Falun Gong or Falun Dafa is a Chinese religious practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of truthfulness and forbearance. The practice emphasizes morality and the cultivation of virtue, identifies as a qigong practice of the Buddhist school, though its teachings incorporate elements drawn from Taoist traditions. Through moral rectitude and the practice of meditation, practitioners of Falun Gong aspire to eliminate attachments, to achieve spiritual enlightenment. Falun Gong was first taught publicly in northeastern China in 1992 by Li Hongzhi, it emerged toward the end of China's "qigong boom"—a period that saw a proliferation of similar practices of meditation, slow-moving energy exercises and regulated breathing. It differs from other qigong schools in its absence of fees or formal membership, lack of daily rituals of worship, its greater emphasis on morality, the theological nature of its teachings. Western academics have described Falun Gong as a qigong discipline, a "spiritual movement", a "cultivation system" in the tradition of Chinese antiquity, or as a form of Chinese religion.
The practice enjoyed support from Chinese officialdom, but by the mid to late 1990s, the Communist Party and public security organizations viewed Falun Gong as a potential threat due to its size, independence from the state, spiritual teachings. By 1999, government estimates placed the number of Falun Gong practitioners at 70 million. During that time, negative coverage of Falun Gong began to appear in the state-run press, practitioners responded by picketing the source involved. Most of the time, the practitioners succeeded; the scale of protests grew until April 1999, when over 10,000 Falun Gong practitioners gathered near the central government compound in Beijing to request legal recognition and freedom from state interference. This demonstration is seen as catalyzing the persecution that followed. On 20 July 1999, the Communist Party leadership initiated a nationwide crackdown and multifaceted propaganda campaign intended to eradicate the practice, it blocked Internet access to websites that mention Falun Gong, in October 1999 it declared Falun Gong a "heretical organization" that threatened social stability.
Falun Gong practitioners in China are subject to a wide range of human rights abuses: hundreds of thousands are estimated to have been imprisoned extrajudicially, practitioners in detention are subject to forced labor, psychiatric abuse and other coercive methods of thought reform at the hands of Chinese authorities. As of 2009, human rights groups estimated that at least 2,000 Falun Gong practitioners had died as a result of abuse in custody. One observer reported that tens of thousands may have been killed to supply China's organ transplant industry. In the years since the persecution began, Falun Gong practitioners have become active in advocating for greater human rights in China. Falun Gong founder Li Hongzhi has lived in New York City since 1996, Falun Gong has a sizable global constituency. Inside China, estimates suggest that tens of millions continued to practice Falun Gong in spite of the persecution. Hundreds of thousands are estimated to practice Falun Gong outside China in over 70 countries worldwide.
Falun Gong is most identified with the qigong movement in China. Qigong is a modern term that refers to a variety of practices involving slow movement and regulated breathing. Qigong-like exercises have been practiced by Buddhist monks, Daoist martial artists, Confucian scholars as a means of spiritual and physical refinement; the modern qigong movement emerged in the early 1950s, when Communist cadres embraced the techniques as a way to improve health. The new term was constructed to avoid association with religious practices, which were prone to being labeled as "feudal superstition" and persecuted during the Maoist era. Early adopters of qigong eschewed its religious overtones and regarded qigong principally as a branch of Chinese medicine. In the late 1970s, Chinese scientists purported to have discovered the material existence of the qi energy that qigong seeks to harness. In the spiritual vacuum of the post-Mao era, tens of millions of urban and elderly Chinese citizens took up the practice of qigong, a variety of charismatic qigong masters established practices.
At one time, over 2,000 disciplines of qigong were being taught. The state-run China Qigong Science Research Society was established in 1985 to oversee and administer the movement. On 13 May 1992, Li Hongzhi gave his first public seminar on Falun Gong in the northeastern Chinese city of Changchun. In his hagiographic spiritual biography, Li Hongzhi is said to have been taught ways of "cultivation practice" by several masters of the Buddhist and Daoist traditions, including Quan Jue, the 10th Heir to the Great Law of the Buddha School, a master of the Great Way School with the Taoist alias of True Taoist from the Changbai Mountains. Falun Dafa is said to be the result of his reorganizing and writing down the teachings that were passed to him. Li presented Falun Gong as part of a "centuries-old tradition of cultivation", in effect sought to revive the religious and spiritual elements of qigong practice, discarded in the earlier Communist era. David Palmer writes that Li "redefined his method as having different objectives from qigong: the purpose of practice s
The phrase speeds and feeds or feeds and speeds refers to two separate velocities in machine tool practice, cutting speed and feed rate. They are considered as a pair because of their combined effect on the cutting process. Each, can be considered and analyzed in its own right. Cutting speed is the speed difference between the cutting tool and the surface of the workpiece it is operating on, it is expressed in units of distance along the workpiece surface per unit of time surface feet per minute or meters per minute. Feed rate is the relative velocity. Feed rate units depend on the motion of the workpiece; when the workpiece does not rotate, the units are distance per time, although distance per revolution or per cutter tooth are sometimes used. If variables such as cutter geometry and the rigidity of the machine tool and its tooling setup could be ideally maximized only a lack of power available to the spindle would prevent the use of the maximum possible speeds and feeds for any given workpiece material and cutter material.
Of course, in reality those other variables are dynamic and not negligible, but there is still a correlation between power available and feeds and speeds employed. In practice, lack of rigidity is the limiting constraint; the phrases "speeds and feeds" or "feeds and speeds" have sometimes been used metaphorically to refer to the execution details of a plan, which only skilled technicians would know. Cutting speed may be defined as the rate at the workpiece surface, irrespective of the machining operation used. A cutting speed for mild steel of 100 ft/min is the same whether it is the speed of the cutter passing over the workpiece, such as in a turning operation, or the speed of the cutter moving past a workpiece, such as in a milling operation; the cutting conditions will affect the value of this surface speed for mild steel. Schematically, speed at the workpiece surface can be thought of as the tangential speed at the tool-cutter interface, that is, how fast the material moves past the cutting edge of the tool, although "which surface to focus on" is a topic with several valid answers.
In drilling and milling, the outside diameter of the tool is the agreed surface. In turning and boring, the surface can be defined on either side of the depth of cut, that is, either the starting surface or the ending surface, with neither definition being "wrong" as long as the people involved understand the difference. An experienced machinist summed this up succinctly as "the diameter I am turning from" versus "the diameter I am turning to." He uses the "from", not the "to", explains why, while acknowledging that some others do not. The logic of focusing on the largest diameter involved is that this is where the highest tangential speed is, with the most heat generation, the main driver of tool wear. There will be an optimum cutting speed for each material and set of machining conditions, the spindle speed can be calculated from this speed. Factors affecting the calculation of cutting speed are: The material being machined The material the cutter is made from The economical life of the cutter Cutting speeds are calculated on the assumption that optimum cutting conditions exist.
These include: Metal removal rate Full and constant flow of cutting fluid Rigidity of the machine and tooling setup Continuity of cut Condition of material The cutting speed is given as a set of constants that are available from the material manufacturer or supplier. The most common materials are available in reference books or charts, but will always be subject to adjustment depending on the cutting conditions; the following table gives the cutting speeds for a selection of common materials under one set of conditions. The conditions are a tool life of 1 hour, dry cutting, at medium feeds, so they may appear to be incorrect depending on circumstances; these cutting speeds may change if, for instance, adequate coolant is available or an improved grade of HSS is used. The machinability rating of a material attempts to quantify the machinability of various materials, it is expressed as a normalized value. The American Iron and Steel Institute determined machinability ratings for a wide variety of materials by running turning tests at 180 surface feet per minute.
It arbitrarily assigned 160 Brinell B1112 steel a machinability rating of 100%. The machinability rating is determined by measuring the weighed averages of the normal cutting speed, surface finish, tool life for each mate
Pârvu Mutu was a Wallachian Romanian muralist and church painter. He was born in the town of Câmpulung as the sixth son of the Orthodox priest Ioan Pârvescu, began his career as a church painter at the age of 12, he lived some 40 years in Moldavia, returning to Wallachia in 1702. In 1718 he retired to the place where he died. Pârvu Mutu painted in fresco style the interiors of churches in Mărgineni, Măgureni, Cotroceni, Călineşti, Fiindenii Doamnei, Colţea, Bordeşti, Filipeştii de Pădure and the Sfântul Gheorghe Nou church in Bucharest. Many of his works were commissioned by the Cantacuzino family, he is remembered for his portraits and his frescoes of church founders
Adventures in Dinosaur City is a 1991 television film directed by Brett Thompson. The film stars Omri Katz, Tiffanie Poston, Shawn Hoffman, Rob Sherwood, Patrick Labyorteaux, David Jolliffe; the story involves a trio of teenagers, named Timmy and Mick, who enjoy watching their favorite TV show which features anthropomorphic dinosaurs. Wanting to watch it on a better screen, the youngest of the three, suggests that they try watching it on his father's screen in his laboratory; the moment they turn it on, a vortex sucks the three into the TV screen, into their favorite show. Upon entering the new world, the trio comes across a flightless Dimorphodon named Forry. Reluctant, his knowledge of Dinosaur City proves useful as he guides the three to Tar Town where they join up with a Tyrannosaurus named Rex and a Triceratops named Tops, two dinosaur freedom fighters willing to ignite a revolution against the villain, Mr. Big and his caveman henchmen "The Rockies". Omri Katz as Timmy Tiffanie Poston as Jamie Shawn Hoffman as Mick Pete Koch as Link Megan Hughes as Missy Kimberly Beck as Chanteuse Irwin Keyes as Guard #1 Barney Burman as Guard #2 David Winter as Guard #3 Sebastian Massa as Bear Mimi Maynard as Dana Steven Anderson as Gil Kevin Thompson as Mr. Small Patrick Labyorteaux as Rex, Mr. Big David Jolliffe as Tops Rob Sherwood as Forry Spike Miller as Bartender Paul Eiding as King Tony Doyle as Rex Marc Martorana as Tops Don Barnes as King R. A. Mihailoff as Mr. Big This film has received mixed reviews from the audience.
Keith Urbahn is the president and a founding partner of Javelin, a literary and creative agency located in Alexandria, Virginia that offers representation and public relations services. Urbahn studied Arabic as an undergraduate at Yale University, he graduated summa cum laude in 2006. Urbahn worked for former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld as a speechwriter at the Pentagon, served as Rumsfeld's chief of staff from 2009 to 2012, he helped oversee the publication of Rumsfeld's number one New York Times bestselling 2011 memoir and Unknown. He worked in the U. S. Senate for Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. Urbahn serves as a commissioned reserve intelligence officer in the U. S. Navy. Urbahn is credited as the person. On May 1, 2011, he tweeted, "So I'm told by a reputable person. Hot damn." With his business partner Matt Latimer, Urbahn founded Javelin in 2011. Among the projects Urbahn has overseen at Javelin is the development and launch of Churchill Solitaire, a viral mobile app of a version of solitaire once played by Winston Churchill.
In addition, he has represented authors and media personalities on book and television deals, such as Donna Brazile, James Comey, Tucker Carlson. Urbahn lives in Alexandria, Virginia with his wife Kristen Lee and his children Benjamin and William. Urbahn is the son of Jennifer K. Urbahn and Maximilian O. Urbahn III, his grandfather, Max O. Urbahn, was a prolific architect of government buildings whose work included the design of one of the world's largest structures, the Vehicle Assembly Building at Cape Canaveral, Florida
Lazhnitsa is a village in Gotse Delchev Municipality, in Blagoevgrad Province, Bulgaria. It is situated in the foothills of the Pirin mountain, 7 kilometers northwest of Gotse Delchev and 65 kilometers southeast of Blagoevgrad; the village is mentioned for first time in the Ottoman documents in 1478 year as a village with 101 non-Muslim households and 3 Turkmen-Muslim households. In 1873 were counted 75 households with 175 inhabitants of Pomak origin. In 1899 the village is described as one with population of 429. After the First Balkan War the village together with the whole region of Nevrokop joined Bulgaria and was subject of ethnic and religious changes due to the migration after the war. All of the Greek and the majority of the Turkish population fled from the area and many Bulgarian Christian and some Bulgarian Muslim people came from the parts of Macedonia, left outside the Bulgarian border; the local population of Bulgarian Muslims, continued to present the vast majority of the rural population, including the village of Lazhnitsa.
After becoming part of Bulgaria, forces of IMRO with the assistance of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church started a process of enforced conversion of the Pomak population to Christianity and changing of their Islamic names. There were 200 Pomak households in Lazhnitsa in the end of 1912; the campaign led to no significant results after those actions, because the local people returned to their old names and religion in the recent months. There has been several other attempts of conversion – in 1917 and in 1942. After 1944 the conversion ceased for a while, but in 1956 a new strategy has been formed about the "national awareness of the Bulgarian Muslims". On March 28, 1973 in the village of Kornitsa armed forces of the Militia and the Army attempted to occupy the village and met organized resistance from the local people and there were casualties from both sides. People from Lazhnitsa were notified about those actions by fire signals and many of them marched toward Kornitsa to help to the local people there, but they were stopped by the armed forces, before reaching Kornitsa.
The policy towards changing the Islamic names and diminishing the influence of the Islamic religion led to restrictions on the traditional clothing of the women. On December 29, 1989 year the new Bulgarian government ceased the assimilation and returned the old names. After 1989, some people migrated to Western Europe. Tobacco growing was the traditional source of income in the past, but in recent years it is in decline, so other agricultural activities take its place, like sheep rearing and cow breeding. Nowadays general source of income came from light industry and in particular from the 7 sewing workshops that operate in the village. There are shops and a fast food restaurant; the village is known with its construction workers which have been working on different big buildings in the country. The people in the village are Muslims of Pomak origin. There is a mosque in the village, renovated in recent years with donations from local businessman and local people; the village is governed by a Mayor and as part of the Gotse Delchev Municipality by the Mayor of the municipality.
There is a United school "Petar Beron", teaching the students from 1st to 10th grade with adjoined kindergarten group. In 2018 work on a nursery school was finished. A community center with a public library "Yane Sandanski" is home of amateur men and women groups for authentic folklore songs; the health care is provided by a general practitioner. There are grocery stores, a cafe and a bakery for bread