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Falls Church, Virginia

Falls Church is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,332; the estimated population in 2018 was 14,772. Falls Church is included in the Washington metropolitan area. Falls Church has the lowest level of poverty of any independent county in the United States. Taking its name from The Falls Church, an 18th-century Church of England parish, Falls Church gained township status within Fairfax County in 1875. In 1948, it was incorporated as the City of Falls Church, an independent city with county-level governance status although it is not a county; the city's corporate boundaries do not include all of the area known as Falls Church. For statistical purposes, the U. S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Falls Church with Fairfax City and Fairfax County. At 2.11 square miles, Falls Church is the smallest incorporated municipality in the Commonwealth of Virginia and the smallest county-equivalent municipality in the United States.

The independent city of Falls Church is named for the 1734 religious institution named The Falls Church founded at the intersection of important Indian trails that were paved and named Broad Street, Lee Highway and Little Falls Street. The first known government in the area was the Iroquois Confederacy. After exploration by Captain John Smith, England began sending colonists to what they called Virginia. While no records have yet been found showing the earliest colony settlement in the area, a cottage demolished between 1908 and 1914, two blocks from the city center, bore a stone engraved with the date "1699" set into one of its two large chimneys. During the American Revolution the area is most known for The Falls Church vestrymen George Washington and George Mason. A copy of the United States Declaration of Independence was read to citizens from the steps of The Falls Church during the summer of 1776. During the American Civil War Falls Church voted 44–26 in favor of secession; the Confederate Army occupied the village of Falls Church as well as Munson's and Upton's hills to the East due to their views of Washington, D.

C.. On September 28, 1861, Confederate troops withdrew from Falls Church and nearby hills, retreating to the heights at Centreville. Union troops took Munson's and Upton's hills, yet the village was never brought under Union rule. Mosby's Raiders made several armed incursions into the heart of Falls Church to kidnap and murder suspected Northern sympathizers in 1864 and 1865. Cherry Hill Farmhouse and Barn, an 1845 Greek-Revival farmhouse and 1856 barn and managed by the city of Falls Church, are open to the public on select Saturdays in summer. Tinner Hill Arch and Tinner Hill Heritage Foundation represent a locus of early African American history in the area, including the site of the first rural chapter of the NAACP. Two of the District of Columbia's original 1791 boundary stones are located in public parks on the boundary between Falls Church and Arlington County; the West cornerstone stands in Andrew Ellicott Park at 2824 Meridian Street, Falls Church and N. Arizona Street, just south of West Street.

Stone number SW9 stands in Benjamin Banneker Park on Van Buren Street, south of 18th Street, near the East Falls Church Metro station. Most of Banneker Park is in Arlington County, across Van Buren Street from Isaac Crossman Park at Four Mile Run. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land and none of it water. Falls Church is the smallest independent city by area in Virginia. Since independent cities in Virginia are considered county-equivalents, it is the smallest county-equivalent in the United States by area; the center of the city is the crossroads of Virginia State Route 7 and U. S. Route 29. Tripps Run, a tributary of the Cameron Run Watershed, drains two-thirds of Falls Church, while the Four Mile Run watershed drains the other third of the city. Four Mile Run flows at the base of Minor's Hill, which overlooks Falls Church on its north, Upton's Hill, which bounds the area to its east; as of the census of 2010, Falls Church City had a population of 12,332.

The population density was 6,169.1 people per square mile. There were 5,496 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 9.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. In the city, the population was spread out with 7.3% under the age of five, 26.6% under the age of 18, 11.6% over the age of 65. The percentage of the population that were female was 51%. 74.4 % of the population had higher. The median income for a household in the city was $120,000, with 4% of the population below the poverty line, the lowest level of poverty of any independent city or county in the United States; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,377 people, 4,471 households, 2,620 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,225.8 people per square mile. There were 4,725 housing units at an average density of 2,379.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 84.97% White, 3.28% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 6.50% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.52% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8

Polyommatus nephohiptamenos

Polyommatus nephohiptamenos, or Higgins's anomalous blue, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae described by J. Brown and John G. Coutsis in 1978, it has an IUCN Red List status of near threatened. The Higgins's anomalous blue is in the family Lycaenidae, it was described by Brown and Coutsis in 1978. Polyommatus nephohiptamenos was thought to be a subspecies or form of Polyommatus ripartii, Ripart's anomalous blue. A 2016 paper confirmed that it was a distinct species based on distinct COI mitochondrial DNA barcodes and ecological differentiation; the fringes of the male are whiter than with P. ripartii. P. nephohiptamenos is endemic to Europe, found only in mountains of northern Greece and of southern Bulgaria. It is found in a small area at higher altitudes of the Phalakron Massif in Bulgaria, it has a dot-like distribution range. It has been found on Mount Pangeon and Mount Phalakro in Greece, Mount Orvilos on the border between Greece and Bulgaria, Mount Alibotush and Kitka Planina in Bulgaria.

It is limited to less than 10 locations within an area of occupancy under 100 square kilometres. It is found above the tree line between 1,500 to 2,000 metres in calcareous grasslands with many flowers. P. nephohiptamenos has one generation per year. It feeds on the perennial sainfoin Onobrychis montana ssp. scardica, endemic to the Balkans. The caterpillars hibernate while still small, feed on the new leaves of the sainfoin the next spring; the butterfly flies in August. The butterfly may be threatened by intensified grazing and wildfires, it has an IUCN Red List status of near threatened

Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy

Prince Sergei Petrovich Trubetskoy was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement. Close to Nikita Mikhailovich Muravyov in his views, he was declared the group's leader on the eve of the December 26 uprising in 1825 but failed to appear, instead sought refuge in the Austrian embassy. Trubetskoy was born in the noble Trubetskoy family, his father was Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy. His mother, was a daughter of the Georgian prince Alexander Bakarovich Gruzinsky. Troubetzkoy received home education, since 1806 he was attending lectures in the Moscow University. In 1808 he entered Leib Guards Semyonovsky regiment; as a soldier, he participated in all significant battles of Sixth Coalition campaign in 1812-1814 including battle of Borodino, battle of Maloyaroslavets, Battle of Lützen, battle of Bautzen and battle of Kulm and received many orders. In the battle of Leipzig he was badly wounded. After the war he continued military service and in 1821 he was promoted to Colonel. After the war Trubetskoy became a Freemason, a member of the Lodge of the Three Virtues.

He was among the founders of the first proto-Decembrists societies - the Union of Salvation and the Union of Prosperity. The two unions were based on freemasonry, they sought gradual improvement of the Russian Empire, but hadn't adopted some goals the Decembrists did later: complete abolition of serfdom, introduction of constitution and constitutionally secured liberties, abolition of privileges of upper estates of the realm. In 1819 Trubetskoy went abroad for treatment; when he returned in 1821 he found. Trubetskoy was one of the leaders of the Northern Society. Trubestkoy advocated Constitutional monarchy, but other Decembrists desired revolution, to execute the tsar and establish a republic, he was elected "dictator" but did not come to Senate Square, most because he expected the revolt to fail. He was arrested the next day at the apartments of Count Ludwig Lebzeltern, his brother-in-law and the Austrian Empire's minister to St. Petersburg. Trubetskoy was sentenced to death but the sentence was changed to katorga for life in Nerchinsk coal mines.

Trubetskoy's wife Ekaterina Laval went to exile with him. Her feat was subject of a famous poem by Nekrasov. In 1839 his family was allowed to live in exile in Irkutsk, he also received permission. In 1854 his wife died. In 1856 he along with other survived Decembrists was granted amnesty, his children were given their titles, he was able to return to Russia, he wrote memoires. Decembrist revolt Troubetzkoy Trubetskoy House

Rosy Bindi

Maria Rosaria Bindi, best known as Rosy Bindi, is an Italian politician and the former President of the Antimafia Commission. Born in Sinalunga, she graduated in political science, she was standing near the lawyer Vittorio Bachelet when he was assassinated by the Red Brigades in 1980. She held the position of vice-president of Azione Cattolica, the most popular Italian Catholic lay association, from 1984 to 1989, the year she joined the Christian Democracy party. After the dissolution of the DC party, Bindi joined the Italian People's Party and became a leading figure in The Olive Tree, the broad left-to-centre coalition led by Romano Prodi. Following the coalition's victory in the 1996 general election, she was named Minister of Health, a position she held in the following governments led by Massimo D'Alema. During her tenure at the Ministry of Health, through her circular "Circolare Bindi del 2 dicembre 1996", electroshock therapy was re-introduced in Italy to treat psychiatrised patients.

It was corrected by "Circolare Bindi del 15 February 1999"'limiting' use of ECT in particular cases but without revoke it. In the 2001 general election she was elected for the third time to the Chamber of Deputies in the college of Cortona representing Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy. After the victory of The Union in the 2006 Italian general election, she became Minister for the Family, serving in that post until 2008. Bindi competed for the leadership of the Democratic Party in the party's founding leadership election, received 12.93% of the vote cast. She continues leading the Democrats Really faction. Personal website

Kundi (Pashtun tribe)

The Kundi is a subtribe of Niazi tribe of Pashtuns, which inhabit in most areas of Tank and D. I. Khan, they are subtribe of Niazi living in Di khan, Waziristan, In Tank, they are spread along through Tank-Pezu road extending up to Mulazai to the adjoining Bhittani area. The Mulazai is approachable through a road; the area around this road is inhabited by kundis with some pocket of Marwats. There is another circular road constructed which begins at Daraki police station on Tank- Pezu road bypassing the Daraki village, Pai village and joins the Gul Imam-Mulazai road at Ama Khel; the kundi area act as a buffer zone between Tank and Marwats connected through Pezu and Bayan pass. These were the old caravan routes and British were the first to construct asphalt roads on these routes; the main villages of Kundis in Tank are Gul Imam, Abezari, Pai, Nandoor (chief of nandoor and Amakhel. Mulazai is mixture of kundi and Syeds from Kaniguram and marwats in some parts. Gul Imam and Shahalam are the ancestral home villages of Kundi KHANS.

Kundis populate majority of Tank District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan, Some areas in D. I. Khan, some parts of Afghanistan, some of the parts in Balochistan and the ancestors of this tribe is from Zabul and KUNDIGHAR in South Waziristan Agency. A good number of Kundis have rendered their services in field of education, civil services, judiciary research etc in Pakistan; this tribe fought many wars against Nawabs of Tank in late 1800s but won some wars and defeated others. Moreover, this tribe is always involved in internal conflicts. Kundi or Kondi bin Esa bin Khako bin Niazi bin Ibrahim loede bin Shah Hussain Kundi had two sons Minak or Sinak and Ibrahim. Descendants of Kundi are divided into two tribes Ibrahimzai. Karkikhel, Achakhel, Shirkikhel,I Ibrahim Khel Deputy Speaker West Pakistan Ghulam Ishaq Khan Kundi Chief Justice Abdul Karim Kundi Justice Abdul Aziz Kundi Justice Abdul Hakeem Kundi Deputy Speaker N. A Faisal Karim Kundi Ex. MNA Fazl Rahim Kundi Jus. Faizullah Khan Kundi Barrister Abdur Rahim Kundi Fazal Rahim Khan Kundi - TAMGHA-E-QUAID-E-AZAM Eng.

Tariq Rahim Kundi Habib Ullah Khan Kundi Commissioner A. R Rehmat Ullah Kundi CSP Ex. MNA Dawar Khan Kundi SSP Anwar Saeed Khan Kundi PSP SSP Salahuddin Khan Kundi PSP MPA Ahmed Karim Kundi

Dorothy Barnes Pelote

Dorothy Barnes Pelote was a member of the Georgia State House of Representatives. Born on December 30, 1929 in Lancaster, South Carolina, the daughter of Abraham Barnes and Ethel Green, she married Maceo R. Pelote by whom she had two daughters and Miriam. Before entering politics, Barnes Pelote, who has African-American heritage and is African Methodist Episcopalian, was a school teacher, she died on January 18, 2015 surrounded by her family at her Savannah, Georgia home at the age of 85. A Democrat, she served as Chatham County Commissioner. In 1992, she was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives for a two-year term and was re-elected four times, she represented the Savannah-based 149th Representative District. Dorothy Barnes Pelote was noted for her efforts to promote public awareness of the dangers of ovarian cancer, as well as for proposing more unusual legislative proposals, she introduced a bill that would make it a crime for anyone to answer the door naked."Former Savannah Georgia, legislator Dorothy Pelote became a fierce advocate for black Florida and Georgia residents whose communities were visited by swarms of disease-carrying mosquitoes released by the CIA during the 1950s and 1960s.

CIA documents suggest that scientists in the MK-ULTRA Project experimented with such biological exposures in black communities in order to determine whether such releases would be effective against foreign enemies." She died on January 18, 2015 surrounded by her family at her Savannah, Georgia home, aged 85. A widow, she was survived by extended family. In 2006, the Georgia Legislature passed a resolution to designate the Dorothy Barnes Pelote Bridge to honor her. Carver Heights Community Service Award, 1981-82. Special Achievements: First Female elected County Commissioner Chairman Pro Tem.