The farad is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. It is named after the English physicist Michael Faraday. One farad is defined as the capacitance across which, when charged with one coulomb, there is a potential difference of one volt. One farad can be described as the capacitance which stores a one-coulomb charge across a potential difference of one volt; the relationship between capacitance and potential difference is linear. For example, if the potential difference across a capacitor is halved, the quantity of charge stored by that capacitor will be halved. For most applications, the farad is an impractically large unit of capacitance. Most electrical and electronic applications are covered by the following SI prefixes: 1 mF = 1000 μF = 1000000 nF 1 μF = 0.000 001 F = 1000 nF = 1000000 pF 1 nF = 0.001 μF = 1000 pF 1 pF A farad is represented in terms of SI base units as s4⋅A2⋅m−2⋅kg−1It can further be expressed as: F = C V = A ⋅ s V = J V 2 = W ⋅ s V 2 = N ⋅ m V 2 = C 2 J = C 2 N ⋅ m = s 2 ⋅ C 2 m 2 ⋅ kg = s 4 ⋅ A 2 m 2 ⋅ kg = s Ω = 1 Ω ⋅ Hz = s 2 H, where F = farad, A = ampere, V = volt, C = coulomb, J = joule, m = metre, N = newton, s = second, W = watt, kg = kilogram, Ω = ohm, Hz = hertz, H = henry.
The term "farad" was coined by Latimer Clark and Charles Bright in 1861, in honor of Michael Faraday, for a unit of quantity of charge, but by 1873, the farad had become a unit of capacitance. In 1881 at the International Congress of Electricians in Paris, the name farad was used for the unit of electrical capacitance. A capacitor consists of two conducting surfaces referred to as plates, separated by an insulating layer referred to as a dielectric; the original capacitor was the Leyden jar developed in the 18th century. It is the accumulation of electric charge on the plates. Modern capacitors are constructed using a range of manufacturing techniques and materials to provide the extraordinarily wide range of capacitance values used in electronics applications from femtofarads to farads, with maximum-voltage ratings ranging from a few volts to several kilovolts. Values of capacitors are specified in farads, microfarads and picofarads; the millifarad is used in practice, while the nanofarad is uncommon in North America.
The size of commercially available capacitors ranges from around 0.1 pF to 5000F supercapacitors. Parasitic capacitance in high-performance integrated circuits can be measured in femtofarads, while high-performance test equipment can detect changes in capacitance on the order of tens of attofarads. A value of 0.1 pF is about the smallest available in capacitors for general use in electronic design, since smaller ones would be dominated by the parasitic capacitances of other components, wiring or printed circuit boards. Capacitance values of 1 pF or lower can be achieved by twisting two short lengths of insulated wire together; the capacitance of the Earth's ionosphere with respect to the ground is calculated to be about 1 F. The picofarad is sometimes colloquially pronounced as "puff" or "pic", as in "a ten-puff capacitor". "mic" is sometimes used informally to signify microfarads. Nonstandard abbreviations were and are used. Farad has been abbreviated "f", "fd", "Fd". For the prefix "micro-", when the Greek small letter "μ" or the legacy micro sign "μ" is not available or inconvenient to enter, it is substituted with the similar-appearing "u" or "U", with little risk of confusion.
It was substituted with the similar-sounding "M" or "m", which can be confusing because M stands for 1,000,000, m preferably stands for 1/1000. In texts prior to 1960, on capacitor packages un
Roy Montgomery is a composer and lecturer from Christchurch, New Zealand. Montgomery's instrumental solo works have elements of post-rock, lo-fi, folk and avant-garde experimentation, his signature sound might be described as atmospheric or cinematic featuring complex layers of chiming, echoing and/or droning guitar phrases. He is head of the Environmental management department at Lincoln University in New Zealand. Montgomery has played in several New Zealand bands since 1980, most notably The Pin Group, Dadamah and Hash Jar Tempo, he has released solo albums on labels including Kranky and Drunken Fish. Montgomery was born in 1959 in London and moved with his family to Cologne in Germany where he lived until the age of four, his father was German and his mother was from the UK. As his mother worked for the British Forces Broadcasting Service, Montgomery was exposed to the pop music of America rather than the music of Germany. In mid-sixties he moved with his mother to New Zealand. In 1980, he formed The Pin Group with drummer Peter Stapleton.
The group debuted with the single Ambivalence in 1981, released though the newly founded label Flying Nun Records. They recorded a handful of singles and performed only locally before disbanding in January 1982. Montgomery worked with Stapleton again in Dadamah, formed in 1990. Montgomery had been composing and recording acoustic work since 1982, much of which he would integrate into his 1990s work. Although he enjoys collaborating with other artists, Montgomery is drawn to working alone, which he attributes to growing up as an only child. In 1995 he issued his debut solo effort Scenes from the South Island, which he recorded and performed by himself. Scenes from the South Island Temple IV And Now the Rain Sounds Like Life Is Falling Down Through It The Allegory of Hearing Silver Wheel of Prayer Music from the Film Hey Badfinger RMHQ: Headquarters Suffuse 324 E. 13th Street #7 Inroads: New and Collected Works 324 E. 13th Street #7 with Kim Pieters and Peter Stapleton and Janine Stagg as Dadamah: This is not a Dream with Kim Pieters and Peter Stapleton and Janine Stagg as Dadamah: This is not a Dream with Chris Heaphy as Dissolve: That that is, is with Chris Heaphy as Dissolve: Third Album for the Sun with Bardo Pond as Hash Jar Tempo: Well Oiled with Bardo Pond as Hash Jar Tempo: Under Glass with Flying Saucer Attack: Goodbye with Chris Heaphy: True with Grouper: Roy Montgomery/Grouper with Nick Guy: Torlesse Super Group Roy Montgomery at AllMusic Roy Montgomery discography at Discogs Artist page at the kranky record label website Roy Montgomery's staff profile page at Lincoln University, Christchurch
My Worst Nightmare is a 2011 French-Belgian comedy-drama film written and directed by Anne Fontaine, starring Isabelle Huppert, Benoît Poelvoorde and André Dussollier. Agathe is a successful art dealer who lives with her husband François and their son Adrien in a wealthy quarter of Paris. Adrien is an underachiever at his school and Agathe fights any disadvantages that this can bring for him in parent-teacher conferences. François is more of procrastinates on a construction project; the situation gets stirred up when Adrien's friend Patrick, Tony's father, enters the picture. Tony is brilliant in his studies irrespective of his poor access to amenities, so Agathe has a soft spot for the child. And, Adrien's test results seem to be getting better, but Patrick has a rather dubious social background. He lacks both tact in a proper home or job for supporting a family. Agathe is distressed by his intrusion into their life, her husband François hires him to take care of the overdue construction project and they become friends.
François cajoles a woman Patrick had wanted for himself and leaves Agathe. Patrick and Agathe are left back with the children. Agathe develops a sense of attachment for this unruly man who, au contraire to her husband, empathizes with her and is dedicated to ensuring his son can attend a respected school, but Patrick fails continuously to become responsible and they break up. Some time they reconnect because each seems to complete the other. Isabelle Huppert as Agathe Novic Benoît Poelvoorde as Patrick Demeuleu André Dussollier as François Dambreville Virginie Efira as Julie Corentin Devroey as Tony Donatien Suner as Adrien Aurélien Recoing as Thierry Éric Berger as Sébastien Philippe Magnan as The principal Bruno Podalydès as Marc-Henri Samir Guesmi as The DDASS Inspector Jean-Luc Couchard as Milou Demeuleu Émilie Gavois-Kahn as Sylvie / Karen "My worst nightmare" was evaluated as an "utterly conventional French bourgeois comedy". Still it was considered "watchable" just because of its cast.
Isabelle Huppert was in particular praised for making Agathe's transformation believable. Benoît Poelvoorde's performance was recognised a "often irritable and hilarious". Diego Costa wrote for Slant Magazine "My worst nightmare" was coined by a Frenchkind of humor which could "go right over American audience's heads". Isabelle Huppert on screen and stage My Worst Nightmare on IMDb My Worst Nightmare at Rotten Tomatoes My Worst Nightmare at AllMovie My Worst Nightmare at unifrance.org