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Far side of the Moon

The far side of the Moon is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth. The far side's terrain is rugged with a multitude of impact craters and few flat lunar maria compared to the near side, it has one of the largest craters in the South Pole -- Aitken basin. Both sides of the Moon experience two weeks of sunlight followed by two weeks of night. About 18 percent of the far side is visible from Earth due to libration; the remaining 82 percent remained unobserved until 1959, when it was photographed by the Soviet Luna 3 space probe. The Soviet Academy of Sciences published the first atlas of the far side in 1960; the Apollo 8 astronauts were the first humans to see the far side with the naked eye when they orbited the Moon in 1968. All manned and unmanned soft landings had taken place on the near side of the Moon, until 3 January 2019 when the Chang'e 4 spacecraft made the first landing on the far side. In February 2020, Chinese astronomers reported, for the first time, a high-resolution image of a lunar ejecta sequence, and, as well, direct analysis of its internal architecture.

These were based on observations made by the Lunar Penetrating Radar on board the Yutu-2 rover. Part of the Chang'e 4 mission, while studying the far side of the moon. Astronomers have suggested installing a large radio telescope on the far side, where the Moon would shield it from possible radio interference from Earth. Tidal forces from Earth have slowed down the Moon's rotation to the point where the same side is always facing the Earth—a phenomenon called tidal locking; the other face, most of, never visible from the Earth, is therefore called the "far side of the Moon". Over time, some parts of the far side can be seen due to libration. In total, 59 percent of the Moon's surface is visible from Earth at another. Useful observation of the parts of the far side of the Moon visible from Earth is difficult because of the low viewing angle from Earth; the phrase "dark side of the Moon" does not refer to "dark" as in the absence of light, but rather "dark" as in unknown: until humans were able to send spacecraft around the Moon, this area had never been seen.

While many misconstrue this to think that the "dark side" receives little to no sunlight, in reality, both the near and far sides receive equal amounts of light directly from the Sun. However, the near side receives sunlight reflected from the Earth, known as earthshine. Earthshine does not reach the area of the far side. Only during a full Moon is the whole far side of the Moon dark; the word "dark" has expanded to refer to the fact that communication with spacecraft can be blocked while the spacecraft is on the far side of the Moon, during Apollo space missions for example. The two hemispheres of the Moon have distinctly different appearances, with the near side covered in multiple, large maria; the far side has a battered, densely cratered appearance with few maria. Only 1 % of the surface of the far side is covered compared to 31.2 % on the near side. One accepted explanation for this difference is related to a higher concentration of heat-producing elements on the near-side hemisphere, as has been demonstrated by geochemical maps obtained from the Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer.

While other factors, such as surface elevation and crustal thickness, could affect where basalts erupt, these do not explain why the far side South Pole–Aitken basin was not as volcanically active as Oceanus Procellarum on the near side. It has been proposed that the differences between the two hemispheres may have been caused by a collision with a smaller companion moon that originated from the Theia collision. In this model, the impact led to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness that may be consistent with the dimensions of the far side highlands. However, the chemical composition of the farside is inconsistent with this model; the far side has more visible craters. This was thought to be a result of the effects of lunar lava flows, which cover and obscure craters, rather than a shielding effect from the Earth. NASA calculates that the Earth obscures only about 4 square degrees out of 41,000 square degrees of the sky as seen from the Moon.

"This makes the Earth negligible as a shield for the Moon it is that each side of the Moon has received equal numbers of impacts, but the resurfacing by lava results in fewer craters visible on the near side than the far side though both sides have received the same number of impacts."Newer research suggests that heat from Earth at the time when the Moon was formed is the reason the near side has fewer impact craters. The lunar crust consists of plagioclases formed when aluminium and calcium condensed and combined with silicates in the mantle; the cooler, far side experienced condensation of these elements sooner and so formed a thicker crust. Until the late 1950s, little was known about the far side of the Moon. Librations of the Moon periodically allowed limited glimpses of features near the lunar limb on the far side, but only up to 59% of the total surface of the moon; these features, were seen f

Canadian National 7312

Canadian National 7312 is an 0-6-0 "Switcher" type steam locomotive owned and last operated by the Strasburg Rail Road outside of Strasburg, Pennsylvania. No. 7312 was built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in August of 1908 for the Grand Trunk Railway as number 118. The 118 was renumbered 1708 in September 1919. In January 1923, the Grand Trunk Railway was merged into the Canadian National Railway. Three months after the creation of Canadian National, 1708 was renumbered 7157, a number the locomotive carried until February 1952, when it was renumbered 7240. In 1957, the locomotive received its final CN number of 7312. In July 1958, No. 7312 was retired at Stratford, where it had been working as the shop switcher. In June 1959, 7312 was discovered by Strasburg Rail Road Vice President Bud Swearer, visiting the CN yard at Stratford; the Strasburg Rail Road had intended to purchase a steam locomotive to power freight and passenger excursions, 7312 was of appropriate size for the operation. The Strasburg Rail Road negotiated the CN for the locomotive, purchased by a consortium of Strasburg Rail Road officials.

Arriving at Strasburg in the summer of 1960, the locomotive was renumbered 31 and placed into service that September, becoming the first steam locomotive to reenter service in the United States. The locomotive was purchased outright by the Strasburg Rail Road in 1968; the engine continued to remain in service up until early 2009 when it was time for the locomotive's heavy rebuild. 31 has been stripped apart since then. Its cab remains on the side of Strasburg's engine shed. Due to the railroads busy contract work and upkeep of their fleet of 4 other operable steam locomotives, the engine had been put on hold until the fall of 2019 when the Strasburg Rail Road shop department announced 7312 has been retired from excursion service. There are discussions about cosmically rebuilding her however those aren't expected to happen anytime soon. Canadian National 89 Canadian National class O-9 0-6-0

Magnolia fraseri

Magnolia fraseri, is a species of Magnolia native to the southeastern United States in the southern Appalachian Mountains and adjacent Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain from West Virginia south to northern Florida and west to eastern Texas. The Appalachian plants are classified as Magnolia fraseri var. fraseri, the more coastal plants as M. fraseri var. pyramidata. These two kinds of magnolia are recognized as distinct species, M. fraseri and M. pyramidata, respectively. Fraser magnolia is a small, deciduous tree growing to 14 m tall, as a basal-branching, fragrant plant, with brown bark with a "warty" or "scaly" texture; the leaves are quite large, 15–25 cm long and 8–18 cm broad, with a pair of auricles at the base and an entire margin. The showy white flowers are 16–25 cm in diameter with nine tepals; the fruit is a woody, cone-like structure 6.5–12 cm long, covered in small, pod-like follicles each containing one or two red seeds that hang out from the cone by a slender thread when ripe. A good seed crop occurs only about every 4–5 years.

Reproduction is accomplished by both vegetative sprouts. The fruit is eaten by wildlife; this tree grows best on rich, well-drained soil. The large showy white flowers and large-leaved, coarse-textured foliage make this an attractive ornamental tree, but otherwise it has little commercial value, it is sometimes cultivated in North America as a native alternative to exotic magnolias, can be grown a considerable distance north of its natural range if given conditions favorable to its growth. There are two varieties: Magnolia fraseri var. fraseri, native to the Appalachian Mountains. Magnolia fraseri var. pyramidata Pampanini, from the Coastal Plain. The vernacular name for this variety is Pyramid magnolia; the bigleaf magnolia has auriculate-lobed leaves. Fraser Magnolia is named for the Scottish botanist John Fraser, who collected extensively in the Appalachian Mountains. Hunt, D. ed.. Magnolias and their allies. International Dendrology Society & Magnolia Society. ISBN 0-9517234-8-0. Sternberg, G.. Native Trees for North American Landscapes pp. 264.

Timber Press, Inc. https://archive.is/20060311195300/http://wildwnc.org/trees/Magnolia_fraseri.html Photos of flowers and foliage Magnolia fraseri images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu Interactive Distribution Map of Magnolia fraseri