Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, remained China's cultural and political center until 1,000 years ago. Henan province is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang and Zhengzhou are located in Henan; the practice of Tai Chi began in Chen Jia Gou Village, as did the Yang and Wu styles. Although the name of the province means "south of the river" a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain.
Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Hubei. Henan is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt and Vietnam. Henan is the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other central provinces. Henan is considered to be one of the less developed areas in China; the economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry and retail. High-tech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns; the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China.
In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era; the more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and legendary Chinese dynasty, established in the 21st century BC. The entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan; the Xia dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China, its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created.
In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, the political and economical center was moved away from Henan for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an was devastated by Xionites invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang; this Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan and all of China was divided into a variety of small, independent states at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang exerted over the feudal kingdoms had disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in part of modern-day Henan. On, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, the Han in the middle.
In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself as the First Emperor, he abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire collapsed after the death of Ying Zheng and was replaced by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture and military power began; the capital moved east to Luoyang in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang regained control of China, the Eastern Han dynasty began, extending the golden age for another two centuries; the late Eastern Han dynasty saw rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang in central Henan was the power base of Cao Cao, who succeeded in unifying all of northern China under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China by the Western Jin dynasty.
During this period Luoyang became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being damaged by warfare. With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples f
Cao Shen or Cao Can, courtesy name Jingbo, was a chancellor of the Western Han dynasty. He participated in the Chu–Han Contention on Liu Bang's side and contributed to the founding of the Han dynasty. Cao Shen was from Pei County in present-day Jiangsu and he served as a prison warden in his early days, he was a close friend of Liu Bang. Once, Liu Bang was tasked with escorting some convicts to Mount Li to become labourers, but some prisoners escaped and Liu was forced to become a fugitive, he sought refuge with his followers on Mount Mangdang and maintained secret contact with Cao Shen and Xiao He. In 209 BC, after the Dazexiang Uprising broke out, the magistrate of Pei County considered rebelling against the Qin dynasty as well, so he heeded Cao Shen and Xiao He's advice to invite Liu Bang back to support him. However, the magistrate changed his mind and denied Liu Bang entry into the city, he was worried that Xiao He and Cao Shen might open the city gates for Liu Bang so he planned to have them killed, but Xiao and Cao managed to escape and join Liu.
The townsfolk rebelled against the magistrate and killed him and allowed Liu Bang and his men to enter. Liu Bang built up his rebel army in Cao Shen served as one of his advisors. Cao Shen defeated the Qin armies led by Xue Guo, Hu Ling and Fang Yu, was promoted to a high rank by Liu Bang for his contributions. Cao Shen drove Zhang towards Puyang, he returned to help Liu Bang, trapped at Yongqiu, defeated Li You, the Qin general defending Sanchuan. By Cao Shen had conquered two fiefs and 122 counties in total. In the following battles against Qin, Cao Shen defeated the Qin generals Wang Li and Zhao Ben and captured the Wu and Yao passes leading to Xianyang. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, Liu Bang received the title of "King of Han" from Xiang Yu, was relocated to Hanzhong. Liu Bang promoted him to a general rank. Cao Shen helped Liu Bang conquer the Three Qins. During the Chu–Han Contention, a power struggle between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, Cao Shen joined Han Xin's army in the campaigns on the northern front.
They scored victories against Wei Bao's forces, the Zhao army at the Battle of Jingxing, the combined forces of Qi and Chu at the Battle of Wei River. During this time, Cao Shen was appointed as acting-Left Chancellor of Liu Bang's Han kingdom, subsequently promoted to Right Chancellor. After the conquest of the Qi kingdom, Cao Shen left Han Xin and returned to Liu Bang's side to join him in resisting Xiang Yu. Liu Bang sent Cao Shen to suppress the remnants of Qi. In 202 BC, Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu at the Battle of unified China under his rule. Liu Bang became the Emperor and his dynasty was named "Han", he was known as "Emperor Gao". When rewarding his subjects, Gaozu named Cao Shen as the person who made the most contributions in battle. However, Cao Shen resigned from his post as Right Chancellor. In 201 BC, Cao Shen was appointed as a chancellor to Liu Fei, he was conferred the title of "Marquis of Pingyang" and given 10,630 households in his marquisate. While serving as chancellor, Cao Shen sought the help of Confucian scholars in governing Qi but was not impressed by their ideas.
After discussing with a scholar called Gai Gong, Cao Shen was influenced by the Huang-Lao school of thought, which used a mix of persuasion and coercion. Cao Shen followed Gai Gong's advice to implement policies to restore social stability and consulted Gai Gong on how to govern Qi. In 196 BC, he commanded the Qi forces that assisted the emperor in suppressing Chen Xi's rebellion in Dai. In 193 BC, the chancellor Xiao He was succeeded by Cao Shen. Cao Shen spent his time drinking and feasting, maintained well Xiao He's system of governance but did not implement any new changes; when Emperor Hui asked him why he did not change the system, Cao Shen replied that he was not as good as Xiao He and did not want to make changes for fear of negatively affecting the system left behind by Xiao. This became the origin of a Chinese idiom, Xiao Gui Cao Sui, used to describe the continuation of the work of one's predecessor; the historian Sima Qian commented in Records of the Grand Historian that he felt that among all of Liu Bang's subjects, Cao Shen's contributions in battle was second only to Han Xin.
Commenting on Cao Shen's role as chancellor, Sima Qian mentioned that Cao had done well in preserving Xiao He's system of governance and achieved the peace and stability desired by the people. Cao Shen's son, Cao Zhu, inherited his father's marquis title "Marquis of Pingyang". Cao Zhu was in turn succeeded by his son, Cao Qi, who helped Emperor Jing suppress the Rebellion of the Seven States. Cao Qi's son, Cao Shi, married one of Emperor Jing's daughters. Cao Shi's son, Cao Xiang, married Princess Wei and served as a general in the Han campaigns against the Xiongnu. Cao Xiang's son, Cao Zong, was implicated in a plot to overthrow Emperor Wu in 91 BC and was stripped off the marquis title he inherited from his ancestor, he and his family lost their inherited marquisate as a consequence. Ban Gu et al. Book of Han, Volume 39. Hung Hing-ming, The Road to the Throne: How Liu Bang Founded China's Han Dynasty, New York: Algora Publishing. Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, volumes 8, 54
Emperor Wen of Han
Emperor Wen of Han was the fifth emperor of the Han dynasty of ancient China. His personal name was Liu Heng. Liu Heng was a son of Emperor Gao of Han and Consort Bo empress dowager; when Emperor Gao suppressed the rebellion of Dai, he made Liu Heng Prince of Dai. After Empress Dowager Lü's death, the officials eliminated the powerful Lü clan, deliberately chose the Prince of Dai as the emperor, since his mother, Consort Bo, had no powerful relatives, her family was known for its humility and thoughtfulness, his reign brought a much needed political stability that laid the groundwork for prosperity under his grandson Emperor Wu. According to historians, Emperor Wen consulted with ministers on state affairs. Historians noted that the tax rates were at a ratio of "1 out of 30" and "1 out of 60", corresponding to 3.33% and 1.67%, respectively. Warehouses were so full of grain. Emperor Wen was said by Liu Xiang to have devoted much time to legal cases, to have been fond of reading Shen Buhai, using Xing-Ming, a form of personnel examination, to control his subordinates.
In a move of lasting importance in 165 BC, Wen introduced recruitment to the civil service through examination. Potential officials never sat for any sort of academic examinations, their names were sent by local officials to the central government based on reputations and abilities, which were sometimes judged subjectively. In 196 BC, after Emperor Gao defeated the Chen Xi rebellion in the Dai region, he made Liu Heng, his son by Consort Bo, the Prince of Dai; the capital of the principality was at Jinyang. Dai was a region on the boundaries with Xiongnu, Emperor Gao created the principality with the mind to use it as a base to defend against Xiongnu raids. For the first year of the principality's existence, whose army was defeated but who eluded capture, remained a threat, until Zhou Bo killed him in battle in autumn 195 BC, it is not known whether at this time Prince Heng, seven years old, was in Dai, but it seems because his brother Liu Ruyi was the only prince at the time explicitly to have been recorded to be remaining at the capital Chang'an rather than being sent to his principality.
In 181 BC, after Prince Heng's brother, Prince Liu Hui of Zhao, committed suicide over his marital problems, Grand Empress Dowager Lü, in effective control of the imperial government, offered the more prosperous Principality of Zhao to Prince Heng, but Prince Heng, judging that she was intending to make her nephew Lü Lu prince, politely declined and indicated that he preferred remaining on the border. The grand empress dowager made Lü Lu Prince of Zhao. During these years, the Principality of Dai did in fact become a key position in the defense against Xiongnu, Prince Heng became well-acquainted with Xiongnu customs and military strategies, although the extent of his own participation in military actions was unknown. In 180 BC, after Grand Empress Dowager Lü died and the officials made a coup d'etat against her clan and slaughtered them, after some deliberation, the officials offered the imperial throne to Prince Heng, rather than Prince Liu Xiang of Qi, the oldest grandson of Emperor Gao.
The key to their decision was that Prince Xiang's maternal clan was domineering and might repeat the behaviors of the Lü clan, while the clan of Prince Heng's maternal clan, the Bos, were considered to be kind and humble. After some hesitation, Prince Heng 23 years old, accepted the throne as Emperor Wen, his nephew, Emperor Houshao, viewed as a mere puppet of Grand Empress Dowager Lü and suspected of not being a son of Emperor Wen's older brother Emperor Hui, was deposed and executed. Emperor Wen showed an aptitude to govern the empire with diligence, appeared to be genuinely concerned for the people's welfare. Influenced by his wife Empress Dou, an adherent of Taoism, Emperor Wen governed the country with the general policies of non-interference with the people and relaxed laws, his personal life was marked by general willingness to forgive. He was very deferential to Zhou Bo, Chen Ping, Guan Ying, who were instrumental in his accession, they served as successive prime ministers. Examples of Emperor Wen's policies that showed kindness and concern for the people include the following: In 179 BC, he abolished the law that permitted the arrest and imprisonment of parents and siblings of criminals, with the exception of the crime of treason.
In 179 BC, he created a governmental assistance program for those in need. Loans or tax exemptions were offered to widowers, widows and seniors without children, he ordered that monthly stipends of rice and meat be given to seniors over 80 years of age, that additional stipends of cloth and cotton be given to seniors over 90 years of age. In 179 BC, he made peace with Nanyue, whose king Zhao Tuo Empress Dowager Lü had offended with an economic embargo and which therefore engaged in raids against the Principality of Changsha and the Commandery of Nan. Emperor Wen accomplished this by writing humble yet assertive letters to Zhao offering peace with dignity and by caring for Zhao's relatives remaining in his native town of Zhending. In 178 BC, after a solar eclipse, he requested that o
Xiang Ji, courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty. A noble of Xiaxiang, Xiang Yu was granted the title of "Duke of Lu" by King Huai II of the insurgent Chu state in 208 BC; the following year, he led the rebel forces to victory at the Battle of Julu against the Qin armies led by Zhang Han. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, Xiang Yu proclaimed himself "Hegemon-King of Western Chu" and ruled a vast area of land covering parts of present-day Shanxi, Hubei and Jiangsu, with Pengcheng as his capital, he engaged Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, in a long struggle for power, known as the Chu–Han Contention, which concluded with his eventual defeat at the Battle of Gaixia. He committed suicide at the bank of the Wu River. Xiang Yu's family name was Xiang while his courtesy name was Yu, he is best known as Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu is popularly known as "Xi Chu Ba Wang", translated as "Overlord of Western Chu", "Hegemon-King of Western Chu", "Conqueror of Western Chu", "King of Kings of Western Chu", other renditions.
This title is sometimes simplified to "Ba Wang", without the link to "Western Chu". Since Xiang Yu's death, the term Ba Wang has come to be used to refer to him. Xiang Yu's subjects sometimes address him as "Xiang Wang", which means "King Xiang". There are two accounts of Xiang Yu's family background; the first claimed that Xiang Yu was from the house of Mi, the royal family of the Chu state in the Zhou dynasty. His ancestors were granted the land of Xiang by the king of Chu and had since adopted "Xiang" as their family name; the other account claimed that Xiang Yu was a descendant of a noble clan from the Lu state and his family had served in the Chu military for generations. Xiang Yu's grandfather Xiang Yan was a well known general who led the Chu army in resisting the Qin invaders led by Wang Jian, was killed in action when Qin conquered Chu in 223 BC. Xiang Yu was born in 232 BC in the late Warring States period when the Qin state started unifying the other six major states. According to the descendants of the Xiang family in Suqian, Xiang Yu's father was Xiang Chao, Xiang Yan's eldest son.
Xiang Yu was raised by his elder uncle Xiang Liang. In 221 BC, when Xiang Yu was about 11 years old, the Qin state unified China and established the Qin dynasty. Xiang Yu had a double pupil in one of his eyes just like the mythical Emperor Shun and Duke Wen of Jin, he was thus seen as an extraordinary person because his unique double pupil was a mark of a king or sage in Chinese tradition. Xiang Yu was taller than eight chi and possessed unusual physical strength as he could lift a ding. In his younger days, Xiang Yu was instructed in scholarly arts and swordsmanship but he did not manage to master what he was taught, his uncle Xiang Liang was not satisfied with him. Xiang Yu said, "Books are only useful in helping me remember my name. Mastering swordsmanship allows me to face only one opponent, so it's not worth learning. I want to learn how to defeat thousands of enemies." Hence, his uncle tried to educate him in military strategy and the art of war instead, but Xiang Yu stopped learning after he had grasped the main ideas.
When Xiang Yu grew older, Xiang Liang killed someone. At the time, Qin Shi Huang was on an inspection tour in that area and Xiang Yu and his uncle watched the emperor's procession pass by. Xiang Yu said, "I can replace him." Xiang Liang was shocked and covered his nephew's mouth with his hand. Afterwards, Xiang Liang began to see his nephew in a different light. In 209 BC, during the reign of Qin Er Shi, peasant rebellions erupted throughout China to overthrow the Qin dynasty, plunging China into a state of anarchy. Yin Tong, the Administrator of Kuaiji, wanted to start a rebellion as well, so he invited Xiang Liang to meet him and discuss their plans. However, the Xiangs lured Yin Tong into a trap and killed him instead, with Xiang Yu striking down hundreds of Yin's men. Xiang Liang rallied about 8,000 men to support him. Xiang Liang proclaimed. Xiang Liang's revolution force grew in size until it was between 60,000 and 70,000. In 208 BC, Xiang Liang installed Mi Xin as King Huai II of Chu to rally support from those eager to help him overthrow the Qin Dynasty and restore the former Chu state.
Xiang Yu distinguished himself as a competent marshal and mighty warrior on the battlefield while participating in the battles against Qin forces. That year, Xiang Liang was killed at the Battle of Dingtao against the Qin army led by Zhang Han and the military power of Chu fell into the hands of the king and some other generals. In the winter of 208 BC, another rebel force claiming to restore the Zhao state, led by Zhao Xie, was besieged in Handan by Zhang Han. Zhao Xie requested for reinforcements from Chu. King Huai II granted Xiang Yu the title of "Duke of Lu", appointed him as a second-in-command to Song Yi, ordered to lead a
Feast at Hong Gate
The Feast at Hong Gate known as the "Banquet at Hong Gate", "Hongmen Banquet", "Hongmen Feast" and other similar renditions, was a historical event that took place in 206 BC at the Hong Gate outside Xianyang, the capital of the Qin dynasty. Its location in present-day China is at Hongmenbao Village, Xinfeng Town, Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province; the main parties involved in the banquet were Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, two prominent leaders of insurgent forces who rebelled against the Qin dynasty from 209–206 BC. The event was one of the highlights of the Chu–Han Contention, a power struggle for supremacy over China between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu which concluded with Xiang Yu's defeat and the establishment of the Han dynasty with Liu Bang as its first emperor; the Feast at Hong Gate is memorialised in Chinese history and popular culture. Between 209 BC and 206 BC, rebellions erupted throughout China to overthrow the Qin dynasty; some of these insurgent forces claimed to be restoring the former six states which were annexed by the Qin state in a series of wars from 230–221 BC.
Liu Bang and Xiang Yu were two prominent leaders. In 208 BC, Xiang Yu and his uncle Xiang Liang installed King Huai II as the nominal ruler of the Chu state while they were the ones in power. In late 208 BC, Xiang Liang was killed in action at the Battle of Dingtao so the Chu military came under King Huai II's control. King Huai II sent Xiang Yu and Liu Bang to lead two separate forces to attack the Qin heartland of Guanzhong, promised that whoever entered that region first would be granted the title of "King of Guanzhong". In late 207 BC, Liu Bang's rebel army conquered Wu Pass and seized control of Guanzhong and the Qin capital Xianyang; the last Qin emperor Ziying surrendered to Liu Bang. After occupying Xianyang, Liu Bang gave strict orders to his men, forbidding them from looting and pillaging the city and harming the civilian populace. Liu Bang sent troops to garrison at Hangu Pass to block Xiang Yu from entering Guanzhong. Around the time, Xiang Yu's force had just defeated a Qin army led by Zhang Han at the Battle of Julu.
When Xiang Yu arrived at Hangu Pass, he was displeased to hear that Liu Bang had occupied Guanzhong, so he attacked and conquered the pass, pushing on to west of Xishui. Liu Bang and his army were based in Bashang then; the strengths of Xiang Yu and Liu Bang's forces were estimated to be 400,000 and 100,000 respectively. Cao Wushang, a defector from Liu Bang's side, secretly sent a messenger to Xiang Yu's camp, telling Xiang that Liu Bang was planning to declare himself "King of Guanzhong" in accordance with King Huai II's earlier promise, while Ziying would be Liu's chancellor. Cao Wushang added that Liu Bang had seized all the riches of Xianyang for himself. Xiang Yu was furious when he planned to attack Liu Bang. Xiang Yu's advisor Fan Zeng felt that Liu Bang posed a threat to his lord so he urged Xiang Yu to eliminate Liu Bang as soon as possible. One of Xiang Yu's uncles, Xiang Bo, shared a close friendship with Liu Bang's advisor Zhang Liang. Xiang Bo feared for his friend's life so he sneaked to Liu Bang's camp to warn Zhang Liang about the peril he was in, telling Zhang to flee.
Liu Bang was shocked when Zhang Liang related the news to him, he sought advice from Zhang to avoid danger. Zhang Liang instructed Liu Bang to enlist the help of Xiang Bo to reduce Xiang Yu's suspicions. Liu Bang met Xiang Bo and treated him like an honoured guest, flattering Xiang Bo and pretending to arrange for a marriage between his son and Xiang Bo's daughter while asking Xiang Bo to plead with Xiang Yu on his behalf; when Xiang Bo returned to Xiang Yu's camp he assured his nephew that Liu Bang had no ill intentions, conveyed Liu Bang's message that he was willing to submit to Xiang Yu. The following day, Liu Bang brought around 100 men with him to meet Xiang Yu at Hong Gate, where Xiang had prepared a banquet to entertain him. Liu Bang expressed that he managed to enter Guanzhong first because of sheer luck, apologised to Xiang Yu for robbing him of his glory while extolling Xiang's valour in battle. Liu Bang explained that the misunderstanding was caused by vile words from someone plotting to sow discord between him and Xiang Yu.
Xiang Yu pointed out that it was Cao Wushang who told him about Liu Bang's supposed intentions. He invited Liu Bang to partake in the banquet; the main parties involved in the feast were seated in the following arrangement: Xiang Yu and Xiang Bo faced east. By the custom of Qin, the east-facing seat is the most respectable place reserved for the guest, while south-facing seat is reserved for the Emperor, while his serviant ministers would be facing north. During the banquet, Fan Zeng made signals and hinted many times to Xiang Yu to kill Liu Bang, but Xiang ignored him. Fan Zeng summoned Xiang Yu's cousin Xiang Zhuang, instructing him to pretend to perform a sword dance to entertain the guests and find an opportunity to assassinate Liu Bang. Xiang Zhuang started dancing after Xiang Yu approved, but Xiang Bo offered to join the performance and he blocked Xiang Zhuang with his body whenever the latter thrust his sword towards Liu Bang. In the meantime, Zhang Liang went outside to summon Liu Bang's general Fan Kuai.
He gave some instructions to Fan Kuai and retu
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres along the Yellow Sea, the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province. Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center due to the construction of Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Wuxi and Shanghai are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development, it is regarded as China's most developed province measured by its Human Development Index.
Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment and textiles. It has been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006, its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions. Jiangsu's name is a compound of the first elements of the names of the two cities of Jiangning and Suzhou; the abbreviation for this province is "苏", the second character of its name. During the earliest Chinese dynasties, the area, now Jiangsu was far away from the center of Chinese civilization, in the northwest Henan. During the Zhou dynasty more contact was made, the state of Wu appeared as a vassal to the Zhou dynasty in south Jiangsu, one of the many hundreds of states that existed across northern and central China at that time. Near the end of the Spring and Autumn period, Wu became a great power under King Helu of Wu, defeated in 484 BC the state of Qi, a major power in the north in modern-day Shandong province, contest for the position of overlord over all states of China.
The state of Wu was subjugated in 473 BC by the state of Yue, another state that had emerged to the south in modern-day Zhejiang province. Yue was in turn subjugated by the powerful state of Chu from the west in 333 BC; the state of Qin swept away all the other states, unified China in 221 BC. Under the reign of the Han dynasty, Jiangsu was removed from the centers of civilization in the North China Plain, was administered under two zhou: Xuzhou Province in the north, Yangzhou Province in the south. During the Three Kingdoms period, southern Jiangsu became the base of the Eastern Wu, whose capital, Jianye, is modern Nanking; when nomadic invasions overran northern China in the 4th century, the imperial court of the Jin dynasty moved to Jiankang. Cities in southern and central Jiangsu swelled with the influx of migrants from the north. Jiankang remained as the capital for four successive Southern dynasties and became the largest commercial and cultural center in China. After the Sui dynasty united the country in 581, the political center of the country shifted back to the north, but the Grand Canal was built through Jiangsu to link the Central Plain with the prosperous Yangtze Delta.
The Tang dynasty relied on southern Jiangsu for annual deliveries of grain. It was during the Song dynasty, which saw the development of a wealthy mercantile class and emergent market economy in China, that south Jiangsu emerged as a center of trade. From onwards, south Jiangsu major cities like Suzhou or Yangzhou, would be synonymous with opulence and luxury in China. Today south Jiangsu remains one of the richest parts of China, Shanghai, arguably the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan of mainland China cities, is a direct extension of south Jiangsu culture; the Jurchen Jin dynasty gained control of North China in 1127 during the Jin-Song wars, Huai River, which used to cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea, was the border between the north, under the Jin, the south, under the Southern Song dynasty. The Mongols took control of China in the thirteenth century; the Ming dynasty, established in 1368 after driving out the Mongols who had occupied China put its capital in Nanjing. Following a coup by Zhu Di, the capital was moved to Beijing, far to the north.
The entirety of modern-day Jiangsu as well as neighbouring Anhui province kept their special status, however, as territory-governed directly by the central government, were called Nanzhili. Meanwhile, South Jiangsu continued to be an important center of trade in China; the Qing dynasty changed this situation by establishing Nanzhili as Jiangnan province. "In 1727 the to-min or "idle people" of Cheh Kiang province, the yoh-hu or "music people" of Shan Si provi
The historiographical term "Eighteen Kingdoms" refers to the eighteen feudal states created by military leader Xiang Yu in China in 206 BCE, after the collapse of the Qin dynasty. The details of the feudal division are as follows: The Eighteen Kingdoms were short-lived: immediately rebellion broke out in Qi, after which Tian Rong conquered Jiaodong and Jibei, reuniting the old Qi state. Meanwhile, Xiang Yu had Emperor Yi of Chu and King Han Cheng of Hán killed. Thereafter, Liu Bang of Hàn conquered the lands of the Three Qins, thereby starting the Chu–Han Contention. Following many battles and changing alliances, Hàn defeated Chu and subdued all other kingdoms, where Liu Bang appointed vassal kings while making himself the first Emperor of the Hàn Dynasty in 202 BCE. ^1 Yong and Zhai were collectively known as the Three Qins because they occupied the area of the former Qin state, better known as Guanzhong. ^2 Jiaodong, Qi and Jibei were collectively known as the Three Qis because they occupied the area of the former Qi state