Famagusta is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. It possesses the deepest harbour of the island. During the medieval period, Famagusta was the island's most important port city and a gateway to trade with the ports of the Levant, from where the Silk Road merchants carried their goods to Western Europe; the old walled city and parts of the modern city presently fall within the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in Gazimağusa District, of which it is the capital. In antiquity, the town was known as Arsinoe, after the Greek queen Arsinoe II of Egypt, was mentioned by that name by Strabo. In Greek it is called Ammochostos, meaning "hidden in sand"; this name developed into Famagusta, used in Western European languages, to its Turkish name, Mağusa. In Turkish, the city is called Gazimağusa; the old town is nicknamed "the city of 365 churches" owing to a legend that at its peak, Famagusta boasted one church for each day of the year. The city was founded around 274 BC, after the serious damage to Salamis by an earthquake, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus and named "Arsinoe" after his sister.
Arsinoe was described as a "fishing town" by Strabo in his Geographica in the first century BC. It remained a small fishing village for a long time; as a result of the gradual evacuation of Salamis due to the Arab invasion led by Muawiyah I, it developed into a small port. The turning point for Famagusta was 1192 with the onset of Lusignan rule, it was during this period. It increased in importance to the Eastern Mediterranean due to its natural harbour and the walls that protected its inner town, its population began to increase. This development accelerated in the 13th century as the town became a centre of commerce for both the East and West. An influx of Christian refugees fleeing the downfall of Acre in Palestine transformed it from a tiny village into one of the richest cities in Christendom. In 1372 the port was seized in 1489 by Venice; this commercial activity turned Famagusta into a place where merchants and ship owners led lives of luxury. The belief that people's wealth could be measured by the churches they built inspired these merchants to have churches built in varying styles.
These churches, which still exist, were the reason Famagusta came to be known as "the district of churches". The development of the town focused on the social lives of the wealthy people and was centred upon the Lusignan palace, the Cathedral, the Square and the harbour. In 1570–1571, Famagusta was the last stronghold in Venetian Cyprus to hold out against the Turks under Mustafa Pasha, it resisted a siege of thirteen months and a terrible bombardment, until at last the garrison surrendered. The Ottoman forces had lost 50,000 men, including Mustafa Pasha's son. Although the surrender terms had stipulated that the Venetian forces be allowed to return home, the Venetian commander, Marco Antonio Bragadin, was flayed alive, his lieutenant Tiepolo was hanged, many other Christians were killed. With the advent of the Ottoman rule, Latins lost their privileged status in Famagusta and were expelled from the city. Greek Cypriots were at first allowed to own and buy property in the city, but were banished from the walled city in 1573-74 and had to settle outside in the area that developed into Varosha.
Turkish families from Anatolia were resettled in the walled city but could not fill the buildings that hosted a population of 10,000. This caused a drastic decrease in the population of Famagusta. Merchants from Famagusta, who consisted of Latins, expelled, resettled in Larnaca and as Larnaca flourished, Famagusta lost its importance as a trade centre. Over time, Varosha developed into a prosperous agricultural town thanks to its location away from the marshes, whilst the walled city remained dilapidated. In the walled city, some buildings were repurposed to serve the interests of the Muslim population: the Cathedral of St. Nicholas was converted to a mosque, a bazaar was developed, public baths, fountains and a theological school were built to accommodate the inhabitants' needs. Dead end streets, an Ottoman urban characteristic, was imported to the city and a communal spirit developed in which a small number of two-storey houses inhabited by the small upper class co-existed with the widespread one-storey houses.
With the British takeover, Famagusta regained its significance as a port and an economic centre and its development was targeted in British plans. As soon as the British took over the island, a Famagusta Development Act was passed that aimed at the reconstruction and redevelopment of the city's streets and dilapidated buildings as well as better hygiene; the port was developed and expanded between 1903 and 1906 and Cyprus Government Railway, with its terminus in Famagusta, started construction in 1904. Whilst Larnaca continued to be used as the main port of the island for some time, after Famagusta's use as a military base in World War I trade shifted to Famagusta; the city outside the walls grew at an accelerated rate, with development being centred around Varosha. Varosha became the administrative centre as the British moved their headquarters and residences there and tourism grew in the last years of the British rule
The Musikfest am Ring was an annual outdoor music event in Cologne, Germany held for the first time in 1993 and halted in 2006. In various locations of downtown Cologne stages were set up and live bands performed and other events were presented; the Ringfest used to be held on the Cologne Ring and the Neumarkt square. In 1993 some 300000 visitors attended the festival growing to around 2000000 people in 1997, causing the organizers to claim the event to be the world's largest music festival. In 2005, about 500000 visitors attended the festival; the Ringfest was held for the first time in 1993. 200 bands have performed each year. Famous German groups such as Selig, Element of Crime, Die Fantastischen Vier, Fettes Brot, Caught in the Act, Söhne Mannheims, Guano Apes, H-Blockx, Cultured Pearls, Sabrina Setlur, Götz Alsmann, Jürgen Drews, Anne Haigis, Extrabreit and Sportfreunde Stiller, as well as international stars such as Heather Nova, Joshua Kadison, The King, Julian Dawson, Manowar, Paul Carrack, Geri Halliwell have performed.
Since 2006 the Ringfest has not been held any longer. The organizers have justified the lack of organization with the difficulties of the music market. In the last three years of its life Ringfest held parallel to the music fair Popkomm, which has taken place in Berlin since 2004. Since 2004, the c/o pop festival has been held in Cologne; the festival focuses on electronic pop music. At the premiere 2004 50000 visitors attended the festival. C/o pop festival homepage
A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential. The high stability of the electrode potential is reached by employing a redox system with constant concentrations of each participant of the redox reaction. There are many ways; the simplest is when the reference electrode is used as a half-cell to build an electrochemical cell. This allows the potential of the other half cell to be determined. An accurate and practical method to measure an electrode's potential in isolation has yet to be developed. Common reference electrodes and potential with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode: Standard hydrogen electrode activity of H+=1 Molar Normal hydrogen electrode concentration H+=1 Molar Reversible hydrogen electrode Saturated calomel electrode Copper-copper sulfate electrode Silver chloride electrode pH-electrode Palladium-hydrogen electrode Dynamic hydrogen electrode Mercury-mercurous sulfate electrode While it is convenient to compare between solvents to qualitatively compare systems, this is not quantitatively meaningful.
Much as pKa are related between solvents, but not the same, so is the case with E°. While the SHE might seem to be a reasonable reference for nonaqueous work as it turns out the platinum is poisoned by many solvents including acetonitrile causing uncontrolled drifts in potential. Both the SCE and saturated Ag/AgCl are aqueous electrodes based around saturated aqueous solution. While for short periods it may be possible to use such aqueous electrodes as references with nonaqueous solutions the long-term results are not trustworthy. Using aqueous electrodes introduces undefined and unmeasurable junction potentials to the cell in the form of a liquid-liquid junction as well as different ionic composition between the reference compartment and the rest of the cell; the best argument against using aqueous reference electrodes with nonaqueous systems, as mentioned earlier, is that potentials measured in different solvents are not directly comparable. For instance, the potential for the Fc0/+ couple is sensitive to solvent.
A quasi-reference electrode avoids the issues mentioned above. A QRE with ferrocene or another internal standard, such as cobaltocene or decamethylferrocene, referenced back to ferrocene is ideal for nonaqueous work. Since the early 1960s ferrocene has been gaining acceptance as the standard reference for nonaqueous work for a number of reasons, in 1984, IUPAC recommended ferrocene as a standard redox couple; the preparation of the QRE electrode is simple, allowing for a fresh reference to be prepared with each set of experiments. Since QREs are made fresh, there is no concern with improper storage or maintenance of the electrode. QREs are more affordable than other reference electrodes. To make a quasi-reference electrode: Insert a piece of silver wire into concentrated HCl allow the wire to dry on a lint-free cleaning cloth; this gives you an Ag/AgCl wire. Repeat dipping every few months. Obtain a Vycor glass frit and glass tubing of similar diameter. Attach Vycor glass frit to the glass tubing with heat shrink Teflon tubing.
Rinse fill the clean glass tube with supporting electrolyte solution and insert Ag/AgCl wire. The ferrocene couple should lie around 400 mV versus this Ag/AgCl QRE in an acetonitrile solution; this potential will vary up to 200 mV with specific undefined conditions, thus adding an internal standard such as ferrocene at some point during the experiment is always necessary. A pseudo reference electrode is a term, not well defined and borders on having multiple meanings since pseudo and quasi are used interchangeably, they are a class of electrodes named pseudo-reference electrodes because they do not maintain a constant potential but vary predictably with conditions. If the conditions are known, the potential can be calculated and the electrode can be used as a reference. Most electrodes work over a limited range of conditions, such as pH or temperature, outside of this range the electrodes behavior becomes unpredictable; the advantage of a pseudo-reference electrode is that the resulting variation is factored into the system allowing researchers to study systems over a wide range of conditions.
Yttria-stabilized zirconia membrane electrodes were developed with a variety of redox couples, e.g. Ni/NiO, their potential depends on pH. When the pH value is known, these electrodes can be employed as a reference with notable applications at elevated temperatures. Auxiliary electrode Cyclic voltammetry Table of standard electrode potentials Working electrode Ives, David J. G.. Reference Electrodes and Practice. Academic Press. Zanello, P.. Inorganic Electrochemistry: Theory and Application. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-661-4. Bard, Allen J.. Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-04372-0. O’Neil, Glen D.. "Carbon-Nanofiber-Based Nanocomposite Membrane as a Highly Stable Solid-State Junction for Reference Electrodes". Analytical Chemistry. 83: 5749–5753. Doi:10.1021/ac201072u. ISSN 0003-2700. PMID 21662988
Barbara Schurz is an Austrian artist and self-described "revolutionary activist". At Vienna University she pursued Slavic Studies and Women's Studies. Subsequently, she studied conceptual art at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, she began traveling around the world, living as an artist and author in Moscow and Berlin, in addition to Vienna. Schurz is best known for her books, co-written with Alexander Brener, that address the boundary between art and politics from an activist perspective; these are influenced by poststructuralism the writings of Michel Foucault, focus their attacks on capitalism and imperialism. Schurz accompanied Brener to the'Violence to Endurance: Extreme Curating' art lecture at the ICA to both protest and involve themselves in the lecture. While there Brener defecated in front of the audience while Schurz threw peanuts at the lecturers. Was tun? Furzende Völker Tattoos auf Gefängnissen Bukaka Spat Here
This is a list of Shia mosques in the National Capital Region of India. Following is list of Shia mosques in the Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in the Old Delhi/Central Delhi District of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in the New Delhi District of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in the South Delhi District of Delhi region of NCE of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in the East Delhi District of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in the North East Delhi District of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in the North Delhi District of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shia mosques in Noida region of NCR: Following is list of Shia mosques in the North East Delhi District of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shiamosques in the North East DelhiDistrict of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shiamosques in the North East DelhiDistrict of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shiamosques in the North East DelhiDistrict of Delhi region of NCR of India: Following is list of Shiamosques in the North East DelhiDistrict of Delhi region of NCR of India
Graham Short, is a micro-artist and working in Birmingham, England. Known for producing miniature pieces of art, he is considered one of the world's leading exponents of micro-art. In 2012 his nine-month project'Cutting Edge' showing the words "Nothing is Impossible" engraved along the sharp edge of a Wilkinson Sword razor blade attracted much attention from the media, which led to him appearing in news features internationally and becoming the subject of a Discovery Channel documentary. During the same year he engraved a minuscule portrait of the Queen on a speck of gold inserted into the eye of a needle to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. After leaving school at the age of 15 without a single qualification to his name, one of the few options available to him was to become an apprentice, so the next day he signed up to a six-year apprenticeship at a small stationery engraving company in Birmingham, he learned the art of copper-plate and steel die engraving for the stationery trade - producing embossed letterheads, business cards and wedding invitations.
He soon discovered. When his apprenticeship had ended he started his own one-man business in Birmingham’s Jewellery Quarter where he spent his career creating stationery for banks, royal palaces, perfume companies. In 1970 he started to attempt the engraving of The Lord's Prayer on the head of a pin; this developed into a 40-year project, finished in 2010. This master-piece was shown in Birmingham's Mailbox shopping complex, his first Fine Art exhibition at Art Decor Gallery, Lancashire, in 2011 sold out within twenty minutes. This event was followed by a solo exhibition at the Clarendon Gallery, London, his most successful exhibition at the Tony Huggins-Haig Galleries, sold out within minutes. In 2019, The Institute of Cancer Research commissioned him to work in collaboration with the Poet Laureate, Simon Armitage; the Poet Laureate's entire 51-word poem was meticulously engraved onto a 20mm long and 10mm wide pill. The engraved tablet will be displayed permanently in the new Centre for Cancer Drug Discovery.
Short attributes his obsession in wanting to take the art of miniature engraving to new levels, to an inspiring teacher at school who told him, "If you want to succeed at something you must go to greater lengths than anyone else. You must do things differently. If you do the same you will end up the same." During his extreme method of engraving, Short works at midnight to avoid vibration from passing traffic. Working under a microscope, his right arm is strapped to the bench, allowing only his fingertips to move, he takes tablets throughout the night to lower his heart-rate to 20 beats per minute - using a stethoscope he monitors his heart and begins to engrave with fine needles - between heartbeats. Every few months Short attends a clinic and undertakes a course of botox injections around his eyes in an effort to avoid the slightest distraction while working. Having been a competitive swimmer all his life, Short covers 10,000 metres a day in the pool, his reasoning is, the lower his resting heart-rate.
November 2012 -'The Writers Collection' at Clarendon Fine Art Gallery, London, Short unveiled'Fry's Delight' his latest piece in collaboration with TV Personality Stephen Fry. This piece was placed in a sale at Sotheby's, London to raise funds for English PEN, the charity that supports and represents imprisoned writers around the world. October 2014 -'Love and Hope Exhibition' Platinum Galleries Northallerton. Including the first viewing of'In Flanders Fields' the First World War poem written by Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae. During 2011 and 2012 Short continued to work on creating the impossible, in 2013 completed the'Five Pillars of Islam' as part of the Fusion collection; this collection of nine exquisite pieces fused together English and Calligraphy to create one of the most important Islamic miniature bodies of artwork seen. The collection attracted interest from around the world and was viewed by over two thousand people whilst on display in Birmingham Central Mosque. In 2012 an Indian artist from Assam called Sujit Das created a minute carving of the Hindu goddess Durga.
He was certain his effort, which measured just one inch, couldn’t be bettered, announced as much. The challenge was accepted and Short engraved the 5 micron high image of the Goddess on a speck of gold inside the eye of a needle. In June 2013, Short was invited by Indian artist Nikki Anand, to introduce her'Euphoria' solo exhibition to the British public for the first time at the Nehru Centre, London. In June 2015, after four month's work, Short completed the engraving of the Khanda, on the point of a needle. In August 2017, the'Faith Exhibition' was shown in Kelso, before being taken around Britain. Miniature engravings from Sikh, Islamic and Christian religions were shown.'Otche Nash' the main prayer of the Russian Orthodox Church - engraved on the head of a gold pin measuring 2mm across, was on view to the public for the first time. In April 2019 the'99 names of Allah' were engraved on the head of a gold pin measuring 2mm across. All 99 names are taken from verses of the Quran to describe Allah's attributes.
This was a four-month project. In December 2016, people were being urged to check their new five pound notes after Graham Short engraved a portrait of writer Jane Austen on the transparent section of four polymer banknotes which were circulated in a Willie Wonka-style ‘Golden Ticket’ giveaway. Classic quotes from Emma and Prejudice, Mansfield Park have been engraved onto the notes, around the writer's portrait; the four notes