Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Magic, the supernatural and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy literature may be directed at both adults. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. Most works of fantasy were written, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games and art. A number of fantasy novels written for children, such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, the Harry Potter series, The Hobbit attract an adult audience. Stories involving magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature. Classical mythology is replete with fantastical stories and characters, the best known being the works of Homer and Virgil.
The contribution of the Greco-Roman world to fantasy is vast and includes: The hero's journey. The philosophy of Plato has had great influence on the fantasy genre. In the Christian Platonic tradition, the reality of other worlds, an overarching structure of great metaphysical and moral importance, has lent substance to the fantasy worlds of modern works; the world of magic is connected with the Roman Greek world. With Empedocles, the elements, they are used in fantasy works as personifications of the forces of nature. Other than magic concerns include: the use of a mysterious tool endowed with special powers. India has a long tradition of fantastical characters, dating back to Vedic mythology; the Panchatantra, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BC. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine", it was influential in the Middle East. It used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science.
Talking animals endowed with human qualities have now become a staple of modern fantasy. The Baital Pachisi, a collection of various fantasy tales set within a frame story is, according to Richard Francis Burton and Isabel Burton, the germ which culminated in the Arabian Nights, which inspired the Golden Ass of Apuleius. Boccacio's Decamerone the Pentamerone and all that class of facetious fictitious literature."The Book of One Thousand and One Nights from the Middle East has been influential in the West since it was translated from the Arabic into French in 1704 by Antoine Galland. Many imitations were written in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba; the Fornaldarsagas and Icelandic sagas, both of which are based on ancient oral tradition influenced the German Romantics, as well as William Morris, J. R. R. Tolkien; the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Celtic folklore and legend has been an inspiration for many fantasy works.
The Welsh tradition has been influential, owing to its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton; the Irish Ulster Cycle and Fenian Cycle have been plentifully mined for fantasy. Its greatest influence was, indirect. Celtic folklore and mythology provided a major source for the Arthurian cycle of chivalric romance: the Matter of Britain. Although the subject matter was reworked by the authors, these romances developed marvels until they became independent of the original folklore and fictional, an important stage in the development of fantasy. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative, popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe, they were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, in which masculine military heroism predominates."
Popular literature drew on themes of romance, but with ironic, satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel Don Quixote. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, the word medieval evokes knights, distressed damsels and other romantic tropes. Romance literature was written in Old French, Anglo-Norman and Provençal, in Portuguese, in Castilian, in English, in Italian and German. During the early 13th centu
The third umpire is an off-field umpire used in some cricket matches international matches. Their role is to make the final decision in questions referred to them by the two on-field umpires or the players; the third umpire is there to act as an emergency on-field umpire if required. The third umpire was conceptualized by former Sri Lankan domestic cricketer, current cricket writer Mahinda Wijesinghe, it debuted in Test cricket in November 1992 at Kingsmead, Durban for the South Africa vs. India series. Karl Liebenberg was the third umpire with Cyril Mitchley the on-field umpire, referring the run-out decision in this match. Sachin Tendulkar became the first batsman to be dismissed by using television replays in the second day of the Test scoring 11; the third umpire is appointed from the Elite Panel of ICC Umpires or the International Panel of ICC Umpires for Test matches, ODIs, T20Is. For all Test matches, for ODIs where DRS is used, the third umpire is appointed by the ICC, is a different nationality to the two sides.
For ODIs where DRS is not used, for all T20Is, the third umpire is appointed by the home side's Governing body. An on-field umpire can, at his own discretion, use a radio link to refer particular types of close decision to the third umpire, this is called an Umpire Review; when the full Umpire Decision Review System is not in use, the third umpire uses television replays to assist him in coming to a decision. When the full DRS is in use, players can initiate reviews of particular decisions by the on-field umpires, this is called a Player Review; these are judged by the third umpire, the third umpire has the full range of technology available beyond simple replays, for both Umpire Reviews and Player Reviews. In the case of injury or illness to one of the on-field umpires, the third umpire will take his place; the third umpire duties will be taken on by the Fourth umpire. For example, during the 4th ODI between Australia and India at Canberra in 2015–16, umpire Richard Kettleborough was injured during Australia's innings and was replaced by third umpire Paul Wilson.
Fourth umpire Instant replay in Major League Baseball
A slide is a part of a wind instrument consisting of two pieces of tubing fitted one inside the other, used to vary the overall length of the tube, therefore the pitch of the instrument. Two sets of tubes are used, with a U bend attaching them. Slides are used in four main ways: In instruments such as the trombone and slide whistle, moving the slide is the main way of selecting the note while playing. In instruments such as the trumpet, the slide is moved while playing to help correct the pitch of the note selected by other means. In instruments such as the french horn, there are many slides used to tune the instrument, sometimes during practice. Concerning the tuba, many instruments are built so that the first slide may be manipulated during play; this allows compensation for the flat second-space C, a function of being the fifth partial harmonic of the open bugle. Jacobs, Arthur. A new dictionary of music. Baltimore: Penguin. P. 354
Parete is a comune in the Province of Caserta in the Italian region Campania, located about 15 kilometres northwest of Naples and about 20 kilometres southwest of Caserta. As of 31 December 2004, it had an area of 5.7 square kilometres. Parete borders the following municipalities: Giugliano in Campania, Trentola-Ducenta; the area of Parete is famous for the production of peaches and the Aversa Asprinio wine. The city was a settlement of the Oscan tribes. Under the Romans, it was connected by the Via Campana, leading from Pozzuoli to Capua, the Via Antica that led to Liternum. In the feudal age Parete was a duchy, it was in possession of several noble families of the Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Naples, including the Caracciolo, Sabatino-Falco and the Moles. The Ducal Palace is the legacy of this period; the Ducal Palace is a national monument. It was renovated and it now houses the first museum of strawberries in Italy, where visitors can explore five themed rooms dedicated to botanic, history and research.
The Ducal Palace has become a cultural centre, allowing the citizens to organize art displays and musical events. The Church is named after the patron Saint of the town, Saint Peter, it stands where there once was a place of worship, that dated back to the beginning of Christianity. Since 1939 it has been a national monument. From analysing its architecture, it is possible to establish that the church was founded in the first or second century, it was renovated and embellished in the XVI century, as the capitals, the frames, the dome and the façade attest. The paintings date back to the XVII century, with the exception of the Madonna della Rotonda, safely kept in an inner chapel; the church was inaugurated on the 22nd November 1970 and it was designed by the architect Ugo Santoli. Its main feature is a mosaic depicting the Holy Trinity, produced by the Michele Mellini Company in Firenze. Since 1984 the Church of the Holy Trinity has been recognized as a parish. According to a local legend, in the Sixteenth century on Easter Monday, a peasant found a painting with the image of “Maria SS. della Rotonda”.
Every year on Easter Monday, the citizens organize a celebration in honour of the holy image. A popular tradition, called the flight of the angel, occurs during this festival: a huge metal structure is put up in the square opposite the church and attached to the church by a rope; this allows two young children to “fly” above the square from one end of the rope to the other, dressed as a little angels complete with little cardboard wings. There are musical bands playing and stands selling sweets; the celebration ends with a fireworks display. The origin of the cult of Saint Peter goes back to a local legend, according to which the Apostle, on his way to Rome and preached in a little village, now called Parete; the primitive name of the town is linked to this legendary event: “Sancti Petrus ad parietes”, the church of Saint Peter among the walls. The feast on his honour was yearly held on the third Sunday in October, at the end of the agricultural season, it was anticipated to the first Sunday of the same month.
The celebration revolved around two events: the Sunday mass and a music performance on the following day. However this event has not taken place since the end of the 1990s. Parete is close to the exit of the Asse Mediano "Giugliano-Parete-Villaricca", it is close to the exit "Aversa sud-Lusciano-Parete" of the SP 335 ex SS 265 dei Ponti della Valle. The municipality is served by the CTPand CLPlines. Www.comune.parete.ce.it/
John Bach McMaster was an American historian. McMaster was born in New York, his father, a native of New York, was a banker and planter at New Orleans at the beginning of the Civil War. He graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1872, worked as a civil engineer in 1873–1877, was instructor in civil engineering at Princeton University in 1877–1883, in 1883 became professor of American history in the University of Pennsylvania. McMaster was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1884. McMaster is best known for his History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, a valuable supplement to the more purely political writings of James Schouler, Von Holst and Henry Adams, he began working on it in 1873, having collected material since 1870. His A School History of the United States was an popular textbook for many years. Besides these books and numerous magazine articles, he published Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters in the "Men of Letters" series.
His historical work differed from standard practice in that it departed from an political focus to delve into social history and the lives of ordinary people and in its use of news papers as sources. John Bach McMaster and Tunnel Centres, 1875. John Bach McMaster, History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, 1883-. John Bach McMaster, Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters, 1887. John Bach McMaster, Outline of the Lectures of the Constitutional History of the United States, 1789–1889, 1889. John Bach McMaster, With the Fathers: Studies in the History of the United States, 1896. John Bach McMaster, The Origin and Application of the Monroe Doctrine, 1896. John Bach McMaster, The University of Pennsylvania Illustrated, 1897. John Bach McMaster, A School History of the United States, 1897. John Bach McMaster, A Primary History of the United States, 1901. John Bach McMaster, History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clarke, 1902-. John Fiske, John Bach McMaster, John Henry Wright, Modern Development of the New World, 1902.
John Bach McMaster, The Acquisition of Political and Industrial Rights of Man in America, 1903. John Bach McMaster, A Brief History of the United States, 1909. John Bach McMaster, The Life and Times of Stephen Girard and Merchant, 1918. John Bach McMaster, The United States in the World War, 1918–1920; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "McMaster, John Bach". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 264. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "McMaster, John Bach". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Works by John Bach McMaster at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Bach McMaster at Internet Archive
Juedai Shuangjiao is a Taiwanese television series adapted from Gu Long's novel of the same title. The series was first aired on TTV in Taiwan in 1977. Hsia Ling-ling as Xiaoyu'er / Hua Yuenu Chiang Ming as Hua Wuque / Jiang Feng Chang Lu as Tie Xinlan He Szu-min as Su Ying / Murong Jiu Betty Pei as Yaoyue Yin Pao-lien as Lianxing Wu Heng as Yan Nantian Chao Tzu-ching / Chu Hui-chen as Tie Pinggu Ke Lei as Zhang Jing Tsao Chian as Jiang Biehe Ching Hung as Jiang Yulang Lei Ming as Yin Ping Chin Shih as Du Sha Shen Hsueh-chen as Tu Jiaojiao Tsui Fu-sheng as Li Dazui The series was considered to be a major production by TTV at that time because most of the actors in the television station were involved in the project. Hsia Ling-ling was selected by Gu Long for the role of Tie Xinlan, but she ended up playing Xiaoyu'er instead. Gu Long praised Hsia's performance as "a classic of the classics". Su Ying and Murong Jiu two different characters in the novel, were combined as a single role in the series to add a touch of creativity.
News of Gu Long having an affair with Chao Tzu-ching surfaced when the series was being aired in 1977. Chao was criticised in the media for being a "third party" as Gu Long was married. Gu Long had constantly asked the screenwriters to give Chao a bigger role on screen. After the scandal was exposed, Chao was replaced by Chu Hui-chen; the screenwriters changed the script to make Chao's character, Tie Pinggu, become disfigured. Juedai Shuangjiao on Baidu Baike