A fanzine is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest. The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet and first popularized within science fiction fandom, from there it was adopted by other communities. Publishers, editors and other contributors of articles or illustrations to fanzines are not paid. Fanzines are traditionally circulated free of charge, or for a nominal cost to defray postage or production expenses. Copies are offered in exchange for similar publications, or for contributions of art, articles, or letters of comment, which are published; some fanzines are photocopied by amateurs using standard home office equipment. A few fanzines have developed into professional publications, many professional writers were first published in fanzines; the term fanzine is sometimes confused with "fan magazine", but the latter term most refers to commercially produced publications for fans.
The origins of amateur fanac "fan" publications are obscure, but can be traced at least back to 19th century literary groups in the United States which formed amateur press associations to publish collections of amateur fiction and commentary, such as H. P. Lovecraft's United Amateur; as professional printing technology progressed, so did the technology of fanzines. Early fanzines were hand-drafted or typed on a manual typewriter and printed using primitive reproduction techniques. Only a small number of copies could be made at a time, so circulation was limited; the use of mimeograph machines enabled greater press runs, the photocopier increased the speed and ease of publishing once more. Today, thanks to the advent of desktop publishing and self-publication, there is little difference between the appearance of a fanzine and a professional magazine; when Hugo Gernsback published the first science fiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, he allowed for a large letter column which printed reader's addresses.
By 1927 readers young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Science fiction fanzines had their beginnings in Constructive correspondence. Fans finding themselves writing the same letter to several correspondents sought to save themselves a lot of typing by duplicating their letters. Early efforts included simple carbon copies but that proved insufficient; the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis; the term "fanzine" was coined by Russ Chauvenet in the October 1940 edition of his fanzine Detours. "Fanzines" were distinguished from "prozines,":. Prior to that, the fan publications were known as "fanmags" or "letterzines". Science fiction fanzines used a variety of printing methods. Typewriters, school dittos, church mimeos and multi-color letterpress or other mid-to-high level printing; some fans wanted their news spread, others reveled in the beauty of fine printing.
The hectograph, introduced around 1876, was so named because it could produce up to a hundred copies. Hecto used an aniline dye, transferred to a tray of gelatin, paper would be placed on the gel, one sheet at a time, for transfer. Messy and smelly, the process could create vibrant colors for the few copies produced, the easiest aniline dye to make being purple; the next small but significant technological step after hecto is the spirit duplicator the hectography process using a drum instead of the gelatin. Introduced by Ditto Corporation in 1923, these machines were known for the next six decades as Ditto Machines and used by fans because they were cheap to use and could print in color; the mimeograph machine, which forced ink through a wax paper stencil cut by the keys of a typewriter, was the standard for many decades. A second-hand mimeo could print in color; the electronic stencil cutter could add illustrations to a mimeo stencil. A mimeo'd zine could look terrible or look beautiful, depending more on the skill of the mimeo operator than the quality of the equipment.
Only a few fans could afford more professional printers, or the time it took them to print, until photocopying became cheap and ubiquitous in the 1970s. With the advent of computer printers and desktop publishing in the 1980s, fanzines began to look far more professional; the rise of the internet made correspondence cheaper and much faster, the World Wide Web has made publishing a fanzine as simple as coding a web page. The printing technology affected the style of writing. For example, there were alphanumeric contractions which are precursors to "leet-speak". Fanspeak is rich with concatenations. Where teenagers labored to save typing on ditto masters, they now save keystrokes when text messaging. Ackerman invented nonstoparagraphing as a space-saving measure; when the typist comes to the end of a paragraph, they moved the platen down one line. Never
Harley James Spence was a Canadian politician. He represented the electoral districts of Lunenburg County and Lunenburg West in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1953 to 1970, he was a member of the Progressive Conservative Party of Nova Scotia. Born in 1904 at Ellershouse, Hants County, Nova Scotia, Spence was a businessman by career, he married Ella Peach Riley in 1929. He served as a municipal councillor for West Hants from 1932 to 1942. Spence entered provincial politics in 1953 when he was elected in the dual-member Lunenburg County riding with R. Clifford Levy. In the 1956 election, Spence was re-elected by 67 votes in the newly established Lunenburg West riding, he was re-elected in the 1960, 1963, 1967 elections. Spence did not reoffer in the 1970 election. Spence died in 1993 in Bradenton, Florida
The Kameido incident took place in 1923 in the aftermath of the Great Kantō earthquake. On September 1, 1923, the Great Kantō earthquake struck Tokyo and Yokohama and martial law was imposed in the aftermath of the earthquake. On the evening of September 3, the Kameido police in Tokyo began arresting known social activists, suspecting that they would "spread disorder or forment revolution amid the confusion". During the mass arrests, police arrested union leader Hirasawa Keishichi, Nakatsuji Uhachi, a member of the Pure Laborers' Union; the Special Higher Police arrest seven members of the Nankatsu Labor Association. Army troops detained an eighth member of Sato Kinji. Between late at night on September 3 and September 5, troops of the 13th Cavalry Regiment on emergency duty in Kameido shot and decapitated Hirasawa and nine others, they disposed of the bodies, together with those of Korean and Chinese massacre victims, along the banks of the Arakawa drainage canal. The police issued an official notice on October 14, claiming that troops had shot the men because they were agitating prisoners.
The following year, the Liberal Lawyers' Association and union leaders worked to bring the facts to light and establish responsibility, with partial success. Police claimed to have cremated the remains of the victims. With no remains to bury, a memorial service was held in February 1924. Hirasawa Keishichi Kawai Yoshitora Kato Koju Kitashima Kichizo Kondo Kozo Nakatsuji Uhachi Sato Kinji Suzuki Naoichi Yamagishi Jitsuji Yoshimura Koji Amakasu Incident Richard H. Mitchell. Janus-Faced Justice: Political Criminals in Imperial Japan. University of Hawaii Press
VB 10 or Van Biesbroeck's star is a small and dim red dwarf located in the constellation Aquila. It is part of a binary star system. VB 10 is notable as it was the coolest, least massive and least luminous known star from its discovery in 1944 until the discovery of LHS 2924 in 1983. VB 10 is the primary standard for the M8V spectral class. Although it is close to Earth, at about 19 light years, VB 10 is a dim magnitude 17, making it difficult to image with amateur telescopes as it can get lost in the glare of the primary star. VB 10 was discovered in 1944 by the astronomer George van Biesbroeck using the 82 in Otto Struve reflector telescope at the McDonald Observatory, he found it while surveying the telescopic field of view of the high-proper-motion red dwarf Gliese 752, for companions. Wolf 1055 had been catalogued 25 years earlier by German astronomer Max Wolf using similar astrophotographic techniques, it is designated VB 10 in the 1961 publication of Van Biesbroeck's star catalog. Other astronomers began referring to it as Van Biesbroeck's star in honor of its discoverer.
Because it is so dim and so close to its much brighter primary star, earlier astronomical surveys missed it though its large parallax and large proper motion should have made it stand out on photographic plates taken at different times. VB 10 has an low luminosity with a baseline absolute magnitude of nearly 19 and an apparent magnitude of 17.3, making it difficult to see. Mathematical formulae for calculating apparent magnitude show that, if VB 10 occupied the place of the Sun, it would shine on Earth's sky at a magnitude of −12.87—approximately the same magnitude of that of the full moon. Researchers noted that its mass, at 0.08 solar mass, is right at the lower limit needed to create internal pressures and temperatures high enough to initiate nuclear fusion and be a star rather than a brown dwarf. At the time of its discovery it was the lowest-mass star known; the previous record holder for the lowest mass was Wolf 359 at 0.09 M☉. VB 10 is notable by its large proper motion, moving more than one arc second a year through the sky as seen from Earth.
VB 10 is a variable star and is identified in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars as V1298 Aquilae. It is known to be subject to frequent flare events, its dynamics were studied from the Hubble Space Telescope in the mid-1990s. Although VB 10 has a normal low surface temperature of 2600 K it was found to produce violent flares of up to 100,000 K. VB 10 is the secondary star of a bound binary star system; the primary is called Gliese 752, hence VB 10 is referred to as Gliese 752 B. The primary star is brighter; the two stars are separated by about 74 arc seconds. In May 2009, astronomers from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California, announced that they had found evidence of a planet orbiting VB 10, which they designated VB 10b; the 200 in Hale telescope at the Palomar Observatory was used to detect evidence of this planet using the astrometry method. The new planet was claimed to have an orbital period of 270 days. However, subsequent studies using Doppler spectroscopy failed to detect the radial velocity variations that would be expected if such a planet was orbiting this small star.
The claimants of VB 10b note that these Doppler measurements only rule out planets more massive than 3 times the mass of Jupiter, but this limit is only half the reported best-fit mass of the planet as claimed. The claims for this planet thus fall into a long history of claimed astrometric extrasolar planet detections that were subsequently refuted. List of least massive stars List of stars named after people "A movie of the proper motion of VB 10 across the sky". Retrieved 28 July 2009
Anaan is a 2017 Indian Marathi-language film produced by Raunaq Bhatia & Hemant Bhatia under the banner of Rohan Theatres Pvt. Ltd, it is being directed by Rajesh Kushte. The film stars Prarthana Behere along with Omkar Shinde, Sukhada Khandkekar, Suyog Gorhe, Uday Nene, Shilpa Tulaskar, Yatin Karyekar, Prajakta Mali, Uday Sabnis, Veena Jagtap, Rajendra Shisatkar, Sneha Raikar, Akshata Tikhe and Bhumi Dali. Omkar Shinde as Yuvraj Prarthana Behere as Neel Sukhada Khandkekar as Kris Yatin Karyekar Shilpa Tulaskar Uday Sabnis Veena Jagtap Rajendra Shisatkar Sneha Raikar Prajakta Mali Uday Nene Suyog Gorhe Akshata Tikhe Bhumi Dali Raunaq Bhatia and Hemant Bhatia produced this movie, co-produced by Kailash Chumbhale, Shivkumar Sharma, Radheya Malpani. Story by Hemant Bhatia, Screenplay & Dialogues by Rajesh Kushte and Mukesh Jadhav, DOP is Raj Kadur, Editing by Sejal Painter. Music is given by Saurabh Shetye and Durgesh Khot, songs sung by Sonu Nigam, Aanandi Joshi, Ravindra Sathe, Pooja Gaitonde and Saurabh Shetye.
Anaan on IMDb
Tatiana Búa is an Argentine tennis player. Búa has won 24 doubles titles on the ITF Women's Circuit. On 17 August 2009, she reached her best singles ranking of world No. 372. On 7 July 2014, she peaked at No. 119 in the WTA doubles rankings. Búa was born in Bragado, made her WTA Tour debut at the 2014 Grand Prix SAR La Princesse Lalla Meryem, partnering Daniela Seguel in doubles; the South American pair won their first round match against Nicole Clerico and Nikola Fraňková, only to lose in the quarterfinals to the top seeds Darija Jurak and Megan Moulton-Levy. However, they reached their first final in Strasbourg the following month, losing to the three-time Grand Slam-finalist pairing of Ashleigh Barty and Casey Dellacqua. Playing for Argentina at the Fed Cup, Búa has a win–loss record of 0–2. Tatiana Búa at the Women's Tennis Association Tatiana Búa at the International Tennis Federation Tatiana Búa at the Fed Cup