SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Family planning

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved". Family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a woman wishes to have, including the choice to have no children, as well as the age at which she wishes to have them; these matters are influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them. If sexually active, family planning may involve the use of contraception and other techniques to control the timing of reproduction. Other aspects of family planning include sex education and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling and management, infertility management. Family planning, as defined by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, encompasses services leading up to conception.

Abortion is not considered a component of family planning, although access to contraception and family planning reduces the need for abortion. Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to and the use of contraception. However, it involves methods and practices in addition to contraception. Additionally, there are many who might wish to use contraception but are not planning a family. Contemporary notions of family planning, tend to place a woman and her childbearing decisions at the center of the discussion, as notions of women's empowerment and reproductive autonomy have gained traction in many parts of the world, it is most applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy. Family planning has been shown to reduce teenage birth rates and birth rates for unmarried women. In 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control issued a recommendation, encouraging men and women to formulate a reproductive life plan, to help them in avoiding unintended pregnancies and to improve the health of women and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Raising a child requires significant amounts of resources: time, social and environmental. Planning can help assure; the purpose of family planning is to make sure that any couple, man, or woman who has a child has the resources that are needed in order to complete this goal. With these resources a couple, man or woman can explore the options of natural birth, artificial insemination, or adoption. In the other case, if the person does not wish to have a child at the specific time, they can investigate the resources that are needed to prevent pregnancy, such as birth control, contraceptives, or physical protection and prevention. There is no clear social impact case against conceiving a child. Individually, for most people, bearing a child or not has no measurable impact on person well-being. A review of the economic literature on life satisfaction shows that certain groups of people are much happier without children: Single parents Fathers who both work and raise the children equally. Singles The divorced The poor Those whose children are older than 3 Those whose children are sickHowever, both adoptees and the adopters report that they are happier after adoption.

Adoption may insure against costs of prenatal or childhood disability which can be anticipated with prenatal screening or with reference to parental risk factors. For instance, older fathers and/or Advanced maternal age increase the risk of numerous health issues in their offspring, including autism and schizophrenia. Template:Sanchez, 2018 When women can pursue additional education and paid employment, families can invest more in each child. Children with fewer siblings tend to stay in school longer than those with many siblings. Leaving school in order to have children has long-term implications for the future of these girls, as well as the human capital of their families and communities. Family planning slows unsustainable population growth which drains resources from the environment, national and regional development efforts; the WHO states about maternal health that: "Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. While motherhood is a positive and fulfilling experience, for too many women it is associated with suffering, ill-health and death."About 99% of maternal deaths occur in less developed countries.

Both early and late motherhood have increased risks. Young teenagers face a higher risk of complications and death as a result of pregnancy. Waiting until the mother is at least 18 years old before trying to have children improves maternal and child health. If additional children are desired after a child is born, it is healthier for the mother and the child to wait at least 2 years after the previous birth before attempting to conceive. After a miscarriage or abortion, it is healthier to wait at least 6 months. Joselyne When planning a family, women should be aware that reproductive risks increase with the age of the woman. Like older men, older women have a higher chance of having a child with autism or Down syndrome, the chances of having multiple births increases, which cause further late-pregnancy risks, they have an increased chance of developing gestational diabetes, the need for a Caesarian section is greater, o

Cocoa Puffs

Cocoa Puffs is a brand of chocolate-flavored puffed grain breakfast cereal, manufactured by General Mills. Introduced in 1956, the cereal consists of small orbs of corn and rice flavored with cocoa. Cocoa Puffs are Kix cereal with chocolate flavoring. Cocoa Puffs are sold in Canada, Latin America, Europe under the Nesquik brand, via a partnership between Nestlé and General Mills. On several occasions, Cocoa Puffs boxes stated. In December 2009, General Mills announced that it would cut the sugar in 10 cereals including Cocoa Puffs to less than 10 grams of sugar per serving; this could represent a 25% decline in the sugar content from the original level and 18% from the 2009 level of 11 grams per serving. A cereal bar of Cocoa Puffs has been made. A layer of dried, sweetened condensed milk is added to the bottom, marketed as a substitute for a bowl of milk and cereal. A new addition was introduced in the summer of 2008, Cocoa Puffs Combos, which consists of the recognizable chocolate puffs with vanilla puffs.

Unlike original Cocoa Puffs, the Combos cereal does not contain cocoa. Besides Cocoa Puffs Combos, there have been varieties of the popular cereal. One such example was Cocoa Puffs Brownie Crunch in 2011; that cereal was described on the front of the box as "naturally and artificially flavored sweetened chocolate squares." The mascot of Cocoa Puffs, Sonny the Cuckoo Bird was introduced in 1962. In television commercials, Sonny attempts to concentrate on a normal task but ends up coming across some reference to Cocoa Puffs themselves and bursts with enthusiasm, exclaiming his catchphrase "I'm cuckoo for Cocoa Puffs!" Sonny was voiced by Chuck McCann from 1962 to 1978, has been voiced by Larry Kenney since 1978. Sonny's name comes from the original format of the commercials, in which he was paired with his grandfather. Rather than proper names, they always referred to each other as "Gramps" and "Sonny." When the grandfather was dropped from the ads, "Sonny" remained as the character's name. In 2010, Gramps returned to the Cocoa Puffs ads, with McCann reprising his role as Gramps and Kenney continuing to voice Sonny.

Sonny was designed by Gene Cleaves. Sonny was depicted as wearing a pink-and-white striped shirt in 1995 was redesigned, this time wearing 1990s "extreme" clothes and being given a more Disney-esque appearance. In 2004, he was redesigned in this time without clothing. Official website

Kenneth McKenzie (fur trader)

Kenneth McKenzie was nicknamed the "King of the Missouri", for as a fur trader for American Fur Company in the upper Missouri River valley, he controlled a territory larger than most European nations. McKenzie was a Scot by birth, a Canadian immigrant as a teenager, he became a clerk for the North West Company. Losing his job when his employer was merged into the Hudson's Bay Company, McKenzie traveled to St. Louis in 1822, applied for US citizenship and joined the Columbia Fur Company, heading it by the mid-1820s. While he was at fort union he married an Indian woman but in his life he married a woman named Marry Marshal. American Fur spent years negotiating, met McKenzie's demands in 1827 to buy Columbia Fur, it was renamed the "Upper Missouri Outfit" division of American Fur, in 1828, McKenzie went up the river to lead the fur trade, building Fort Union near the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. Fort Union was ideally situated to dominate the final years of the beaver pelt trade and the beginning of the buffalo hide trade, many tribes dealt with McKenzie.

In 1831, McKenzie succeeded in beginning trade with the native Piegan Blackfeet building Fort McKenzie in their territory as another trading post. In 1832, 1833, 1834, Congress passed restrictive laws to keep alcohol out of the hands of Indians. American Fur was the company most affected by these laws, they lobbied against it. Alcohol was inexpensive, easy to transport, something Indians would always trade for; the company's primary means of transporting furs from and trade goods to their trading posts was by steamboat, these boats could be inspected at Fort Osage. In order to avoid losing out to foreign traders, McKenzie had the parts shipped to him in 1833 to build a distillery at Fort Union. Since it was illegal to sell alcohol to Indians, they would give away watered-down whiskey, doctored with tobacco, pepper and anything else that would give it a kick, one day, the next, when they were to commence trading, they would give them a non-alcoholic version. In August, 1833, a proud McKenzie showed off his still to Nathaniel J. Wyeth.

They were outraged at the prices McKenzie was charging for his goods - and the fact that he wouldn't sell them any liquor for their own trade. When the two reached Fort Leavenworth, they reported the still. On June 30, 1834, Congress prohibited distilleries in Indian territory - a law, still on the books today, although most laws against selling liquor to Indians were repealed in 1948; the distillery at Fort Union ended the career of the American Fur Company's best field trader, Kenneth McKenzie. In 1834, John Jacob Astor retired, sold the western division of American Fur to Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Astor's St. Louis agent since 1827. McKenzie spent his last years in Missouri as a farmer, he was buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis. Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site Joseph LaBarge Steamboat captain of steamboats used in McKenzie's service Chittenden, Hiram Martin; the American fur trade of the far West, Volume I. New York: Francis P. Harper. Kenneth McKenzie at Find a Grave