The Fallowfield Campus is the main residential campus of the University of Manchester. It is located in Fallowfield, Manchester, 2 miles south of the main university site, to which it is connected by Wilmslow Road and the A34; the University has had an association with Fallowfield since 1910 when Ashburne Hall moved into "The Oaks" from its original home in Victoria Park, renaming it as Ashburne Hall. In 1932 the University inherited the Firs, used as the vice-chancellor's residence until 1991. Fallowfield was the site of playing fields at Mab Field used by the athletics union of the University; the Campus played host to the Athletes Village for the 2002 Commonwealth Games held in the city. In 2004 the university unsuccessfully planned to sell and demolish a number of buildings including Owens Park, Ladybarn House and Oak House The plan was not successful due to a resident protest. In April 2014 the university made new plans to develop the Fallowfield campus with Mubadala Development Company offering to fund the renovations, with the new plan expected to be completed in 2027 These plans were put forward for planning permission in 2015, have again been contested by local residents.
The 2014 redevelopment plan outlines a £200m renovation of campus including "A new student services centre, shops and a doctor’s surgery are planned, as well as lawns with outdoor ‘chaise longues’." There will be space for a total of 3,209 students, an increase of about 50% over the current 2,176. The number of parking spaces would more than triple from 41 to 159; the plan for the new village is to be completed in three phases, with the first phase to be completed in time for 2018/19 academic year, with construction starting after summer 2016. Fallowfield Campus is the main area of student accommodation for University of Manchester. Allen Hall, situated on Wilmslow Road, was built as a Roman Catholic halls of residence by the bishop George Beck in 1961, licensed to the university; as with the other halls, it encouraged diversity and allowed both Catholic and non-Catholic students. In 2012 the hall was subject to some problems including a failing boiler and the discovery of asbestos and has remained closed since then.
The Grade II listed Ashburne Hall was founded in 1900 by Samuel Alexander, R. D. Darbishire, C. P. Scott and Alice B. Cooke as a hall of residence for women students, it was first located at Ashburne House in Victoria Park and remained there until the removal to "The Oaks" in 1910. The new site was on Wilmslow Road at the corner of Fallowfield. By 1930 the hall had been extended by new buildings and enriched by the bequest from Lord Morley of his personal library. At a date Sheavyn House was built in the grounds and commemorates Dr Sheavyn, warden of the hall. Ladybarn House is on the corner of Wilmslow Road, it was bought from the University of Manchester, by Development Securities plc. and Accrue in 2011. It was purchased for around £7 million on a long lease from the university, it consists of 117 bedrooms situated on the floors above six retail units. Oak House, on Moseley Road, has a total of 1085 rooms; this is made up of mixed sex flats which are each divided into 8 bedrooms and include shared facilities.
The hall was built on the site of the old Oak House Hotel, which has purchased by the university in 1955 for £9,000 In the 1960s, the halls could cater for 480 students. Flats were arranged around central staircases, unlike the other halls on at the university which were arranged along long corridors; the halls had a central amenities block, with rooms like a games room and laundry. In 1988, the halls were added. Owens Park accommodation at 293 Wilmslow Road houses a total of 1,056 students. Plans for student accommodation started on the site in the 1950s, was revolutionary in its approach of mixed gender accommodation; the first building to be constructed was the Owens Park Tower, designed by Building Design Partnership and opened in 1964. The tower has a fibreglass relief, Cosmos I, by Mitzi Cunliffe, at the base; the next phase of Owens park opened in 1965, won an award from the Civic trust the following year. The accommodation is split into units called "Houses", each housing about 40-50 students, with basic facilities shared by about 10-12 students.
The site was used as part of the Commonwealth Games Athlete's village and included investment in a £750,000 security system The Richmond Park halls of residence, constructed in 1994, are built on the site of the former Fallowfield Stadium where the 1893 FA Cup Final was played. Situated on Whitworth Lane it consists of eight blocks of eight flats each with eight bedrooms. Woolton Hall is a mixed sex hall on Whitworth Lane It was founded in 1959 as male-only and was subject to much criticism due to the male cliques. At one point, it was described as a ‘secretive little bastion of misogyny’ with many of the residents displaying sexist attitudes. To combat this, in 1991, the University Council decided to change the halls into mixed-sex accommodation in an attempt to'civilise the men'. A trial period with both sexes was successful. Women were admitted permanently despite protests from some residents; the Firs Villa, on Whitworth Lane next to Richmond Park, accommodates four students. Linton House on Wellington Road has rooms for eleven single occupancy, nineteen double and five family room.
Fallowfield Campus is home to the university's botany grounds, known as the Firs Experimental Gardens. It con
Chorlton-cum-Hardy is a suburban area of Manchester, four miles southwest of the city centre. Chorlton ward had a population of 14,138 at the 2011 census, Chorlton Park 15,147. By the 9th century, there was an Anglo-Saxon settlement here. In the Middle Ages, improved drainage methods led to population growth. In the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, its rural character made it popular among the middle class; the loss of its railway station, the conversion of larger houses into flats or bedsitters, significant social housing development to the south of the area changed its character again in the 1970s. Chorlton was a village on Lancashire's southern border with Cheshire, a township within the ancient parish of Manchester, it was incorporated into the city of Manchester in 1904. Chorlton borders Stretford, Didsbury and Whalley Range; the River Mersey runs past Chorlton along its southern boundary. The area's eastern boundary has changed since the 19th century because of incorporation into the City of Manchester and division into wards.
Chorlton means Ceolfrith's farm or settlement from the Old English personal name and tūn, an enclosure, farmstead or village. Hardy is derived from a personal name, ēg, Anglian for island or dry ground in a well-watered land, it has alternatively been suggested that Hardy may mean "by the woods", in reference to the ancient forest of Arden Wood that grew on both sides of the River Mersey in the area. Chorlton was recorded as Chollirton in 1250, Chollerton from 1292 and as Chourton in 1572; the ancient hamlets of Chorlton and Hardy, separated by the Chorlton Brook, together with Martledge and Barlow Moor, did not come under the combined name of Chorlton-cum-Hardy until the 18th century. The name was adopted by Victorian property developers who arrived in the wake of the coming of the railway in 1880, to distinguish this Chorlton from Chorlton-on-Medlock; the form Chorlton with Hardy was used to some extent from the early 19th century onwards and in the early years of the 20th. The district was part of the kingdom of Northumbria from the 7th century, but settlement in the Mersey valley may well have been later.
Thomas L. Ellwood suggested 610 AD as the date of founding the settlement, but John Lloyd in his 1972 history considered the period 610 to 900 AD more likely; the area now known as Chorlton-cum-Hardy comprises the ancient settlements of Chorlton along with Hardy and Barlow to the south on the north side of the Mersey and Martledge, the area around the present-day public library, to the north of Chorlton and Hardy. Chorlton was part of the Withington manor. Hardy was little more than a farm and a few houses, but Barlow was home to the family of that name, who occupied the manor house of Barlow Hall for several hundred years. Barlow Hall was built on a defensive site on rising ground on the north bank of the Mersey. In 1567 the lord of the manor was Alexander Barlow, a staunch recusant, imprisoned for his beliefs and died in 1584 leaving a son who held similar beliefs. Two of his sons entered the Order of Saint Benedict, one of them, Ambrose Barlow a missionary priest in the Leigh parish, was imprisoned several times and executed for his priesthood in 1641 at Lancaster.
Two sons of the papist, Anthony Barlow were charged with treason in the Jacobite rising of 1715. The estate remained with the family until the death of Thomas Barlow in 1773, when it was sold to the Egertons of Tatton Hall. In 1666 Barlow Hall was one of the largest houses paying hearth tax in the Withington manor; the estimated population in 1640 was 85. The 1801 census recorded 513 inhabitants, the 1811 census 619: by 1851 it had increased to 761; the Tithe Commissioners' survey carried out in 1841 provides details of the size and tenure of every piece of land. The tithe map reveals the township had two major landowners: Wilbraham Egerton of Tatton owned 888 acres and George Lloyd 231, the rest was shared between 21 others. Most land was pasture while 490 acres was arable. Many small landowners owned orchards or market gardens. At this time the village consisted of its ancient halls and scattered farms centred on Chorlton Green and Beech Road and a few buildings on Barlow Moor Road, its public houses were the Bowling Green, built in 1693, the Horse and Jockey, licensed in the early 19th century.
Marl had been dug in Martledge since at least 1598. The Chorlton Brick Company was established there in the early part of the 20th century, continued producing bricks for about forty years. Turf-cutting was a significant industry in Martledge, as well as in the White Moss and Jackson's Moss areas; until the last quarter of the 19th century Chorlton's population had increased slowly. When the railway reached neighbouring Stretford in 1849, upmarket villas were built on a flood-free area in Edge Lane and High Lane. Wilbraham Road was built in 1869 to connect the Egerton holdings across Withington from Edge Lane to Fallowfield; the Midland Railway built a line from Manchester Central through Chorlton station which opened on 1 January 1880. Over the following decade land close to the station was developed for residential and commercial purposes centred on the Barlow Moor Road/Wilbraham Road crossroads, northeast of the old village centre. Houses built in the 1880s attracted more affluent residents who worked in Manchester city centre to high quality homes in a more rural area.
Irish immigrants came to work in the expanding industries of Manchester, in small-scale horticulture and farming and domestic service. They brought Roman Catholicism, by the firs
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th
Withington is a suburb of south Manchester, England. Part of Lancashire, it lies 4 miles from Manchester city centre, about 0.4 miles south of Fallowfield, 0.5 miles north-east of Didsbury and 1 mile east of Chorlton-cum-Hardy. Withington has a population of just over 14,000 people, reducing at the 2011 census to 13,422. In the early 13th century, Withington occupied a feudal estate that included the townships of Withington, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Moss Side, Burnage and Haughton, held by the Hathersage and Tatton families, within the Manor of Manchester and Hundred of Salford in historic county boundaries of Lancashire. Withington was rural until the mid-19th century when it experienced rapid socioeconomic development and urbanisation due to the Industrial Revolution, Manchester's growing level of industrialisation. Withington became part of Manchester in 1904. Today, the residents of Withington comprise a mixture of families, university students and affluent "young professionals"—often themselves former students.
This is in a large part due to its education links—particularly the proximity to the University of Manchester and Manchester Metropolitan University. As a consequence, Withington is predominantly an area of mixed affluence, it is a centre for clinical excellence with one of the largest cancer treatment centres in Europe—Christie Hospital—and Withington Community Hospital. In Anglo-Saxon times the area was sparsely settled by Mercians and Danes and Didsbury may have been established in King Edward the Elder's reign as a fortification against the Danes. Following the Norman Conquest the lands of south Lancashire were granted to Roger of Poitou and by the early 13th century the Manor of Withington appears to be a sub-manor of the Manor of Manchester; the first recorded description of Withington dates from 1186, calling the area a willow-copse farmstead, giving rise to the Anglo-Saxon name Wīðign-tūn, with withy meaning "willow branch used for bundling". In the early 13th century, the Manor of Withington covered a wide area including Withington, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Moss Side, Burnage and Haughton.
The first Lord of the Manor of Withington is thought to have been William, son of Wulfrith de Withington. Withington was one of the townships of the ancient parish of Manchester in the Salford Hundred of Lancashire, a sub-manor of the Manor of Manchester. In the 13th century, Robert Grelle, Lord of the Manchester Manor, granted free warren in Withington to Matthew de Hathersage, son of William, in exchange for one knight's fee. Little is known of the Hathersage family, except that they descended to the Longford family, are connected with the manors of Hathersage and Longford, both in Derbyshire; the lordship of Withington remained in the Hathersage/Longford family for over 300 years. At the end of the 16th century, Nicholas Longford sold Withington to the Mosleys, an influential Anglo-Irish family of wool merchants who subsequently became wealthy landowners in Staffordshire: Nicholas Mosley became Lord of the Manor of Manchester. Hough End Hall was built by Sir Nicholas Mosley in 1596 as the new Withington manor house—the original medieval manor house was situated south-east of the modern junction of Mauldeth Road West and Princess Road, surrounded by a moat.
In 1750 it was demolished to make way for a farm building. An Ordnance Survey map of 1845 shows it as "Withington Old Hall", it came to be known as "Chorlton's Farm" or "Old Hall Farm". Today, the site is occupied by no trace remains of the old house. There are still today some remnants of this moat underneath Old Moat Primary School, on Old Moat Lane. In the early 18th century, the Withington Manor was once again sold, this time to the Egertons of Tatton. Withington as a village developed around Wilmslow Road, a main road, connecting Manchester to Wilmslow, the only direct route between Manchester and Wilmslow at the time. Farming still dominated the area, although there is evidence in maps of a substantial cotton house on Cotton Lane, which appears to become Withington Hall; some historians dispute the cotton house as there is little record of it, claim "Cotton Lane" comes from land in the area, jointly held by the townships of Withington and Burnage. This area was the old village centre however, although the only relic of its former importance is the small flower display on the corner of Wilmslow Road and Cotton Lane.
The trade in Withington, consequent traffic on Wilmslow Road, increased as the city of Manchester flourished in the early 19th century. Turnpike roads subsequently became unpopular, were abolished in 1881. Wilmslow Road as a turnpike road would have been abolished as soon as 1861 had the Manchester to Wilmslow Turnpike Trust not agreed to build a new turnpike road to Northenden, named Palatine Road. Cheaper transport out of Manchester became an important factor in the growth of the area. In 1880 a tramway was built along Wilmslow Road and Palatine Road to the newly opened Withington and West Didsbury railway station, run by the Midland Railway; the horse trams ran until 1 December 1902. The train service from Withington and West Didsbury railway station to Manchester Central railway station operated until Didsbury railway station closed in 1961. Withington's Parish Church of St Paul was built in 1841, many other chapels and churches proliferated, including Methodist and Roman Catholic. (The architects of St Paul's Church were Hayley & Brown and it was extended
Owens Park is a large hall of residence located in the Fallowfield district of the city of Manchester, England. The hall is owned by houses 1,056 students. Owens Park is a significant part of the Fallowfield Campus of the University of Manchester; the terms'Owens Park' and'Fallowfield Campus' are sometimes used interchangeably. The hall, designed by Building Design Partnership, built in 1964–66, is most notable for its 61-metre-high tower, a local landmark, it has a fibreglass relief, Cosmos I, at the base. A 2001 plan by the University of Manchester to demolish the tower in 2004 was subsequently abandoned as a result of protests by current and past residents. In 2005 a refurbishment programme was planned, it was announced in 2014 that Owens Park is due to be demolished as part of the plans to redevelop the Fallowfield Campus with brand new student accommodation. Owens Park comprises five main residential blocks, an entertainment block, where the weekly Owens Park BOP used to take place, an administration/library block.
It contains a computer cluster available to all students of the University. The residential blocks are internally sub-divided into'houses', each now housing 30-40 students. In the past, Tree Court was female, whilst the other blocks housed only male students. Now all block are of mixed sex, though any given floor in a house is single sex with exception to the tower; each house has a common room. Each floor in a house has kitchen; the halls are catered during the week. There are rivalries between adjacent houses and other halls of residence, these can be contested in sporting events such as football as each halls of residence have a team. Football matches are held the occasional Saturday. Owens Park Students' Association organises leisure and sporting activities, is run by a committee formed of current students living in the hall. Radiohead guitarist Ed O'Brien was a resident during his time at university in Manchester, as was Rik Mayall; the Chemical Brothers played their first gig at the Owens Park BOP.
The comedian Jack Whitehall lived in the Tower. Other residents included Peter Hammill and Chris Judge Smith who formed Van der Graaf Generator in 1967 while living there. Prior to September 2009 Owens Park BOP was a night held in Owens Park every Friday in the Owens Park tower's ballroom for students of the University of Manchester; the BOP had a theme and from September 2008 charged £1 entry to residents, which had caused some outrage amongst residents as it had been free. It had a charge of £3.50 for all other entrants. Only students were allowed to enter the BOP and a student card must have been presented upon entry; the BOP was a popular student night out due to its low cost of drinks and transport as most of the BOP's customers were residents of local student halls of residence. However, Owens Park residents had been known to have become disgruntled both at the terrible music played by the DJs and the students from other halls of residence coming to the event with the large queues this created to gain access.
The BOP had a theme each week such as a western theme or a dead celebrity theme causing large numbers of students to dress up for the occasion. The BOP was set out much like a classic school disco except with the inclusion of the sale of alcohol; as a customer entered they were greeted with the main tower bar with its own DJ and a vast amount of seating. Upstairs there was a second bar and a foyer-like drinking area, next door there was a large conference hall; the large hall had a disco-like atmosphere and professional DJ on the stage, with small amounts of seating at the sides. The BOP was open from 8 pm till around 2 am; the BOP was run by the Owens Park Student's Association Executive Committee. The Committee is in charge of running all other hall activities such as the pub quiz, karaoke and hall pub and club outings; the BOP is known on a larger scale for being the venue of the Chemical Brothers' first gig. After its 2009 move to a pub outside Fallowfield, the Jabez Clegg, attendances declined.
Following many rumours the last BOP took place on 25 January 2013, bringing an end to its 25-year run. University accommodation page
History of Manchester
The history of Manchester encompasses its change from a minor Lancastrian township into the pre-eminent industrial metropolis of the United Kingdom and the world. Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution; the transformation took little more than a century. Having evolved from a Roman castrum in Celtic Britain, in the Victorian era Manchester and London had major innings on this as well but started build on the coastal region of the country was the site of one of the world's first passenger railway station and many scientific achievements of great importance. Manchester led the political and economic reform of 19th century Britain as the vanguard of free trade; the mid-20th century saw a decline in Manchester's industrial importance, prompting a depression in social and economic conditions. Subsequent investment and rebranding from the 1990s onwards changed its fortunes and reinvigorated Manchester as a post-industrial city with multiple sporting and educational institutions.
Manchester has been on a provisional list for UNESCO World Heritage City on numerous occasions. However, since the 1996 bombing, local authorities have persisted on a course of economic evolution rather than prioritising the past; this economic evolution is best illustrated with the 558 foot Beetham Tower which "torpedoed" any possibility of World Heritage City status according to one author. Despite this, areas perceived as internationally important in the Industrial Revolution such as Castlefield and Ancoats have been sympathetically redeveloped. According to Oxford University Press, Manchester derived its name from Mamucium, the Roman name for the 1st century-settlement and fort. Mamucium itself is a Latinised form of the Celtic meaning "breast-shaped hill"; the Latin name for Manchester is given as Mancuniun. This is most a neologism coined in Victorian times, similar to the widespread Latin name Cantabrigia for Cambridge. Prehistoric evidence of human activity in the area of Manchester is limited, although scattered stone tools have been found.
There is evidence of Bronze Age activity around Manchester in the form of burial sites. Although some prehistoric artefacts have been discovered in the city centre, these have come from redeposited layers, meaning they do not originate from where they were found. Before the Roman invasion of Britain, the location lay within the territory dominated by the Brigantes and prior to the Roman conquest of the area in the 70s AD, it was part of the territory of the Brigantes, a Celtic tribe, although it may have been under the control of the Setantii, a sub-tribe of the Brigantes. For the important prehistoric farm site at Oversley Farm, see History of Cheshire#Oversley Farm; the Roman fort of Mamucium was established c. AD 79 near a crossing point on the River Medlock; the fort was sited on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell in a defensible position. It was erected as a series of fortifications established by Gnaeus Julius Agricola during his campaign against the Brigantes who were the Celtic tribe in control of most of what would become northern England.
It guards the Deva Victrix to Eboracum Roman road running east to west, a road heading north to Bremetennacum. The neighbouring forts were Northwich. Built first from turf and timber, the fort was demolished around 140; when it was rebuilt around 160, it was again of timber construction. In about 200 the fort underwent another rebuild, this time enhancing the defences by replacing the gatehouse with a stone version and facing the walls with stone; the fort would have been garrisoned by about 500 infantry, of auxiliary troops. Evidence of both pagan and Christian worship has been discovered. Two altars have been discovered and there may be a temple of Mithras associated with Mamucium. A word square was discovered in the 1970s that may be one of the earliest examples of Christianity in Britain. A civilian settlement, or vicus, grew in association with the fort, made up of traders and families of the soldiers. An area which has a concentration of furnaces and industrial activity has been described as an industrial estate.
The vicus was abandoned by the mid 3rd century, although a small garrison may have remained at Mamucium into the late 3rd and early 4th centuries. The Castlefield area of Manchester is named after the fort. Once the Romans left Britain, the focus of settlement in Manchester shifted to the confluence of the rivers Irwell and Irk. During the Early Middle Ages that followed – and persisted until the Norman conquest – the settlement of Manchester was in the territory of several different kingdoms. In the late 6th and early 7th centuries, the kingdom of Northumbria extended as far south as the River Mersey, south of what was the settlement of Manchester. Etymological evidence indicates that the areas to the north west of Manchester were British while the parts of Manchester were Anglian, the south west of Manchester was Danish. Between the 6th and 10th centuries, the kingdoms of Northumbria and Wessex struggled for control over North West England. In 620, Edwin of Northumbria may have sacked Manchester, the settlement may have been sacked again in 870 by the Danes.
According to legend, Nico Ditch – which runs east–west from Ashton-under-Lyne to Stre
Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service
Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory emergency fire and rescue service for the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester, England. Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service covers an area of 496 square miles; the service has 41 fire stations which until 2006 were organised into three territorial Area Commands, each one with an Area Command Headquarters, based at Stretford and Bolton respectively. When the brigade altered the command area's structure they divided the three area commands from South and West to 11 Borough Commands, aligned to the 10 local authorities in the county: Bolton, Manchester, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside and Wigan; the service employs 2,200 personnel, of which 1,200 are frontline firefighters, 403 non-uniformed support staff. The Service's headquarters is located in Salford; the service was created when the county of Greater Manchester came into being in 1974. It had, until recently, been called the Greater Manchester County Fire Service; the change in name reflects the growing number of roles the service now has, many services across the United Kingdom are changing their names to "Fire and Rescue Service".
This change was inspired by new primary legislation for England and Wales, The Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. The service was administered by the Greater Manchester County Council, but when this was abolished in 1986, administration of the service was taken over by a joint authority of the ten Metropolitan Boroughs of Greater Manchester, known as the "Fire and Rescue Authority". Five members are appointed by Manchester City Council, two each by Bury and Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Councils, three each by the remaining seven borough councils of Greater Manchester. In 2017, the service came under considerable controversy on the night of the Manchester Arena bombing due to arriving two hours than the police after the bombing. A report by Lord Bob Kerslake found that the Service deployed units only at 00:15 after conversation was overheard of armed police being sent in to scout the area one-and-a-half hours earlier. Then-Chief Fire Officer Peter O'Reilly apologised for the delay in response, although blaming the Greater Manchester Police for the delay, citing an "information vacuum" from the force and for not liaising with the ambulance and fire services following the bombing.
The service, alongside the Lancashire fire service, were among the first responders to the Saddleworth Moor fire on 24 June 2018, managing to extinguish the fire on the same day, a normal event said to happen on the moor on a hot summer's day, but because of the heatwave starving the land of rain and thus drying the peat, the fire reignited on the next day, soon burning out of control, following a declaration of a major incident the day after that, requiring the evacuation of 50 houses nearby. With the service having never fought a moorland fire on the scale of this fire, mutual aid was sought out from seven other fire services across the north of England, including Cumbria and Wear, Nottinghamshire and Warwickshire, following a request from assistant chief fire officer Dave Keelan, military assistance came to help extinguish the wildfire, of which it was declared three weeks on 18 July. A similar fire on Winter Hill, north of Bolton in Lancashire, breaking out on June 28 and being declared under control on the 16 July, a merger of two previous wildfires that directly threatened, but never affected a transmitting station on the hill, was responded to by both the Greater Manchester and Lancashire services.
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