Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the interests of copyright holders with the public interest in the wider distribution and use of creative works by allowing as a defense to copyright infringement claims certain limited uses that might otherwise be considered infringement; the 1710 Statute of Anne, an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, created copyright law to replace a system of private ordering enforced by the Stationers' Company. The Statute of Anne did not provide for legal unauthorized use of material protected by copyright. In Gyles v Wilcox, the Court of Chancery established the doctrine of "fair abridgement", which permitted unauthorized abridgement of copyrighted works under certain circumstances. Over time, this doctrine evolved into the modern concepts of fair dealing. Fair use was a common-law doctrine in the U.
S. until it was incorporated into the Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U. S. C. § 107. The term "fair use" originated in the United States. Although related, the limitations and exceptions to copyright for teaching and library archiving in the U. S. are located in a different section of the statute. A similar-sounding principle, fair dealing, exists in some other common law jurisdictions but in fact it is more similar in principle to the enumerated exceptions found under civil law systems. Civil law jurisdictions have other exceptions to copyright. In response to perceived over-expansion of copyrights, several electronic civil liberties and free expression organizations began in the 1990s to add fair use cases to their dockets and concerns; these include the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Coalition Against Censorship, the American Library Association, numerous clinical programs at law schools, others. The "Chilling Effects" archive was established in 2002 as a coalition of several law school clinics and the EFF to document the use of cease and desist letters.
Most in 2006, Stanford University began an initiative called "The Fair Use Project" to help artists filmmakers, fight lawsuits brought against them by large corporations. Examples of fair use in United States copyright law include commentary, search engines, parody, news reporting and scholarship. Fair use provides for the legal, unlicensed citation or incorporation of copyrighted material in another author's work under a four-factor test; the U. S. Supreme Court has traditionally characterized fair use as an affirmative defense, but in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit concluded that fair use was not a defense to an infringement claim, but was an expressly authorized right, an exception to the exclusive rights granted to the author of a creative work by copyright law: "Fair use is therefore distinct from affirmative defenses where a use infringes a copyright, but there is no liability due to a valid excuse, e.g. misuse of a copyright." 17 U. S. C. § 107Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 17 U.
S. C. § 106 and 17 U. S. C. § 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include: the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; the fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors. The four factors of analysis for fair use set forth above derive from the opinion of Joseph Story in Folsom v. Marsh, in which the defendant had copied 353 pages from the plaintiff's 12-volume biography of George Washington in order to produce a separate two-volume work of his own; the court rejected the defendant's fair use defense with the following explanation: reviewer may cite from the original work, if his design be and to use the passages for the purposes of fair and reasonable criticism.
On the other hand, it is as clear, that if he thus cites the most important parts of the work, with a view, not to criticize, but to supersede the use of the original work, substitute the review for it, such a use will be deemed in law a piracy... In short, we must often... look to the nature and objects of the selections made, the quantity and value of the materials used, the degree in which the use may prejudice the sale, or diminish the profits, or supersede the objects, of the original work. The statutory fair use factors quoted above come from the Copyright Act of 1976, codified at 17 U. S. C. § 107. They were intended by the prior judge-made law; as Judge Pierre N. Leval has written, the statute does not "define or explain contours or objectives." While it "leav open the possibility that other factors may bear on the question, the statute identifies none." That is, courts are entitled to consider other factors in addition to the four statutory factors. The first factor is "the purpose and character of the use, including whether
Beatlemania was the intense fan frenzy directed towards the English rock band the Beatles in the 1960s. Their popularity started growing in the United Kingdom in late 1963. By the next year, their worldwide tours were characterised by intense levels of hysteria and high-pitched screaming by female fans, both at concerts and during the band's travels. In February 1964, the Beatles arrived in the US, their televised performances on The Ed Sullivan Show were viewed by 73 million people. In addition to establishing the Beatles' international stature, their arrival changed attitudes to popular music in the US, whose own Memphis-driven musical evolution had made it a global trend-setter. From 1964 to 1970, the Beatles had the top-selling US single one out of every six weeks, the top-selling US album one out of every three weeks. In 1966, the frenzy became so much that they became a studio-only band; the use of the word "mania" to describe fandom predates the Beatles by more than 100 years. It has continued to be used to describe the popularity of musical acts, as well as popularity of public figures and trends outside the music industry.
In February 1964, Paul Johnson wrote in The New Statesman—in an article that the magazine now describes as its "most complained-about piece"—that the mania was a modern incarnation of female hysteria and that the wild fans at the Beatles' concerts were "the least fortunate of their generation, the dull, the idle, the failures." A 1966 study published in the British Journal of Clinical Psychology rejected this assertion. The researchers found that Beatles fans were not likelier to score higher on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory's hysteria scale, nor were they unusually neurotic. Instead, they described Beatlemania as "the passing reaction of predominantly young adolescent females to group pressures of such a kind that meet their special emotional needs."Beginning in 1841, fans of Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt showed a level of fanaticism similar to that of the Beatles. Poet Heinrich Heine coined the word "Lisztomania" to describe this. At the time, the word was used to indicate that the fan behaviour was a genuine mental illness—an implication, not part of the Beatlemania.
Like the Beatlemania, there was no agreement on why Liszt had such a fanatical fan base. One factor in the intensity of Beatlemania may have been the Post–World War II baby boom, which gave the Beatles a larger audience of young fans than Frank Sinatra and Elvis Presley had a decade earlier; some commentators have argued that the Beatles' famous moptop haircuts signaled androgyny and thus presented a less threatening version of male sexuality to teenage girls, while their presentable suits meant they seemed less "sleazy" than Elvis to middle-class whites. With the success of their second single, "Please Please Me", the Beatles found themselves in demand for the whole of 1963. In the UK, the song reached number 2 on the Record Retailer chart, topped both the NME and Melody Maker charts; the band released their first album titled Please Please Me, in March 1963. They appeared on ABC TV's Thank Your Lucky Stars show on 11 January and recorded for the BBCs Here We Go on 16 January and the BBC's Saturday Club and Talent Spot on 22 January.
As well as completing four nationwide tours in 1963, they performed at a great many one-off shows across the UK throughout the year finishing one show only to travel straight to the next show in another location—sometimes to perform again the same day. The music papers were full of stories about the Beatles, magazines for teenage girls contained interviews with the band members, colour posters and other Beatle-related articles. Lennon's August 1962 marriage to Cynthia Powell was kept from public view as a guarded secret. On 2 February 1963, the Beatles opened their first nationwide tour at a show in Bradford, featuring Helen Shapiro, Danny Williams, Kenny Lynch and the Red Price Orchestra. Heading the tour bill was the 16-year-old Shapiro, followed by the other five acts, the last of, the Beatles; the band proved immensely popular during the tour, as Gordon Sampson, a journalist with the tour, observed. His report did not include the word "Beatlemania", but the phenomenon was evident, with Sampson writing that "a great reception went to the colourfully dressed Beatles, who stole the show, for the audience called for them while other artists were performing!"
For the Beatles' second nationwide tour, which began on 9 March at the Granada Cinema in London, the group appeared on a bill headed by the American stars Tommy Roe and Chris Montez. Both US artists had firmly established themselves in the UK singles charts. Throughout the tour, the crowds screamed for the Beatles, for the first time in UK history, the American stars were less popular than a homegrown act. While enjoying the overwhelming display of enthusiasm, the Beatles felt embarrassment for the American performers at this unexpected turn of events, which persisted at every show from the first day to the last; the Beatles began their third nationwide tour on 18 May, the bill this time headed by Roy Orbison. Orbison had established greater UK chart success than either Montez or Roe, with eight previous chart entries of his own—four of them entering the top 10. However, at the tour's opening show, staged at the Adelphi Cinema, the American star proved less popular than The Beatles, just as had happened with Roe and Montez throughout the previous nationwide tour.
As events unfolded it became obvious this was not going to change, a week into the tour the covers of the souvenir programs were reprinted to place The
The Legend of Korra
The Legend of Korra is an American animated television series created by Bryan Konietzko and Michael Dante DiMartino that aired on Nickelodeon from 2012 to 2014. A sequel to Konietzko and DiMartino's previous series Avatar: The Last Airbender, which aired from 2005 to 2008, the series is animated in a style influenced by anime with most of the animation being done by Studio Mir of South Korea and some by Pierrot Co. of Japan. As with its' predecessor, the series is set in a fictional universe in which some people can manipulate, or "bend", the elements of water, fire, or air. Only one person, the "Avatar", can bend all four elements, is responsible for maintaining balance in the world; the series follows Avatar Korra, the reincarnation of Aang from the previous series, as she faces political and spiritual unrest in a modernizing world. The main characters are voiced by Janet Varney, Seychelle Gabriel, David Faustino, P. J. Byrne, J. K. Simmons and Mindy Sterling, supporting voice actors include Aubrey Plaza, John Michael Higgins, Lisa Edelstein, Steven Blum, Eva Marie Saint, Henry Rollins, Anne Heche and Zelda Williams.
Several people involved in the creation of Avatar: The Last Airbender, including designer Joaquim Dos Santos, writer Tim Hedrick and composers Jeremy Zuckerman and Benjamin Wynn, returned to work on The Legend of Korra. The Legend of Korra ran for fifty-two episodes, separated into four seasons; the series has been continued as a comics series. Like its parent show, The Legend of Korra received critical acclaim, drawing favorable comparisons with the HBO series Game of Thrones and the work of Hayao Miyazaki, it has been praised for its production values, such as its animation quality, art style, musical score. The series has been nominated for and won awards from the Annie Awards, a Daytime Emmy Award, a Gracie Award; the series was praised for addressing sociopolitical issues such as social unrest and terrorism, as well as for going beyond the established boundaries of youth entertainment with respect to issues of race and sexual orientation. The Legend of Korra was conceived as a twelve-episode miniseries.
Nickelodeon declined the creators' pitch for an Avatar: The Last Airbender follow-up animated movie based on what became the three-part comics The Promise, The Search and The Rift, choosing instead to expand Korra to 26 episodes. The series was expanded further in July 2012 to 52 episodes; these episodes are grouped into four separate seasons composed of twelve to fourteen episodes each, with each season telling a stand-alone story. Beginning with episode 9 of season 3, new episodes were first distributed through the Internet rather than broadcast; the Legend of Korra concluded with the fourth season. The Legend of Korra is set in the fictional world of Avatar: The Last Airbender, 70 years after the events of that series; the world is separated into four nations: the northern and southern Water Tribes, the Earth Kingdom, the Fire Nation, the Air Nomads. The distinguishing element of the series is "bending", the ability of some people to telekinetically manipulate the classical element associated with their nation.
Bending is carried out by spiritual and physical exercises, portrayed as similar to Chinese martial arts. Only one person, the "Avatar", can bend all four elements. Cyclically reincarnating among the world's four nations, the Avatar maintains peace and balance in the world; the Legend of Korra focuses on Avatar Korra, a seventeen-year-old girl from the Southern Water Tribe and the successor of Avatar Aang from The Last Airbender. The first season is set in Republic City, the capital of the United Republic of Nations, a multicultural sovereign state that emerged from civil conflict in the Fire Nation colonies in the Earth Kingdom after the end of The Last Airbender founded by both Avatar Aang and Fire Lord Zuko; the 1920s-inspired metropolis is described as "if Manhattan had happened in Asia" by the series' creators, its residents are united by their passion for "pro-bending", a spectator sport in which two teams composed of an earthbender and firebender throw each other out of a ring using bending techniques.
Rapid technological growth has displaced the spirituality of bending, what was considered a renowned martial art in Avatar: The Last Airbender is now commonplace, with benders in Republic City using their abilities to commit crime, compete in spectator sports, fulfill everyday jobs. The second season is set in the southern polar region, while the third and fourth seasons take place in the Earth Kingdom and, to a lesser degree, in Republic City; the first season, Book One: Air, sees Korra move to Republic City to learn airbending from Tenzin, Avatar Aang's son. She enters the pro-bending league, befriends the brothers Bolin and Mako, as well as Asami Sato, heiress to Future Industries, a leading engineering corporation; the ambitious politician Tarrlok enlists Korra to fight the anti-bender uprising of the "Equalists", led by the masked Amon, who strips benders of their abilities. Korra and her friends, aided by police chief Lin Beifong and United Forces General Iroh, unmask Amon as a bloodbender and Tarrlok's brother, ending the Equalists' coup.
A spiritual meeting with her predecessor Aang allows Korra to realize her powers and to restore the bending abilities of Amon's victims. The second season, Book Two: Spirits, begins six months with dark spirits terrorizing the seas. Korra turns to her spirit-attuned uncle Unalaq, chief of the Northern Water Tribe, for tutelage, opens the polar portals to the Spirit World at his direction. Unalaq seizes power in the Southern Water Tribe by force, starting a civil war in which he is opposed by his brother, Korra's father
A Song of Ice and Fire fandom
The A Song of Ice and Fire fandom is an international and informal community of people drawn together by George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire book series, the HBO television series Game of Thrones, the related merchandise. During his years in television, Martin's novels earned him a reputation in fiction circles, although he said to only receive a few fans letters a year in the pre-internet days; the publication of A Game of Thrones caused Martin's following to grow, with fan sites springing up and a Trekkie-like society of followers evolving that meet regularly. By 2005, Martin received tons of fan e-mails and was about 2000 letters behind that may go unanswered for years. Ice and Fire Con is a North American convention held annually in Mount Sterling, Ohio that celebrates George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire fantasy book series, as well as HBO's Game of Thrones television adaptation; the convention's programming has included a Tourney of Champions since 2013, featuring "LARP"-based duels, melees and archery contests.
Other annual activities include a weekend-long live action Assassin-style game themed after the series' Faceless Men characters, a board game tournament, a "Flea Bottom Fete" dance party, among others. A mock election has been held each year since 2013 allowing attendees to campaign for and vote for characters from A Song of Ice and Fire. A donation-based voting format was incorporated beginning in 2017, with all proceeds going to Santa Fe's Wild Spirit Wolf Sanctuary, a favorite charity of Martin. In 2016, FanSided named Fire Con as one of the top ten nerdiest vacation destinations. In 2017, NowThis News praised Ice and Fire Con in its "Game of Thrones - A Community of Ice and Fire" coverage for the event's "more intimate gathering that's more party than press conference", favorably comparing the Ice and Fire Con to the fan conventions Martin himself attended in the 1970s and 1980s as a fan and built the friendships that served him throughout his career. Sweden-based fans Elio M. García Jr. and Linda Antonsson run one of the main Ice and Fire fansites, Westeros.org, which they established in 1999.
The site had about 17 thousand registered members in 2012. Martin himself has checked with García to confirm details of his own series, has referred HBO researchers to García as well; the first fan website and messageboard was a site called "Dragonstone", which only lasted for about one year between the release of the first novel in 1996, the site crashed in 1997, never to be rebuilt. The creator of "Dragonstone" moved on. Though his work at Westeros.org is voluntary, García has been a paid consultant for licensed tie-in merchandise. García and Antonsson are Martin's coauthors of a companion book to the series, The World of Ice & Fire. Martin had approached the pair about the project in 2008; the Brotherhood Without Banners is an unofficial fan club operating globally. George R. R. Martin attends their gatherings on his travels and counts their founders and other longtime members among his good friends. Since the creation of the television series in 2011 there has been a proliferation in the number of fansites dedicated to the show and novel series.
These include'WatchersOnTheWall.com' which provides news reports and discussion forums,'ToweroftheHand.com', which organizes communal readings of the novels, and'Fleabottom.net', an online discussion forum. In addition to these there is further discussion on more general sites, such as Reddit, tumblr, where there are many fan-created blogs. Moreover, there are many podcasts covering the series; these podcasts, such as'Game of Owns', and'A Podcast of Ice and Fire' provide discussions of each book chapters, each episode in the television series, as well as discussing the current theories in the fandom. While Martin calls the majority of his fans "great", enjoys interacting with them, some of them turned against him due to the six years it took to release A Dance with Dragons. A movement of disaffected fans called GRRuMblers formed in 2009, creating sites such as Finish the Book, George and Is Winter Coming?. It is not uncommon for Martin to be mobbed at book signings either; the New Yorker called this "an astonishing amount of effort to devote to denouncing the author of books one professes to love.
Few contemporary authors can claim to have inspired such passion."When fans' vocal impatience for A Dance with Dragons peaked in 2009, Martin issued an angry statement called "To My Detractors" on his blog to stem a rising tide of anger. Author Neil Gaiman backed Martin on his own blog, replying to a fan's inquiry about Martin's tardiness that "George R. R. Martin is not your bitch." Martin sees it a right to enjoy his leisure times as he chooses. Martin believes of himself as being bound by an informal contract with his readers, he does not, believe that this gives them the right to dictate the particulars of his creative process or to complain about how he manages his time. As far as the detractors are concerned, Martin's contract with them was for a story, their engagement with it offered on the understanding that he would provide them with a satisfying conclusion. Martin is committed to nurturing his audience. Starting out as a fan himself, he visited his first convention in 1971 after selling his first story.
Since there are different types of conventions nowadays, Martin tends to go to three or four science-
My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic fandom
My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic is an animated television series produced by Hasbro as part of the My Little Pony toy franchise, tied in with the 2010 relaunch of dolls and play sets and original programming for U. S. cable channel Discovery Family. Lauren Faust was selected as the creative developer and executive producer for the show based on her previous animation experience with shows like The Powerpuff Girls and Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends. Under Hasbro's guidance Faust developed the show to appeal to the target demographic of young girls, but created characters and settings that challenged stereotypical norms of "girly" images and added adventure and humorous elements in order to keep parents interested; the series received widespread praise from parental groups. It found an unlikely audience in a large group of adult internet users in late 2010 and early 2011, forming a subculture; these fans male, were drawn to the show's characters, animation style and influence of the show's propagation as an Internet meme.
The fandom adopted the name brony, a portmanteau of "bro" and "pony". Though considered to propagate the humorous and ironic concept of people enjoying a show for young girls, the fandom has shown deeper appreciation for the show far beyond this concept and is considered part of a New Sincerity trend, its technology-savvy members have created numerous works in writing, music and video based on the show, have established websites and fan conventions for the show and have participated in charitable events around the show and those that create it. The appreciation of the show by an older audience came as a surprise to Hasbro and others involved with its development, but they have embraced the older fans while staying focused on the show's intended audience; such reciprocity has included participation in fan conventions by the show's voice actors and producers, recognition of the brony fandom in official promotional material, incorporating background characters popularized by the fans into in-jokes within the show.
As a result of these efforts in part, My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic has become a major commercial success with the series becoming the highest-rated original production in Hub Network's broadcast history. One of the first critical reviews of Friendship Is Magic, published shortly after the initial broadcast in October 2010, was written by Amid Amidi of the animation website Cartoon Brew who wrote that the show was a sign of "the end of the creator-driven era in TV animation". Amidi's essay expressed concern that assigning a talent like Faust to a toy-centric show was part of a trend towards a focus on profitable genres of animation such as toy tie-ins to deal with a fragmented viewing audience and overall "an admission of defeat for the entire movement, a white flag-waving moment for the TV animation industry." The article said this concern was over the fact that more and more shows seem to be driven by company executives who want to sell their products, rather than creators. Though the show had been discussed on 4chan's'comics and cartoon' board before the essay's publication, the alarmist nature of the essay led to more interest in the show, resulting in a positive response for the series for its plot and animation style.
This reaction soon spread to the other boards of 4chan, where elements of the show inspired recurring jokes and memes on the site. Some of these included adopting phrases from the show like "anypony", "everypony" and "nopony", instead of "anybody", "everybody" and "nobody", or jokingly stating that they watch the show for the "plot", a reference to the ponies' flanks; the number of Friendship Is Magic posts. Fans of the show defended it against various trolling attacks from other 4chan boards, leading to a temporary ban on the discussion of anything related to ponies. Christopher Poole, the founder of 4chan acknowledged the popularity of the show on the site at the 2011 South by Southwest festival. Poole has since created a dedicated board for discussion of its fandom. Though the discussion of the show continued at 4chan, fans created other venues to discuss it, the fandom spread to other Internet forums; the adult interest in the show is comparable to that of The Magic Roundabout, Tiny Toon Adventures, Rocko's Modern Life, Dexter's Laboratory, The Powerpuff Girls, SpongeBob SquarePants, Yo Gabba Gabba! and Phineas and Ferb: Older audiences appreciate jokes aimed at adult viewers and a sense of nostalgia for older cartoons and animated films.
Many of the aforementioned shows had attracted college-aged fans who, when Friendship Is Magic was airing, would be raising children of their own. The show references works that older viewers would recognize, such as I Love Lucy, The Benny Hill Show, X-Men, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Diamond Dogs, The Big Lebowski, The Avengers, Star Wars and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. Most of these fans are surprised by their fondness for the show. Shaun Scotellaro, operator of Equestria Daily, one of the main fan websites for the show, said, "Honestly, if someone were to have told me I'd be writing a pony blog seven months ago, I would have called them insane." He commented. Mike Fahey, an editor for the gaming website Kotaku, noted that the fandom was "building friendships among a diverse group of people that otherwise might have just sat on either side of the Internet, flinging insults at each other". Dr. Patrick Edwards, who performed several "Brony Studies" to survey and analyze the fandom, observed that the brony fandom is unlike most other fandoms
The furry fandom is a subculture interested in anthropomorphic animal characters with human personalities and characteristics. Examples of anthropomorphic attributes include exhibiting human intelligence and facial expressions, walking on two legs, wearing clothes; the term "furry fandom" is used to refer to the community of people who gather on the Internet and at furry conventions. According to fandom historian Fred Patten, the concept of furry originated at a science fiction convention in 1980, when a character drawing from Steve Gallacci’s Albedo Anthropomorphics started a discussion of anthropomorphic characters in science fiction novels; this led to the formation of a discussion group that met at science fiction conventions and comics conventions. The specific term furry fandom was being used in fanzines as early as 1983, had become the standard name for the genre by the mid-1990s, when it was defined as "the organized appreciation and dissemination of art and prose regarding'Furries', or fictional mammalian anthropomorphic characters".
However, fans consider the origins of furry fandom to be much earlier, with fictional works such as Kimba, The White Lion released in 1965, Richard Adams' novel Watership Down, published in 1972, as well as Disney's Robin Hood as oft-cited examples. Internet newsgroup discussion in the 1990s created some separation between fans of "funny animal" characters and furry characters, meant to avoid the baggage, associated with the term "furry". During the 1980s, furry fans began to publish fanzines, developing a diverse social group that began to schedule social gatherings. By 1989, there was sufficient interest to stage the first furry convention, it was called Confurence 0, was held at the Holiday Inn Bristol Plaza in Costa Mesa, California. The next decade, the Internet became accessible to the general population and became the most popular means for furry fans to socialize; the newsgroup alt.fan.furry was created in November 1990, virtual environments such as MUCKs became popular places on the Internet for fans to meet and communicate.
The furry fandom is male-dominated, with surveys reporting around 80% male respondents. Allegorical novels, including works of both science fiction and fantasy, cartoons featuring anthropomorphic animals are cited as the earliest inspiration for the fandom. A survey conducted in 2007 suggested that, when compared with a non-furry control group, a higher proportion of those self-identifying as furries liked cartoons "a great deal" as children and recalled watching them more as well as being more to enjoy works of science fiction than those outside of the community. According to a survey from 2008, most furries believe that visual art, conventions and online communities are important to the fandom. Fans with craft skills create their own plush toys, sometimes referred to as plushies, build elaborate costumes called fursuits, which are worn for fun or to participate in parades, convention masquerades, dances, or fund-raising charity events. Fursuits range from designs featuring simple construction and resembling sports mascots to those with more sophisticated features that include moving jaw mechanisms, animatronic parts, prosthetic makeup, other features.
Fursuits range in price from $500, for mascot-like designs, to an upwards of $10,000 for models incorporating animatronics. While about 80% of furries do not own a full fursuit citing their expensive cost as the decisive factor, a majority of them hold positive feelings towards fursuiters and the conventions in which they participate; some fans may wear "partial" suits consisting of ears and a tail, or a head, a tail. Furry fans pursue puppetry, recording videos and performing live shows such as Rapid T. Rabbit and Friends and the Funday PawPet Show, create furry accessories, such as ears or tails. Anthropomorphic animal characters created by furry fans, known as fursonas, are used for role-playing in MUDs, on internet forums, or on electronic mailing lists. A variety of species are employed as the basis of these personas, although many furry fans choose to identify themselves with carnivorans; the longest-running online furry role-playing environment is FurryMUCK, established in 1990. Many furry fans had their first exposure to the fandom come from multiplayer online role-playing games.
Another popular online furry social game is called Furcadia, created by Dragon's Eye Productions. There are several furry-themed areas and communities in the virtual world Second Life. Sufficient interest and membership has enabled the creation of many furry conventions in North America and Europe. A furry convention is for the fans get together to buy and sell artwork, participate in workshops, wear costumes, socialize; the world's largest furry convention, Anthrocon with more than 5,861 participants, held annually in Pittsburgh in June, was estimated to have generated $3 million to Pittsburgh's economy in 2008. Another convention, Further Confusion, held in San Jose each January follows Anthrocon in scale and attendance. US$470,000 was raised in conventions for charity from 2000–9; the first known furry convention, ConFurence, is no longer held. A University of California, Davis survey suggested that about 40% of furries had attended at least one furry convention; the Internet contains a multitude of furry websites and online communities, such as art community websites Fur Affinity, Inkbunny, SoFurry and Weasyl.
A parody. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts it, "parody... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, animation and film; the writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche and burlesque. Meanwhile, the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and instructing the most sensible and polished minds; when a formula grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked that genre. According to Aristotle, Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody.
In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects". Indeed, the components of the Greek word are παρά para "beside, against" and ᾠδή oide "song". Thus, the original Greek word παρῳδία parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation, set against the original; the Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect". Because par- has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule." Old Comedy contained parody the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent; the traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save Athens. In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria, created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey.
He described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked to any credible person who had. In his named book True History Lucian delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, return to the earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature interpreted as being a whale; this is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella, Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, so on. Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect; the Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays with performers dressed like satyrs.
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another. More a parody mass or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; the term is sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio. The musicological definition of the term parody has now been supplanted by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical parody has humorous satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas or lyrics are lifted into a different incongruous, context. Musical parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is based on particular popular songs, it often utilises wildly incongruous elements of pop culture for comedic effect.
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing. In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and innovation; this most prom