Batter is thin dough that can be poured into a pan. Batter is used for pancakes, light cakes, as a coating for fried foods; the word batter comes from the French word battre which means to beat, as many batters require vigorous beating or whisking in their preparation. Many batters are made by combining dry flours with liquids such as milk or eggs. Batters can be made by soaking grains in water and grinding them wet. A leavening agent such as baking powder is included to aerate and fluff up the batter as it cooks, or the mixture may be fermented for this purpose as well as to add flavour. Carbonated water or another carbonated liquid such as beer may instead be used to aerate the batter in some recipes; the liquid mixture churned and frozen in order to produce ice cream is referred to as batter, although it does not contain any dry flours or grains. The viscosity of batter may range from "heavy" to "thin". Heat is applied to the batter by frying, baking or steaming, in order to cook the ingredients and to "set" the batter into a solid form.
Batters may be sweet or savoury with either sugar or salt being added. Many other flavourings such as herbs, fruits or vegetables may be added to the mixture. Beer is a popular ingredient in batters used to coat foods before frying. One reason is that a basic batter can be made from flour and some salt; the purpose of using beer is. Depending on the type and quality of the beer, beer may add colour or some flavour to the batter; the practice of beer battering is popular in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Ireland, Germany and Russia. Some foods that are beer battered and fried are fish and onion rings. Batters are used in many cuisines under many names. Tempura in Japan, pakora in India, spoon bread in the USA, many other examples are all types of batters. All batters work by forming a crisp shell around the food, preventing scorching and retaining flavor and juices; the ideal batter for fried foods is to be thick enough to adhere to the food, but not so thick as to become heavy. Batters thicken with every second.
Strategies to reduce this effect include the use of ice water when mixing and making it at the last possible moment before use. Media related to Batter at Wikimedia Commons
Gram flour or chickpea flour or besan, is a pulse flour made from a variety of ground chickpea known as Bengal gram. It is a staple ingredient in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, including in Indian, Burmese, Nepali and Sri Lankan cuisines. Gram flour can be made from either roasted gram beans; the roasted variety is more flavourful, while the raw variety has a bitter taste. Gram flour contains a high proportion of carbohydrates, higher fiber relative to other flours, no gluten, a higher proportion of protein than other flours. Gram flour is in popular use in the Indian subcontinent, where it is used to make the following: In Andhra Pradesh, it is used in a curry with gram flour cakes called Senaga Pindi Kura and is eaten with Chapati or Puri during winter for breakfast. Chila, a pancake made with gram flour batter, is a popular street food in India. Burmese tofu Jidou liangfen Along the coast of the Ligurian Sea, flour made from garbanzo beans, which are a different variety of chickpea related to Bengal gram, is used to make a thin pancake, baked in the oven.
This popular street food is called farinata in Italian cuisine, fainâ in Genoa, is known as socca or cade in French cuisine. It is used to make a fritter in Sicilian cuisine. In Spanish cuisine, gram flour is an ingredient for tortillitas de camarones. In Cyprus and Greece, it is used as a garnishing ingredient for the funeral ritual food Koliva and eaten during Orthodox Memorial services. In Morocco, they make a dish called karan from gram flour and eggs, baked in the oven. A similar famous dish is prepared in Algeria called Karantita. In the form of a paste with water or dahi, it is popular as a facial exfoliant in the Indian Subcontinent; when mixed with an equal proportion of water, it can be used as an egg replacement in vegan cooking. List of chickpea dishes Oralu kallu, a type of grinding machine using stone to produce flour in some parts of India
A crêpe or crepe is a type of thin pancake. Crêpes are of two types: sweet crêpes and savoury galettes. Crêpes are served with a variety of fillings, from the simplest with only sugar to flambéed crêpes Suzette or elaborate savoury galettes. While crêpes are associated with Brittany, a region in the northwest of France, their consumption is widespread in France, Belgium and many parts of Europe, North Africa and the Southern Cone of South America. Crêpes belong to the general category of ancient Greek Tiganitai, from Greek tiganos, meaning "frying pan", which in English is translated to Pancakes; the French term, crêpe, derives from the Latin crispa, meaning with "creases". The name "galette" came from the French word galet since the first gallettes were made on a large pebble heated in a fire. In France, crêpes are traditionally served on 2 February; this day was Virgin Mary's Blessing Day but became known in France as "Le Jour des Crêpes", referring to the tradition of offering crêpes. The belief was that catching the crêpe with a frying pan after tossing it in the air with your right hand while holding a gold coin in your left hand would cause you to become rich that year.
The roundness, golden colour from being fried in butter, of the crêpe resembles the sun and its rays. This symbolism applies to the coin held in the person's hand. Sweet crêpes are made with wheat flour; when sweet, they can be eaten as a dessert. Common fillings include Nutella spread, sugar, maple syrup, golden syrup, lemon juice, whipped cream, fruit spreads and sliced soft fruits or confiture. Savory crêpes are made with non-wheat flours such as buckwheat. Batter made from buckwheat flour is gluten-free, which makes it possible for people who have a gluten allergy or intolerance to eat this type of crêpe. Common savoury fillings for crêpes served for lunch or dinner are cheese and eggs, mushrooms and various meat products. Batters can consist of other simple ingredients such as butter, water, flour and sugar. Fillings are added to the centre of the crêpe and served with the edges folded over the centre. A variety of crepe is made in India which uses multi-grain flour, curd and an assortment of spices as its ingredients.
It is a modern variation of an Indian dish called Thalipeeth A crêperie may be a takeaway restaurant or stall, serving crêpes as a form of fast food or street food, or may be a more formal sit-down restaurant or café. Crêperies are typical of Brittany in France; because a crêpe may be served as both a main meal or a dessert, crêperies may be quite diverse in their selection and may offer other baked goods such as baguettes. They may serve coffee, tea and cider. Crêpes are popular throughout France; the common ingredients include flour, milk, a pinch of salt. Crêpes are of two types: sweet crêpes made with wheat flour and sweetened; the name "galette" came from the French word galet since the first gallettes were made on a large pebble heated in a fire. Batter made from buckwheat flour is gluten-free, which makes it possible for people who have a gluten allergy or intolerance to eat this type of crêpe. Mille crêpes is a French cake made of many crêpe layers; the word mille means "a thousand", implying the many layers of crêpe.
Another standard French and Belgian crêpe is the crêpe Suzette, a crêpe with grated orange peel and liqueur, subsequently lit upon presentation. English pancakes are like wheat flour crêpes, are served with golden syrup or lemon juice and sugar. Swedish pancakes called Nordic pancakes, are similar to the French crêpes. In some of the Nordic countries, they are served with jam or fruit lingonberries as a dessert with a variety of savoury fillings. Traditional Swedish variations can be exotic. Beside the usual thin pancakes, called pannkakor in Swedish and räiskäle in Finnish, which resemble the French crêpes and served with whipped cream and jam, are traditionally eaten for lunch on Thursdays with pea soup, the Swedish cuisine has plättar/lettu which resemble tiny English pancakes, are fried several at a time in a special pan. Others include fried pork in the batter. Potato pancakes called raggmunk may contain other vegetables. A special Swedish pancake is saffron pancake from Gotland, made with saffron and rice, baked in the oven.
It is common to add lemon juice to the sugar for extra taste. The pancakes are served after a soup. Another special "Swedish pancake" is the äggakaka called skånsk äggakaka, it is like an ordinary Swedish pancake but it is a lot thicker and a lot more difficult to make due to the risk of burning it. It is made in a frying pan and is about 1½ to 2 inches thick and is served with lingonberries and bacon; the Norwegian variety is eaten
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of 158,493 residents in December 2017, it has traditionally been known in English as Leghorn. The origins of Livorno are controversial, although the place was inhabited since the Neolithic Age as shown by worked bones, pieces of copper and ceramic found on the Livorno Hills in a cave between Ardenza and Montenero. Livorno was Etruscan; the construction of the Via Aurelia coincided with the occupation of the region by the Romans, who left traces of their presence in the toponyms and ruins of towers. The natural cove called Liburna, is a reference to the type of ship, the liburna, used by Roman navy. Others ancient toponyms include: Salviano, Antignano, the place situated before Ardenza where were the beacons for the ships directed to Porto Pisano. Cicerone call it Labrone. Livorna is mentioned for the first time in 1017 as a small coastal village, the port and the remains of a Roman tower under the rule of Lucca.
In 1077, a tower was built by Matilda of Tuscany. The Republic of Pisa owned Livorna from 1103 and built a quadrangular Fort called Quadratura dei Pisani to defend the port. Porto Pisano was destroyed after the crushing defeat of the Pisan fleet in the Battle of Meloria in 1284. In 1399, Pisa sold Livorna to the Visconti of Milan, in 1405 it was sold to the Republic of Genoa and on 28 August 1421 it was bought by the Republic of Florence; the name'Leghorn' derives from genoan name Ligorna. Livorno was used in the eighteen century by Florentine. Between 1427 and 1429, a census counted 118 families in Livorno, including 423 persons. Monks, military personnel, the homeless were not included in the census; the only remainder of medieval Livorno is a fragment of two towers and a wall, located inside the Fortezza Vecchia. After the arrival of the Medici, the ruling dynasty of Florence, some modifications were made. By 1551, the population had grown to 1562 residents. During the Italian Renaissance, when it was ruled by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany of the House of Medici Livorno was designed as an "Ideal town".
In 1577 the architect Bernardo Buontalenti drew up the first plan. The new fortified town had a pentagonal design, for which it is called Pentagono del Buontalenti, incorporating the original settlement; the Porto Mediceo was defended by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, declared Livorno a free port, which meant that the goods traded here were duty-free within the area of the town's control. In 1593, the Duke's administration established the Leggi Livornine to regulate the trade; these laws protected merchant activities from crime and racketeering, instituted laws regarding international trade. The laws established a well-regulated market and were in force until 1603. Expanding Christian tolerance, the laws offered the right of public freedom of religion and amnesty to people having to gain penance given by clergy in order to conduct civil business; the Grand Duke attracted numerous Turks, Moors and Armenians, along with Jewish immigrants.
Arrival of the latter begun in the late sixteenth century with the Alhambra Decree, which resulted in the expulsion of Jews from Spain and Portugal - while Livorno extended to them rights and privileges. Livorno became an enlightened European city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean Basin. Many European foreigners moved to Livorno; these included Christian Protestant reformers who supported such leaders as Martin Luther, John Calvin, others. French and English arrived, along with Orthodox Greeks. Meanwhile, Jews continued to trade under their previous treaties with the Grand Duke. On 19 March 1606, Ferdinando I de' Medici elevated Livorno to the rank of city; the Counter-Reformation increased tensions among Christians. Livorno's tolerance fell victim to the European wars of religion. But, in the preceding period, the merchants of Livorno had developed a series of trading networks with Protestant Europe, the Dutch and Germans worked to retain these. In 1653 a naval battle, the Battle of Leghorn was fought near Livorno during the First Anglo-Dutch War.
At the end of the 17th century, Livorno underwent a period of expansion. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress was built, together with the town walls and the system of navigable canals through neighborhoods. After the port of Pisa had silted up in the 13th century, its distance from the sea increased and it lost its dominance in trade, so Livorno took over as the main port in Tuscany. By 1745 Livorno's population had risen to 32,534 persons; the more successful of the European powers re-established trading houses in the region the British with the Levant Company. In turn, the trading networks grew, with it, Britain's cultural contact with Tuscany. An increasing number of British writers, artists and travelers visited the area and developed the unique historical ties between the two communities; the British referred to the city as "Leghorn". Through t
Focaccia is a flat oven-baked Italian bread product similar in style and texture to pizza dough. Focaccia can be used as a side as sandwich bread. Focaccia al rosmarino is a common focaccia style in Italian cuisine that may be served as an antipasto, table bread, or snack. Focaccia is similar to the Greek flatbread lagana. In Ancient Rome, panis focacius was a flat bread baked on the hearth; the word is derived from the Latin focus meaning "hearth, place for baking." The basic recipe is thought by some to have originated with the Etruscans, but today it is associated with Ligurian cuisine. As the tradition spread, the different dialects and diverse local ingredients resulted in a large variety of bread. Due to the number of small towns and hamlets dotting the coast of Liguria, the focaccia recipe has fragmented into countless variations, with some bearing little resemblance to its original form; the most extreme example is a specialty called focaccia col formaggio, made in Recco, near Genoa. Other than the name, this Recco version bears no resemblance to other focaccia varieties, having a stracchino cheese filling sandwiched between two layers of paper-thin dough.
Out of Liguria, focaccia comes in many regional variations and its recipe, its texture, its flavor remarkably varies from north to south of Italy. In some parts of the Northwest, for example, a popular recipe is focaccia dolce, consisting of a basic focaccia base and sprinkled with sugar, or including raisins, honey, or other sweet ingredients. Another sweet focaccia from the Northeast is focaccia veneta, a typical cake of the Venetian Easter tradition: it is based on eggs and butter and it looks quite similar to panettone or to another Venetian cake like pandoro. In South Tyrol and in the small village of Krimml in Austria, the so-called Osterfochaz is the traditional Easter gift of the Godparents to their Godchildren. Therefore, the bread is thinner in the middle, in order to put in the coloured Easter eggs. Focaccia al rosmarino is a common flatbread style in Italian cuisine that may be served as an antipasto, table bread, or snack. Similar dishes include focaccia alla salvia, pizza bianca and potato rosemary focaccia, the latter of, referred to as "potato pizza" in New York City.
Like other focaccie, focaccia al rosmarino is sometimes considered to be a kind of pizza, though they are distinguished in Italy. Focaccia al rosmarino is a popular style of flatbread in Italian cuisine prepared using focaccia dough, olive oil and salt, sea salt or kosher salt. Focaccia al rosmarino may be served as table bread or snack. Whole or sliced fresh rosemary leaves may be used, it sprinkled with salt. Focaccia al rosmarino may have a moist texture, the ingredients used in its preparation and the shape it is formed in varies in different regions, it may be prepared as a sweet dish. The dish is baked, although it is sometimes fried in oil. Rosemary is among the most common herbs used to flavor focaccia bread. Additional ingredients such as garlic, or basil may be used, it is sometimes served accompanied with slices of an Italian dry-cured ham. It can be prepared as a vegan dish, it may be used in the preparation of sandwiches. A similar style is focaccia alla salvia, prepared by substituting sage for the rosemary.
Pizza bianca is another similar style, prepared using pizza dough, olive oil, chopped rosemary and salt. The term "pizza bianca" refers to focaccia in some areas of Italy. Potato rosemary focaccia is a variation, referred to as "potato pizza" in New York City. Pizza is a similar dish. Pane, focacce e torte salate. Voglia di cucinare. Giunti Demetra. 2010. P. 229. ISBN 978-88-440-3944-8
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute, it is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian. Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, plains uninhabited territories, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its untouched landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization; the name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd- romanised as sardus.
It makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues and its people as well might have been named after a legendary woman going by Sardò, born in Sardis, capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. There has been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples, it is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater, as well as being the stem of the adjective "sardonic". In Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called a number of names besides Sardò or Sardinia, like Ichnusa and Argirofleps. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres, it is situated between 8 ° 8' and 9 ° 50' east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea.
The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula; the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The coasts of Sardinia are high and rocky, with long straight stretches of coastline, many outstanding headlands, a few wide, deep bays, many inlets and with various smaller islands off the coast; the island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the island's highlands, formed of granite, trachyte, basalt and dolomite limestone, average at between 300 to 1,000 metres; the highest peak is part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. Other mountain chains are Monte Limbara in the northeast, the Chain of Marghine and Goceano running crosswise for 40 kilometres towards the north, the Monte Albo, the Sette Fratelli Range in the southeast, the Sulcis Mountains and the Monte Linas.
The island's ranges and plateaux are separated by wide alluvial valleys and flatlands, the main ones being the Campidano in the southwest between Oristano and Cagliari and the Nurra in the northwest. Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas and the Flumendosa. There are 54 artificial dams that supply water and electricity; the main ones are Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline; the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. It can be classified in two different macrobioclimates, one macrobioclimatic variant, called Submediterranean, four classes of continentality, eight thermotypic horizons and seven ombrotypic horizons, resulting in a combination of 43 different isobioclimates. During the year there is a major concentration
Sea salt is salt, produced by the evaporation of seawater. It is used as a seasoning in foods, cooking and for preserving food, it is called bay salt, solar salt, or salt. Like mined rock salt, production of sea salt has been dated to prehistoric times. There is no scientific evidence that consuming sea salt instead of more refined sodium chloride salts has any health benefit. Commercially available sea salts on the market today vary in their chemical composition. Although the principal component is sodium chloride, the remaining portion can range from less than 0.2 to 10% of other salts. These are calcium and magnesium salts of chloride and sulfate with lesser amounts of many trace elements found in natural seawater; the moisture content can vary from less than 1 to over 12%. Though the composition of commercially available salt may vary, the ionic composition of natural saltwater is constant. Sea salt is mentioned in the Vinaya Pitaka, a Buddhist scripture compiled in the mid-5th century BC; the principle of production is evaporation of the water from the sea brine.
In warm and dry climates this may be accomplished by using solar energy, but in other climates fuel sources have been used. Modern sea salt production is entirely found in Mediterranean and other warm, dry climates; such places are today called salt works, instead of the older English word saltern. An ancient or medieval saltern was established where there was: Access to a market for the salt A shelving coast, protected from exposure to the open sea An inexpensive and worked fuel supply, or preferably the sun Another trade, such as pastoral farming or tanning—which benefited from proximity to the saltern and provided the saltern with a local marketIn this way, salt marsh and salt works enhanced each other economically; this was medieval periods around The Wash, in eastern England. There, the tide brought the brine, the extensive saltings provided the pasture, the fens and moors provided the peat fuel, the sun sometimes shone; the dilute brine of the sea was evaporated by the sun. In Roman areas, this was done using ceramic containers known as briquetage.
Workers scraped up the concentrated salt and mud slurry and washed it with clean sea water to settle impurities out of the now concentrated brine. They poured the brine into shallow pans and set them on fist-sized clay pillars over a peat fire for final evaporation, they scraped out the dried salt and sold it. In rural areas of Sichuan, these traditional salt production methods lasted until industrialization in the 20th century. In the colonial New World, slaves were brought from Africa to rake salt on various islands in the West Indies and Turks and Caicos Islands. Today, salt labelled "sea salt" in the US might not have come from the sea, as long as it meets the FDA's purity requirements. All mined salts were sea salts since they originated from a marine source at some point in the distant past from an evaporating shallow sea; some gourmets has a better texture than ordinary table salt. In applications that retain sea salt's coarser texture, it can provide a different mouth feel, may change flavor due to its different rate of dissolution.
The mineral content affects the taste. The colors and variety of flavors are due to local clays and algae found in the waters the salt is harvested from. For example, some boutique salts from Korea and France are pinkish gray, some from India are black. Black and red salts from Hawaii may have powdered black lava and baked red clay added in; some sea salt contains sulfates. It may be difficult to distinguish sea salt from other salts, such as pink Himalayan salt, Maras salt from the ancient Inca hot springs, or rock salt. Black lava salt is a marketing term for sea salt harvested from various places around the world, blended and colored with activated charcoal; the salt is used as a decorative condiment to be shown at the table. The health consequences of eating sea salt or regular table salt are the same, as the content of sea salt is still sodium chloride. Table salt is more processed than sea salt to eliminate minerals and contains an additive such as silicon dioxide to prevent clumping. Iodine, an element essential for human health, is present only in small amounts in sea salt.
Iodised salt is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various salts of the element iodine. Studies have found some microplastic contamination in sea salt from Europe and China. Sea salt has been shown to be contaminated by fungi that can cause food spoilage as well as some that may be mycotoxigenic. In traditional Korean cuisine, which means "bamboo salt", is prepared by roasting salt at temperatures between 800 and 2000 °C in a bamboo container plugged with mud at both ends; this product absorbs minerals from the bamboo and the mud, has been shown to increase the anticlastogenic and antimutagenic properties of the fermented soybean paste known in Korea as doenjang. Bath salts Brine mining History of salt Food portal