantly accepts the assignment to kill Brand and tracks down Brand's family to a private island near Savonlinna in Finland, where they are watched over by Hilda and Olga, two Russian minders.
Bailey and Brand's wife, develop a romance as he waits patiently for Brand to show up. After they consummate their love, Brand arrives and attempts to kill both Bailey and Carla, leading to her becoming trapped in a gas-styled sauna. Bailey rescues Carla and, with the help of a Finnish police officer, they try to stop Brand making it to the Finnish-Russian border on a train with his kidnapped children. Hitchcock commissioned screenplays by James Costigan and frequent collaborator Ernest Lehman, both of whom wrote several drafts; the script draft by David Freeman, reproduced in Freeman's book The Last Days of Alfred Hitchcock, takes place after the prison break out of Gavin Brand. Hitchcock, comparing his intentions for the project to Notorious, considered Walter Matthau, a onetime guest star on Alfred Hitchcock Presents, for the role of Brand, he reportedly offered the same role to Ed Lauter, who appeared in Family Plot, as well as Sean Connery, Clint Eastwood, Steve McQueen. French international film star Catherine Deneuve and Norwegian star Liv Ullmann were considered for the leading female role.
The movie was to be filmed on location in Finland. Because of the director's ill health, Universal Pictures cancelled the project in 1979, the film never got beyond the early pre-production stage with such Hitchcock associates as Norman Lloyd, Henry Bumstead and Robert F. Boyle involved. List of unproduced Alfred Hitchcock projects Hitchcock's Unproduced Projects Additional information on The Short Night