Hull House was a settlement house in the United States, co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located on the Near West Side of Chicago, Hull House opened to arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull House had grown to 13 buildings. In 1912 the Hull House complex was completed with the addition of a summer camp, the Bowen Country Club. With its innovative social and artistic programs, Hull House became the standard bearer for the movement that had grown, by 1920, to 500 settlement houses nationally. Most of the Hull House buildings were demolished for the construction of the University of Illinois- Chicago in the mid-1960s; the Hull mansion and several subsequent acquisitions were continuously renovated to accommodate the changing demands of the association. The original building and one additional building survives today. On June 12, 1974, the Hull House building was designated a Chicago Landmark. On June 23, 1965, it was designated as a U. S. National Historic Landmark. On October 15, 1966, the day that the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was enacted, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Hull House was one of the four original members to be listed on both the Chicago Registered Historic Places and the National Register of Historic Places list. The Hull House Association ceased operations in January 2012, but the Hull mansion and a related dining hall remain open as a museum. Addams followed the example of Toynbee Hall, founded in 1884 in the East End of London as a center for social reform, she described Toynbee Hall as "a community of university men" who, while living there, held their recreational clubs and social gatherings at the settlement house among the poor people and in the same style they would in their own circle. Addams and Starr established Hull House as a settlement house on September 18, 1889. In the 19th century a women's movement began to promote education and break into traditionally male dominated occupations for women. Organizations led by women, bonded by sisterhood, were formed for social reform, including settlement houses in working class and poor neighborhoods, like Hull House.
To develop "new roles for women, the first generation of New Women wove the traditional ways of their mothers into the heart of their brave new world. The social activists single, were led by educated New Women. Hull House became, at its inception in 1889, "a community of university women" whose main purpose was to provide social and educational opportunities for working class people in the surrounding neighborhood; the "residents" held classes in literature, art, domestic activities, many other subjects. Hull House held concerts that were free to everyone, offered free lectures on current issues, operated clubs for both children and adults. In 1892, Addams published her thoughts on what has been described as "the three R's" of the settlement house movement: residence and reform; these involved "close cooperation with the neighborhood people, scientific study of the causes of poverty and dependence, communication of these facts to the public, persistent pressure for reform..." Hull House conducted careful studies of the Near West Side, Chicago community, which became known as "The Hull House Neighborhood".
These studies enabled the Hull House residents to confront the establishment partnering with them in the design and implementation of programs intended to enhance and improve the opportunities for success by the immigrant population. According to Christie and Gauvreau, while the Christian settlement houses sought to Christianize, Jane Addams, "had come to epitomize the force of secular humanism." Her image was, however, "reinvented" by the Christian churches. According to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, "Some social settlements were linked to religious institutions. Others, like Hull-House, were secular." One of the first newspaper articles written Hull House quotes the following invitation sent to the residents of the Hull House neighborhood. It begins with: "Mio Carissimo Amico"... and is signed, Jane Addams and Ellen Starr. That invitation to the community, written during the first year of Hull House's existence, suggests that the inner core of what Addams labeled "The Hull House Neighborhood" was overwhelmingly Italian at that time.
"10,000 Italians lived between the river and Halsted Street." By all accounts, the greater Hull House neighborhood was a mix of various ethnic groups that had immigrated to Chicago. There was no discrimination of race, creed, or tradition for those who entered the doors of the Hull House; every person was treated with respect. The Bethlehem-Howard Neighborhood Center records substantiate that, "Germans and Jews resided south of that inner core …The Greek delta formed by Harrison and Blue Island Streets served as a buffer to the Irish residing to the south and the Canadian–French to the northwest. From the river on the east end, on out to the western ends of what came to be known as "Little Italy", from Roosevelt Road on the south to the Harrison Street delta on the north, became the port-of-call for Italians who continued to immigrate to Chicago from the shores of southern Italy until a quota system was implemented in 1924 for most southern Europeans; the Greektown and Maxwell Street residents, along with the remnants of other immigrant groups l
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a world's fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. and St. Louis for the honor of hosting the fair; the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicago's self-image, American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in large part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted and Charles B. Atwood, it was the prototype of what his colleagues thought a city should be. It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor; the color of the material used to cover the buildings façades gave the fairgrounds its nickname, the White City.
Many prominent architects designed its 14 "great buildings". Artists and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition; the exposition covered 690 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, people and cultures from 46 countries. More than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run, its scale and grandeur far exceeded the other world's fairs, it became a symbol of the emerging American Exceptionalism, much in the same way that the Great Exhibition became a symbol of the Victorian era United Kingdom. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21, 1892, but the fairgrounds were not opened to the public until May 1, 1893; the fair continued until October 30, 1893. In addition to recognizing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Europeans, the fair served to show the world that Chicago had risen from the ashes of the Great Chicago Fire, which had destroyed much of the city in 1871.
On October 9, 1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the fair set a world record for outdoor event attendance, drawing 751,026 people. The debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair with one of the stars on its municipal flag. Many prominent civic and commercial leaders from around the United States participated in the financing and management of the Fair, including Chicago shoe company owner Charles H. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, Connecticut banking and iron products magnate Milo Barnum Richardson, among many others; the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. World's fairs, such as London's 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines; the first American attempt at a world's fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure.
Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus' landing started in the late 1880s. Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, promote their cities. Congress was called on to decide the location. New York's financiers J. P. Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Waldorf Astor, among others, pledged $15 million to finance the fair if Congress awarded it to New York, while Chicagoans Charles T. Yerkes, Marshall Field, Philip Armour, Gustavus Swift, Cyrus McCormick, offered to finance a Chicago fair. What persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million additional dollars in a 24-hour period and above New York's final offer. Chicago representatives not only fought for the world's fair on monetary reasons, but on practicality reasons. On a Senate hearing held in January 1890, representative Thomas B. Bryan argued that the most important qualities for a world's fair were'abundant supplies of good air and pure water... ample space and transportation for all exhibits and visitors...
" He argued that New York had too many obstructions, Chicago would be able to use large amounts of land around the city where there was "not a house to buy and not a rock to blast.." and that it would be so located that "the artisan and the farmer and the shopkeeper and the man of humble means" would be able to access the fair. Bryan continued to say that the fair was of'vital interest' to the West, that the West wanted the location to be Chicago; the city spokesmen would continue to stress the essentials of a successful Exposition and that only Chicago was fitted to fill these exposition requirements. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park and an area around it as the fair site. Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the period's top talent to design the buildings and grounds including Frederick Law Olmsted for the grounds.
The temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the "White City". The Exposition's offices set up shop in the upper floors of the Rand McNally Building on Adams Street, the world's first all-steel-fram
Booker T. Washington
Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants, they were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Washington was a key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League, his base was the Tuskegee Institute, a black college in Tuskegee, Alabama. As lynchings in the South reached a peak in 1895, Washington gave a speech, known as the "Atlanta compromise", which brought him national fame, he called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, rather than trying to challenge directly the Jim Crow segregation and the disenfranchisement of black voters in the South.
Washington mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, white philanthropists and politicians, with a long-term goal of building the community's economic strength and pride by a focus on self-help and schooling. But, secretly, he supported court challenges to segregation and restrictions on voter registration. Black militants in the North, led by W. E. B. Du Bois, at first supported the Atlanta compromise, but disagreed and opted to set up the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to work for political change, they tried with limited success to challenge Washington's political machine for leadership in the black community, but built wider networks among white allies in the North. Decades after Washington's death in 1915, the civil rights movement of the 1950s took a more active and militant approach, based on new grassroots organizations based in the South, such as Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Washington mastered the nuances of the political arena in the late 19th century, which enabled him to manipulate the media, raise money, develop strategy, push, reward friends, distribute funds, while punishing those who opposed his plans for uplifting blacks. His long-term goal was to end the disenfranchisement of the vast majority of African Americans, who still lived in the South. In 1856, Washington was born into slavery in Virginia as the son of an African-American slave. After emancipation, she moved the family to West Virginia to join her husband Washington Ferguson; as a young man, Washington worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute and attended college at Wayland Seminary. In 1881, Washington was named as the first leader of the new Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, founded for the higher education of blacks. Washington attained national prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895, which attracted the attention of politicians and the public, he became a popular spokesperson for African-American citizens.
He built a nationwide network of supporters in many black communities, with black ministers and businessmen composing his core supporters. Washington played a dominant role in black politics, winning wide support in the black community of the South and among more liberal whites, he gained access to top national leaders in politics and education. Washington's efforts included cooperating with white people and enlisting the support of wealthy philanthropists. Beginning in 1912, he built a relationship with philanthropist Julius Rosenwald, who served on the board of trustees for the rest of his life and made substantial donations to Tuskegee. In addition, they collaborated on a pilot program for Tuskegee architects to design six model schools that could be built for African-American students in rural areas of the South. Given their success in 1913 and 1914, through the Rosenwald Foundation, established in 1917, Rosenwald expanded the program to encourage school construction through giving matching funds to communities who committed to operate the schools.
Thousands of new, small rural schools to improve education for blacks throughout the South were built, most after Washington's death in 1915. Washington had asserted that the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights was to demonstrate "industry, thrift and property." Northern critics called Washington's widespread organization the "Tuskegee Machine". After 1909, Washington was criticized by the leaders of the new NAACP W. E. B. Du Bois, who demanded a stronger tone of protest in order to advance the civil rights agenda. Washington replied that confrontation would lead to disaster for the outnumbered blacks in society, that cooperation with supportive whites was the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run. At the same time, he secretly funded litigation for civil rights cases, such as challenges to southern constitutions and laws that had disenfranchised blacks across the South since the turn of the century. African Americans were still affiliated with the Republican Party, Washington was on close terms with national Republican Party leaders.
He was asked for political advice by presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft. In addition to his contributions in education, Washington wrote 14 books. During a difficult period of transition, he did much to improve the working rel
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey, its mission in the 21st century is "to ensure the political, educational and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination." National NAACP initiatives include political lobbying, publicity efforts and litigation strategies developed by its legal team. The group enlarged its mission in the late 20th century by considering issues such as police misconduct, the status of black foreign refugees and questions of economic development, its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people, referring to those with some African ancestry. The NAACP bestows annual awards to African Americans in two categories: Image Awards are for achievement in the arts and entertainment, Spingarn Medals are for outstanding achievement of any kind.
Its headquarters is in Maryland. The NAACP is headquartered in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in New York, Georgia, Texas and California; each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in that region. Local and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U. S. the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization. Julian Bond, Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator, was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock. For decades in the first half of the 20th century, the organization was led by its executive secretary, who acted as chief operating officer. James Weldon Johnson and Walter F. White, who served in that role successively from 1920 to 1958, were much more known as NAACP leaders than were presidents during those years. Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action.
Local chapters are supported by the'Branch and Field Services' department and the'Youth and College' department. The'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education; the Washington, D. C. bureau is responsible for lobbying the U. S. government, the Education Department works to improve public education at the local and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education; as of 2007, the NAACP had 425,000 paying and non-paying members. The NAACP's non-current records are housed at the Library of Congress, which has served as the organization's official repository since 1964; the records held there comprise five million items spanning the NAACP's history from the time of its founding until 2003. In 2011, the NAACP teamed with the digital repository ProQuest to digitize and host online the earlier portion of its archives, through 1972 – nearly two million pages of documents, from the national and branch offices throughout the country, which offer first-hand insight into the organization's work related to such crucial issues as lynching, school desegregation, discrimination in all its aspects.
The Pan-American Exposition of 1901 in Buffalo, New York featured many American innovations and achievements, but included a disparaging caricature of slave life in the South as well as a depiction of life in Africa, called "Old Plantation" and "Darkest Africa," respectively. A local African American women, Mary Talbert of Ohio was appalled by the exhibit, as a similar one in Paris highlighted black achievements, she informed W. E. B. DuBois of the situation, a coalition began to form. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing African Americans and possible strategies and solutions, they were concerned by the Southern states' disenfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through 1908, southern legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. In practice, this caused the exclusion of most blacks and many poor whites from the political system in southern states, crippling the Republican Party in most of the South.
Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result of such legislation. Men, voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. White-dominated legislatures passed segregation and Jim Crow laws; because hotels in the US were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year three non-African-Americans joined the group: journalist William English Walling, a wealthy socialist. Moskowitz, Jewish, was also Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, they met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts. The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, disbanded in 1910. Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909. Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organiz
Mary Church Terrell
Mary Church Terrell was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree, became known as a national activist for civil rights and suffrage. She taught in the Latin Department at the M Street school —the first African American public high school in the nation—in Washington, DC. In 1896, she was the first African-American woman in the United States to be appointed to the school board of a major city, serving in the District of Columbia until 1906. Terrell was a charter member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Colored Women's League of Washington, she helped found the National Association of Colored Women and served as its first national president, she was a founding member of the National Association of College Women. Mary Church Terrell was born Mary Church in 1863 in Memphis, Tennessee, to Robert Reed Church and Louisa Ayers, both freed slaves of mixed racial ancestry, her parents were prominent members of the black elite of Memphis after the Civil War, during the Reconstruction Era.
Her paternal grandmother was of Malagasy and white descent and her paternal grandfather was the Captain Charles B. Church, a white steamship owner and operator from Virginia who allowed his son Robert Church—Mary's father—to keep the wages he earned as a steward on his ship; the younger Church continued to accumulate wealth by investing in real estate, purchased his first property in Memphis in 1862. He made his fortune by buying property after the city was depopulated following the 1878 yellow fever epidemic, he is considered to be the first African-American millionaire in the South. Mary's mother, Louisa Ayers, is believed to be one of the first African American women to establish and maintain a hair salon, frequented by well-to-do residents of Memphis. All in all, Ayers was a successful entrepreneur at a time, she is credited with having encouraged her daughter to attend Antioch College Model School in Yellow Springs, for elementary and secondary education, because the Memphis schools were not adequate.
Mary Church Terrell, known to members of her family as "Mollie," and a brother were born during their father's first marriage, which ended in divorce. Their half-siblings, Robert, Jr. and Annette, were born to Anna Wright. Robert Church married a third time. Mary Church majored in Classics at Oberlin College—which was the first college in the United States to accept African American and female students, she was one of the first African American women to attend the institution. The freshman class nominated her as class poet, she was elected to two of the college's literary societies, she served as an editor of The Oberlin Review. Terrell earned her bachelor's degree in 1884 alongside notable African-American intellectuals Anna Julia Cooper and Ida Gibbs Hunt. Together, these three Oberlin graduates grew to become lifelong colleagues and high regarded activists in the movement towards racial and gender equality in the United States. Continuing her studies at Oberlin, Terrell earned her master's degree in Education four years later.
Church started her career in Education teaching at Wilberforce College, an black college founded collaboratively by the Methodist Church in Ohio and the African Methodist Episcopal Church in the state. She moved to Washington, D. C. to accept a position in the Latin Department at the M. Street School. After teaching for a time, Church studied in Europe for two years, where she became fluent in French and Italian. On October 18, 1891, in Memphis, Church married Robert Heberton Terrell, a lawyer who became the first black municipal court judge in Washington, DC; the couple had met in Washington, DC they both worked at the M Street High School, where he became principal. Terrell and her husband had three children. Phyllis was named after Phillis Wheatley; the Terrells adopted a second daughter, Mary. Having been an avid suffragist during her years as an Oberlin student, Terrell continued to be active in the happenings within suffragists circles in the National American Woman Suffrage Association, it was through these meetings that Mary Terrell became associated with Susan B.
Anthony. An association which Terrell describes in her biography as "delightful, helpful friendship" which lasted until Anthony's passing in 1906. What grew out out of Terrell's association with NAWSA a desire to create a formal organizing group amongst black women in America to tackle issues of lynching, the disenfranchisement of the race and development a new educational reform. Being the one of few African-American women, allowed to attend NAWSA's meetings, Terrell spoke directly about the injustices and issues within the African-American community. In 1898, Terrell gave an address titled "The Progress and Problems of Colored Women" at the National American Woman Suffrage Association biennial session in Washington D. C; this speech was a call of action for NAWSA to fight for the lives of black women. The speech received great reception from the Association and black news outlets at large leading Terrell to be invited back as an unofficial ambassador for the Association. Though many black women were overwhelmingly concerned and involved in the fight towards American women's to vote, the National American Woman Suffrage did not allow black women to create their own chapter within their organization.
In A Colored Woman In A White World, Terrell recalls how she was able to navigate her college years at the predominantly white attended Oberlin with a sense of ease due her racial ambiguity
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed, they differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Issues associated with notions of women's rights include the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy. Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own and inherit property, they could engage in commerce, testify in court as witnesses. Nonetheless, their husbands could divorce them for mild infractions, a divorced husband could remarry another woman, provided that his first wife had borne him no offspring. Female deities, such as Inanna, were worshipped; the Akkadian poetess Enheduanna, the priestess of Inanna and daughter of Sargon, is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded.
Old Babylonian law codes permitted a husband to divorce his wife under any circumstances, but doing so required him to return all of her property and sometimes pay her a fine. Most law codes forbade a woman to request her husband for a divorce and enforced the same penalties on a woman asking for divorce as on a woman caught in the act of adultery; the majority of East Semitic deities were male. In ancient Egypt women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a men, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class. Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contracts, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, adopt children. Women during the early Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.
Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were free to select their own husbands in a practice called swayamvar or live-in relationship called Gandharva marriage. Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age. Records exist of women in ancient Delphi, Thessaly and Sparta owning land, the most prestigious form of private property at the time. However, after the Archaic age, legislators began to enact laws enforcing gender segregation, resulting in decreased rights for women. Women in Classical Athens had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the oikos headed by the male kyrios; until marriage, women were under the guardianship of other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios; as women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Athenian women could only acquire rights over property through gifts and inheritance, though her kyrios had the right to dispose of a woman's property.
Athenian women could only enter into a contract worth less than the value of a "medimnos of barley", allowing women to engage in petty trading. Women were excluded both in principle and in practice. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman acquired citizenship in ancient Athens. In classical Athens women were barred from becoming poets, politicians, or artists. During the Hellenistic period in Athens, the philosopher Aristotle thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society; this separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeion, while looking after the duties in the home and having little exposure with the male world. This was to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave and some knowledge of money. Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors.
As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC Spartan women owned between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property. By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women. Spartan women controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army. Girls as well as boys received an education, but despite greater freedom of movement for Spartan women, their role in politics was just as the same as Athenian women. Plato acknowledged that extending civil and political rights to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state. Aristotle, taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought", he argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.
According to Aristotle the la