click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Famine

A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation and increased mortality; every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe that suffered the most deaths from famine; the numbers dying from famine began to fall from the 2000s. Some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa has been the most affected continent in the world; as of 2017, the United Nations has warned over 20 million are at risk in South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen. The distribution of food has been affected by conflict. Most programmes now direct their aid towards Africa. According to the United Nations humanitarian criteria if there are food shortages with large numbers of people lacking nutrition, a famine is declared only when certain measures of mortality and hunger are met.

The criteria are: At least 20% of households in an area face extreme food shortages with a limited ability to cope The prevalence of acute malnutrition in children exceeds 30% The death rate exceeds two people per 10,000 people per dayThe declaration of a famine carries no binding obligations on the UN or member states, but serves to focus global attention on the problem. The cyclical occurrence of famine has been a mainstay of societies engaged in subsistence agriculture since the dawn of agriculture itself; the frequency and intensity of famine has fluctuated throughout history, depending on changes in food demand, such as population growth, supply-side shifts caused by changing climatic conditions. Famine was first eliminated in Holland and England during the 17th century, due to the commercialization of agriculture and the implementation of improved techniques to increase crop yields. In the 16th and 17th century, the feudal system began to break down, more prosperous farmers began to enclose their own land and improve their yields to sell the surplus crops for a profit.

These capitalist landowners paid their labourers with money, thereby increasing the commercialization of rural society. In the emerging competitive labour market, better techniques for the improvement of labour productivity were valued and rewarded, it was in the farmer's interest to produce as much as possible on their land in order to sell it to areas that demanded that product. They produced guaranteed surpluses of their crop every year. Subsistence peasants were increasingly forced to commercialize their activities because of increasing taxes. Taxes that had to be paid to central governments in money forced the peasants to produce crops to sell. Sometimes they produced industrial crops, but they would find ways to increase their production in order to meet both their subsistence requirements as well as their tax obligations. Peasants used the new money to purchase manufactured goods; the agricultural and social developments encouraging increased food production were taking place throughout the 16th century, but took off in the early 17th century.

By the 1590s, these trends were sufficiently developed in the rich and commercialized province of Holland to allow its population to withstand a general outbreak of famine in Western Europe at that time. By that time, the Netherlands had one of the most commercialized agricultural systems in Europe, they grew many industrial crops such as flax and hops. Agriculture became specialized and efficient; the efficiency of Dutch agriculture allowed for much more rapid urbanization in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries than anywhere else in Europe. As a result and wealth increased, allowing the Netherlands to maintain a steady food supply. By 1650, English agriculture had become commercialized on a much wider scale; the last peacetime famine in England was in 1623–24. There were still periods of hunger, as in the Netherlands, but no more famines occurred. Common areas for pasture were enclosed for private use and large scale, efficient farms were consolidated. Other technical developments included the draining of marshes, more efficient field use patterns, the wider introduction of industrial crops.

These agricultural developments led to wider prosperity in increasing urbanization. By the end of the 17th century, English agriculture was the most productive in Europe. In both England and the Netherlands, the population stabilized between 1650 and 1750, the same time period in which the sweeping changes to agriculture occurred. Famine still occurred in other parts of Europe, however. In Eastern Europe, famines occurred as late as the twentieth century; because of the severity of famine, it was a chief concern for other authorities. In pre-industrial Europe, preventing famine, ensuring timely food supplies, was one of the chief concerns of many governments, although they were limited in their options due to limited levels of external trade and an infrastructure and bureaucracy too rudimentary to effect real relief. Most governments were concerned by famine because it could lead to revolt and other forms of social disruption. By the mid-19th century and the onset of the Industrial Revolution, it became possible for governments to alleviate the effects of famine through price controls, large scale importation of food products from foreign markets, rationing, regulation of production and charity.

The Great Famine of 1845 in Ireland was one of the first famines to feature such intervention, although the government res

TAROM

TAROM, is the flag carrier and oldest operating airline of Romania, based in Otopeni near Bucharest. Its headquarters and its main hub are at Henri Coandă International Airport, it is the first and largest airline operating in Romania based on international destinations, international flights and the third-largest measured by fleet size and passengers carried. The brand name is an acronym for Romanian: Transporturile Aeriene Române. Over ninety-seven percent of TAROM is owned by the Romanian Government; the airline transported 2.75 million passengers in 2018, with an average load factor of 74%. The airline joined SkyTeam on 25 June 2010; the history of Romanian National Air Transport Company can be traced back from 1920, when CFRNA - was founded. The airline used French-built Potez 15 aircraft for its passenger/mail service between Paris and Bucharest via several cities in Central Europe. In 1925, the city of Galați became the first destination in Romania served by regular flights followed, from 24 June 1926, by an extended service to Iași and Chișinău.

Ten de Havilland DH.9 and five Ansaldo A.300, in addition to the Potez aircraft, operated the service. In 1928 the airline changed its name to SNNA. In 1930, the company adopted the name LARES while 1937 saw the merger of LARES with its competitor, SARTA. After World War II, in 1945, when the Soviet Union had extended its influence across Eastern Europe, a new reorganization replaced LARES with TARS, jointly owned by the governments of Romania and the Soviet Union. Domestic operations were started from Bucharest on 1 February 1946, when TARS took over all air services and aircraft from LARES. Over the following decade, the company's Soviet share was purchased by the Romanian government and, on 18 September 1954, the airline adopted the name of TAROM. By 1960, TAROM was flying to a dozen cities across Europe. 1966 saw the operation of its first transatlantic flight. On 14 May 1974, it launched a regular service to New York City. Being part of the regional group of airlines within Eastern Bloc states meant that for much of its history TAROM has operated Soviet-designed aircraft.

These included Lisunov Li-2s, Ilyushin Il-14s, Ilyushin Il-18 long-range turboprops, Ilyushin Il-62 long-range jet airliners, Antonov An-24 regional turboprops, Tupolev Tu-154 medium-range tri-jets. As was the case with several other nations, the Il-62 was the first long-range jet airliner to be put into operation by Romania, in 1973. Five examples were owned by TAROM, which leased the aircraft to other operators. An exception to Soviet-built aircraft was made in 1968, when TAROM bought BAC One Elevens for European and Middle East destinations, in 1974 when it acquired Boeing 707 aircraft to share its long-haul operations with the Il-62. Plans were made to acquire Vickers VC10 aircraft as well, but in the end, the Soviets did not allow it, made them buy the Il-62 instead. With 59 aircraft in operation, in the late'70s, TAROM had the largest fleet in the Eastern Bloc, after Aeroflot. In 1978, a contract was signed with the UK enabling Rombac to manufacture the BAC One Eleven at Romaero, near Bucharest.

Meanwhile, the 707 and Il-62 long-range aircraft were operating New York, Abu-Dhabi-Bangkok-Singapore, Karachi-Beijing. TAROM was the only Eastern Bloc airline to operate flights to Israel. During the mid 1980s, TAROM leased Tupolev Tu-154 jets to Guyana Airways and supported these aircraft which were operated in scheduled passenger service between Georgetown, Guyana in South America and both Miami and New York City. After the collapse of the communist regime in 1989, the airline, operating a fleet of 65 aircraft of six basic types, was able to acquire more Western-built jets. By 1993, TAROM had introduced long-haul flights to Montreal and Bangkok using Ilyushin Il-62 and Airbus A310 aircraft. During the 1990s, TAROM replaced its long-haul fleet of Boeing IL-62s with Airbus A310s. In 2001, the airline cancelled its non-profitable long-haul services to Bangkok and Montreal and terminated services to its remaining intercontinental destinations of Chicago in 2002, Beijing and New York City in 2003.

TAROM terminated loss-making domestic services to Craiova, Caransebeș, Constanța, focused its activity on service to key destinations in Europe and the Middle East. 2004 was the first profitable year of the last decade. TAROM is recovering from a difficult period that began in the 1990s when losses of up to $68 million per year were registered, caused by unprofitable routes. At the beginning of the new millennium, the airline initiated a programme, aimed at restoring profitability; this was achieved by terminating loss-making intercontinental services. TAROM has decided to focus its operations on Bucharest and Cluj-Napoca International Airport, initiated direct international flights from Sibiu International Airport. A fleet upgrade programme started in 2006 with the acquisition of four Airbus A318s, three Boeing 737-800s, two ATR 72-500s, which resulted in a fleet increase to 26 by 2009; the airline had a frequent-flyer programme "Smar

I-94 derecho

The I-94 derecho was a progressive derecho that moved through the Upper Mississippi Valley on July 19, 1983. It is so called because the derecho moved through Wisconsin with I-94 as its axis; the derecho formed. It moved into northwestern North Dakota at around 7 A. M. CDT forming a small bow echo. Williston and Minot reported winds up to 70 miles per hour. Further development formed three bow echo segments as the storm moved into Minnesota. Winds of 100 miles per hour were recorded at the Alexandria airport; the winds destroyed hangars. It continued southeast and arrived at Minneapolis, Minnesota at around 4 P. M. left 250,000 people without power. Trees were blown over and buildings damaged as the derecho raced through Wisconsin. A meteorologist working at the University of Wisconsin–Madison saw the derecho approach from the southeastern shore of Lake Mendota near Madison, Wisconsin. On the university's campus, the windows were blown out of the second and third stories of the library. Tiles from the roof landed several blocks to the southeast.

The strong winds resulted in 4 feet waves on Lake Mendota. The derecho started moving into northern Illinois at around 9 P. M. CDT. National Weather Service meteorologist Richard Koeneman recorded observations in his weather diary, noting that the evening was "warm and humid", but that the temperature dropped 14 °F in 20 minutes (83 to 68 °F from 9:30 to 9:50 as the derecho passed, he wrote that the wind had gusted to around 70 miles per hour. The derecho winds were still strong. A wind gust of 69 miles per hour was recorded at O'Hare International Airport; the derecho died out over northwestern Indiana at around midnight on July 20. The storm was responsible for 34 injuries, including 12 from mobile homes being overturned and 8 from falling trees. List of derecho events NOAA Page on the I-94 Derecho

DJ Head

Kevin Bell, professionally known as DJ Head, is a three-time Grammy Award winning hip-hop producer and DJ from Detroit, Michigan. He's best known for producing and co-producing songs for Eminem, Jay Z, D12, Obie Trice, as Eminem's original touring deejay from 1997 to 2002. Kevin Bell was raised in Detroit, attended Gesu Elementary School and is a graduate of Shrine Catholic High School in Royal Oak, is a Michigan State University alumni, he attended the Detroit Community Music School, studying Classical and Jazz Piano. While working for a radio station, he and Proof released 3 versions of his W. E. G. O. Mixtape series from 1993 to 1996, his television appearances include: Saturday Night Live, MTV Spring Break, Top of the Pops, Grammy Awards, EMA's, Multiple national and International tours. He appeared in the 8 Mile film, as the DJ for the rap battle scenes, inspired by the real life Saturday afternoon emcee battles at Maurice Malone's Hip Hop Shop in Detroit. In a recent round table discussion on Shade 45, DJ Head was credited by Eminem for introducing him to the music of 50 Cent, via a mix tape the DJ purchased by chance on the street in NYC.

This led to 50 Cent being signed to a multimillion-dollar recording contract with Shady Records. Eminem - "Infinite" D12 - "Underground EP" Eminem - "The Slim Shady EP" Bizarre - "Attack of the Weirdos EP" Eminem - "The Slim Shady LP" Eminem - "The Marshall Mathers LP" D12 - "Devil's Night" Eminem - "The Eminem Show" Funkmaster Flex & Big Kap - The Tunnel "Intro" Funkmaster Flex - 60 Minutes of Funk, Volume 4, The Mix Tape / Devil's Night "Words Are Weapons" Xzibit - Restless "Don't Approach Me" Jay-Z - The Blueprint / Curtain Call "Renegade" Bones soundtrack / Devil's Night "These Drugs" DJ Head production discography DJ Head on IMDb "A Conversation with DJ Head, Eminem's Old DJ - Noisey". Noisey. Retrieved 2017-02-10

Passions (Bach)

As Thomaskantor Johann Sebastian Bach provided Passion music for Good Friday services in Leipzig. The extant St Matthew Passion and St John Passion are Passion oratorios composed by Bach. According to his "Nekrolog", the 1754 obituary written by Johann Friedrich Agricola and the composer's son Carl Philipp Emanuel, Bach wrote "five Passions, of which one is for double chorus"; the double chorus one is identified as the St Matthew Passion. The St John Passion is the only extant other one, composed by Bach; the libretto of the St Mark Passion was published in Bach's time, allowing reconstruction based on the pieces Bach is known to have parodied for its composition, while the extant St Luke Passion contains little or no music composed by Bach. Which Bach compositions, apart from the known ones, may have been meant in the obituary remains uncertain; the St John Passion has simpler orchestration than the St Matthew Passion. The St John Passion has been described as more realistic, faster paced and more anguished than the reflective and resigned St. Matthew Passion.

The St John Passion, BWV 245 is the first Passion Bach composed during his tenure as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a tenure that started after the Easter season of 1723. Apart from the German translation of parts of the Gospel of St John and several Lutheran chorales, it used text of the Brockes Passion for its arias; the Passion was performed on Good Friday of 1724, 1725, 1732 and 1749. The double chorus St Matthew Passion, BWV 244 was composed on a libretto by Picander for Good Friday of 1727 and/or 1729. After revision the Passion was performed again in 1736 and 1742. Bach's copy of an anonymous St Luke Passion, BWV 246, was published in the Bach Gesellschaft Complete Works but is regarded as spurious, with the possible exception of the introduction to the second half. Bach wrote the St Mark Passion, BWV 247 for 1731. Picander's libretto for the Passion was once thought to have been destroyed in the bombing of Dresden in World War II, but the recovered copy seems to show that the work was a parody of music from the so-called Trauer-Ode, Laß, Fürstin, laß noch einen Strahl, BWV 198, that some choruses were used in the Christmas Oratorio.

There are several reconstructions of the Passion. In his 1802 Bach-biography Johann Nikolaus Forkel repeats what is in the "Nekrolog" regarding the number of Passions composed by Bach. In his 1850 Bach-biography Carl L. Hilgenfeldt attempts to identify all five of the Passions mentioned in the "Nekrolog" and by Forkel. After mentioning the St Matthew, the St John, the St Luke and Picander's libretto of the lost St Mark, Hilgenfeldt mentions a Passion Bach would have composed in 1717, the last year Bach was employed in Weimar, thus the "fifth" Passion refers to Passion music Bach composed before his tenure as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, parts of which may have been recuperated in his extant Passions. It may refer to one of the Passion oratorio pasticcios Bach was involved in and/or to a setting of Picander's Erbauliche Gedanken auf den Grünen Donnerstag und Charfreitag über den Leidenden Jesum, published in 1725. Weimarer Passion, BWV deest, BC D 1, refers to the 1717 Passion mentioned by Hilgenfeldt.

It appears to have been performed at the court in Gotha on Good Friday 26 March 1717. Bach appears to have recuperated some of its material in compositions, notably in his St John Passion. In the early 1710s Bach staged Jesus Christus ist um unsrer Missetat willen verwundet, a St Mark Passion, in Weimar. Bach added some of his own chorale settings to that Passion, composed by Gottfried Keiser; this Weimar version is known as BC 5a. He staged a new version of this St Mark Passion pasticcio, BC 5b, in Leipzig in 1726, expanded with some arias from Handel's Brockes Passion, again in the last years of his life; the Passion text included in Picander's Sammlung Erbaulicher Gedanken was published around the time Bach started his collaboration with this librettist. Bach used six parts of this Passion libretto in his St Matthew Passion, but there is no indication he set anything else of this libretto; as such the Passion libretto was classified among the works spuriously attributed to Bach in the Anhang of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, as BWV Anh.

169. Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt, a pasticcio Passion oratorio compiled by Bach's son-in-law Johann Christoph Altnickol, contains a few movements attributed to Bach, including the arioso for bass BWV 1088, Der Gerechte kömmt um; the pasticcio may have been performed in Leipzig in the late 1740s and/or the early 1750s. Bach performed Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's Die leidende und am Creutz sterbende Liebe Jesu on Good Friday of 1734; this Passion oratorio, composed for Gotha in 1720, is known after the incipit of its opening chorus, a setting of Paul Gerhardt's "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld". Bach arranged one of its arias, "Dein Kreuz, o Bräutgam meiner Seelen", as Bekennen will ich seinen Namen, BWV 200; this arrangement, dated around 1742–1743, was part of a cantata for the feast of Purification of the Virgin Mary. Bach knew a few passion-oratorios composed by Carl Heinrich Graun, he performed Graun's Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld sometime in the 1730s-1740s, had a copy of the score in his library.

The same with his "Great Passion" Kommt her und schaut. Bach knew of a few passion-oratorios by Georg Philipp Telemann. In addition to Telemann's Brockes Passion, there is evidence that Bach performed the original

Giannis Ioannidis

Giannis Ioannidis is a former Greek basketball player, professional basketball coach, Greece New Democracy politician. He is considered to be the best Greek basketball head coach of all-time, since he is the one with the most major Greek national titles won. Ioannidis was born in Thessaloniki, studied Agriculture in the Faculty of Geotechnical Sciences at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, he has one daughter. During his youth, Ioannidis became a member of the youth clubs of Aris, in 1959, he joined the senior men's team of Aris, of the Greek Basket League, in 1960. He played with Aris until 1978, when he retired. With 4,970 points scored as a member of Aris, he is the second highest scorer of all-time in the history of the club, after Nikos Galis. Still in his playing years, Ioannidis agreed to assume the head coach position at Cretan club Ergotelis in 1977, after being offered the job by longtime friend and fellow Aristotle University of Thessaloniki student Manolis Nikiforakis. Travelling back and forth between Thessaloniki and Crete, Ioannidis managed to promote the club to the Greek B Basket League.

After retiring from playing basketball, Ioannidis became a full-time basketball coach. He became the head coach of Aris, with the club, he won a total of 8 Greek League championships, 5 Greek Cups. With Aris, he participated at 3 consecutive FIBA European Champions' Cup Final Fours, he coached Olympiacos, where he won 4 consecutive Greek League championships, 1 Greek Cup, participated at 2 consecutive FIBA EuroLeague Finals. He was the architect of the most glorious victory of Olympiacos, which came against Panathinaikos, in the last game of the 1995–96 Greek League Finals, with a winning score of 73-38; that was his last game coaching with Olympiacos at that time. The next year, he joined AEK, where he stayed for 2 seasons, with them he managed to reach one more Final of the FIBA EuroLeague. After a short come-back to Olympiacos, he finished his coaching career with the senior men's Greek national basketball team, which he coached at the EuroBasket 2003. Ergotelis: 1977 Aris: 1978–79 G. S. Larissas: 1979–81 Greek national team: 1980–81 Aris: 1982–90 Olympiacos: 1991–96 AEK: 1996–98 Olympiacos: 1999–00 Greece: 2002–03 12× Greek League Champion: 1979, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 6× Greek Cup Winner: 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1994 Greek 2nd Division Champion: 1980 3× Greek League Runner-Up: 1984, 1992, 1997 2× Greek Cup Runner-Up: 1984, 1998 3× EuroLeague Finals Runner-Up: 1994, 1995, 1998 6× EuroLeague Final Four Appearance: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1998 Ioannidis announced his retirement from professional basketball in the year 2004, before he was elected a New Democracy MP for the Thessaloniki A constituency in the 2004 general election, re-elected in 2007.

Since September 2007, he has been Deputy Minister Of Culture Responsible for Sports. In the 2014 regional election, he challenged incumbent Apostolos Tzitzikostas as Regional Governor of Central Macedonia, after Tzitzikostas had lost his party's support, he was however defeated in the second round. At the January 2015 legislative election, he lost his parliamentary seat; this page incorporates information from the Hellenic Parliament website Giannis Ioannidis website Terms of office of Giannis Ioannidis at the Hellenic Parliament The top of the Greek bench: Giannis Ioannidis