Farm Security Administration

The Farm Security Administration was a New Deal agency created in 1937 to combat rural poverty during the Great Depression in the United States. It succeeded the Resettlement Administration; the FSA is famous for its small but influential photography program, 1935–44, that portrayed the challenges of rural poverty. The photographs in the Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Photograph Collection form an extensive pictorial record of American life between 1935 and 1944; this U. S. government photography project was headed for most of its existence by Roy E. Stryker, who guided the effort in a succession of government agencies: the Resettlement Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the Office of War Information; the collection includes photographs acquired from other governmental and non-governmental sources, including the News Bureau at the Offices of Emergency Management, various branches of the military, industrial corporations. In total, the black-and-white portion of the collection consists of about 175,000 black-and-white film negatives, encompassing both negatives that were printed for FSA-OWI use and those that were not printed at the time.

Color transparencies made by the FSA/OWI are available in a separate section of the catalog: FSA/OWI Color Photographs. The FSA stressed "rural rehabilitation" efforts to improve the lifestyle of poor landowning farmers, a program to purchase submarginal land owned by poor farmers and resettle them in group farms on land more suitable for efficient farming. Reactionary critics, including the Farm Bureau opposed the FSA as an alleged experiment in collectivizing agriculture—that is, in bringing farmers together to work on large government-owned farms using modern techniques under the supervision of experts. After the Conservative coalition took control of Congress it transformed the FSA into a program to help poor farmers buy land, that program continues to operate in the 21st century as the Farmers Home Administration; the projects that were combined in 1935 to form the Resettlement Administration started in 1933 as an assortment of programs tried out by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

The RA was headed by an economic advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. However, Tugwell's goal moving 650,000 people into 100,000,000 acres of exhausted, worn-out land was unpopular among the majority in Congress; this goal seemed socialistic to some and threatened to deprive powerful farm proprietors of their tenant workforce. The RA was thus left with only enough resources to relocate a few thousand people from 9 million acres and build several greenbelt cities, which planners admired as models for a cooperative future that never arrived; the main focus of the RA was to now build relief camps in California for migratory workers refugees from the drought-struck Dust Bowl of the Southwest. This move was resisted by a large share of Californians, who did not want destitute migrants to settle in their midst; the RA managed to construct 95 camps that gave migrants unaccustomed clean quarters with running water and other amenities, but the 75,000 people who had the benefit of these camps were a small share of those in need and could only stay temporarily.

After facing enormous criticism for his poor management of the RA, Tugwell resigned in 1936. On January 1, 1937, with hopes of making the RA more effective, the Resettlement Administration was transferred to the Department of Agriculture through executive order 7530. On July 22, 1937, Congress passed the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act; this law authorized a modest credit program to assist tenant farmers to purchase land, it was the culmination of a long effort to secure legislation for their benefit. Following the passage of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act, Congress passed the Farm Security Act into law; the Farm Security Act transformed the Resettlement Administration into the Farm Security Administration. The FSA expanded through funds given by the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act. One of the activities performed by the RA and FSA was the buying out of small farms that were not economically viable, the setting up of 34 subsistence homestead communities, in which groups of farmers would live together under the guidance of government experts and work a common area.

They were not allowed to purchase their farms for fear that they would fall back into inefficient practices not guided by RA and FSA experts. The Dust Bowl in the Great Plains displaced thousands of tenant farmers and laborers, many of whom moved on to California; the FSA operated camps such as Weedpatch Camp as depicted in The Grapes of Wrath. The RA and the FSA gave educational aid to 455,000 farm families during the period 1936-1943. In June, 1936, Roosevelt wrote: "You are right about the farmers who suffer through their own fault... I wish you would have a talk with Tugwell about what he is doing to educate this type of farmer to become self-sustaining. During the past year his organization has made 104,000 farm families self-sustaining by supervision and education along practical lines; that is a pretty good record!"The FSA's primary mission was not to aid farm production or prices. Roosevelt's agricultural policy had, in fact, been to try to decrease agricultural production in order to increase prices.

However, when production was discouraged, the tenant farmers and small holders suffered most by not being able to ship enough to market to pay rents. Many renters wanted money to buy farms, but the Agriculture Department realized there were too many farmers, did not have a program for farm purchases. Instead they used education to

Graham Forsythe

Graham Forsythe was a Canadian artist. Although Forsythe was classified blind at birth he has traveled extensively, he did not start painting until 1991. Forsythe was born in County Antrim. In 1958 Forsythe and his family immigrated to Canada, he worked his way through University and graduated with a degree in Political Science from the University of Guelph in Ontario. He completed his formal education in 1974 at the age of 22. In 1981 Forsythe started his own business paving roads, his company employed a dozen workers and the work was steady, but Forsythe had a desire to do something more creative. In his spare time Forsythe wrote murder mysteries prompted by the fact that his father and his father's brothers were all policemen working in homicide; as a young boy Forsythe would overhear his father speaking about unsolved crimes with colleagues. At the age of 38 Forsythe was told. Despite the risk of complications, Forsythe chose to undergo the operation; the operation was a success and Forsythe could see properly for the first time.

Inspired by the beauty of nature, Forsythe began to paint. His talent was evident and soon art galleries and private collectors began to purchase his magnificent landscapes and seascapes. Graham Forsythe was a member of the Federation of Canadian Artists and has won several Jurors Choice Awards. Most of Forsythe's paintings depict natural scenes. 1998'Juror's Choice Award', Federation of Canadian Artist 1999'Juror's Choice Award', Federation of Canadian Artist 2000'Juror's Choice Award', Federation of Canadian Artist 2006 Selected Featured Artist, Ladera Ranch Education Foundation annual fundraising event. International Artist Magazine Edition #61 USA, 2008 International Artist Magazine Edition #56 USA, 2007 Monterey County Weekly, California, USA Ballymena Guardian, Northern Ireland Art World News, National Publication, USA International Graphics, Germany Ladera Ranch Herald, Ladera Ranch, California, USA Galleries West Magazine, Alberta, Canada Cottage Style Magazine, National Publication, USA Orange Coast Magazine, Orange County, California, USA MagazinArt Biennial, National Publication, Canada Pierre Belvedere Cards, Canada International Graphics, Germany Madrona Gallery Official site


WLAC – branded Talkradio 98.3 & 1510 – is a commercial talk radio radio station licensed to serve Nashville, Tennessee. Owned by iHeartMedia, Inc. the station covers the Nashville metropolitan area. The WLAC studios are located in Nashville's Music Row district, while the station transmitter resides in the city's Northside neighborhood. In addition to a standard analog transmission, WLAC broadcasts an HD Radio signal utilizing the in-band on-channel standard, is simulcast over a digital subchannel of WSIX-FM and on low-power FM translator W252CM, is available online via iHeartRadio. WLAC first signed on the air on November 24, 1926. After a few years on several frequencies, WLAC was heard on 1470 kilocycles, powered at 5,000 watts; the call letters were chosen to contain an acronym for the first owner of the station, the Life and Casualty Insurance Company of Tennessee. Studios were located on the fifth floor of the Casualty building in downtown Nashville. In 1928, it became Nashville's CBS Radio Network affiliate.

Its main competitor, WSM, was affiliated with the NBC Red Network. The early years of the station, WLAC provided local news, studio-orchestra musical features, farm reports, some educational programming, its main competitor in that era, WSM, became known as the radio station where country music developed and became a national phenomenon. When country music became a big business in the late 1940s, WLAC added early-morning and Saturday-afternoon country and western shows in an attempt to steal some of WSM's thunder. Otherwise, the station prided itself as a pillar of the community and placed emphasis on general full-service programs. In 1941, with the enactment of the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement, WLAC moved to 1510 kHz; the following year, the station boosted its power to 50,000 watts, becoming the second clear-channel station in Tennessee after WSM. While WSM was a Class I-A station, using a non-directional antenna at all times, WLAC was a Class I-B outlet, required to use a directional antenna after sunset to protect other stations on the frequency.

In 1953, WLAC added an FM adjunct, WLAC-FM signed on WLAC-TV the following year. WLAC-TV was sold to the Hobby Family of Houston in 1975, changing the call sign to WTVF, is now owned by the E. W. Scripps Company. In the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, WLAC was legendary for its quartet of nighttime rhythm and blues shows hosted by Gene Nobles, "John R.", Herman Grizzard, Bill "Hossman" Allen. Thanks to the station's clear channel designation, the signal reached most of the Eastern and Midwestern United States. WLAC described itself as the nighttime station for half the nation with African-American listeners in the Deep South as the intended audience of the programs. Further, several foreign countries islands in the Caribbean and southern Canada, were within range of the station's nighttime signal. WLAC was popular with some young white teenagers. Radio historians believe that the nightly "Rhythm and blues" WLAC shows, in part, laid the foundational audience for the rock and roll phenomenon that began in the late 1950s.

Nobles began the move, in 1946, to play what were considered at the time "race" records, a euphemism intended to deter respectable audiences. But he and the others reached large numbers of African-American listeners in places like the Mississippi Delta, the Carolina Lowcountry, Louisiana and Detroit, people whom no other radio stations were serving. Phasing in artists like Amos Milburn, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino in the early 1950s to supplement the big-band artists of the era such as Tommy Dorsey and Glenn Miller, the WLAC announcers presided over the development of what became "rhythm and blues" music, they did this to attract advertisers who serviced the African-American community, such as hair-care products like Royal Crown Hair Pomade or chicken hatcheries, which packaged baby scrub roosters and other undesirable stock in large quantities for sale. The disc jockeys developed a reputation for colorfully pitching those products on-air; the deejays conducted the advertising sales on a "per inquiry", or commission, meaning that the station did not rely on traditional ratings to gauge the programs' successes.

WLAC Sales Manager E. G. Blackman sought to hire the nation's first African-American news radio broadcaster employed by a major, white-owned radio station, Don Whitehead. Whitehead, a graduate of Tennessee State University, began his career shortly after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968. Whitehead announced the news at the top of the hour during the nighttime hours, he traveled around WLAC's listening area to promote the black colleges and universities and played a big role in increasing enrollment of African-Americans attending college. Performers of years, such as Johnny Winter, the Allman brothers and Greg, have credited the station as being a valuable source of inspiration for their artistic development. According to Levon Helm, Robbie Robertson listened to WLAC at night while in Toronto; as a teenager, Robertson would stay up all night to hear blues from deejay John R. A strange irony about the phenomenon was unknown to most listeners of that time: all four disc jockeys were in fact middle-aged white men, not African-Americans, as