Washington County, Missouri
Washington County is a county located in the eastern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,195; the largest city and county seat is Potosi. The county was organized on August 21, 1813, was named in honor of George Washington, the first President of the United States; the French explorers Renault and La Motte entered the area of present-day Potosi in 1722–23. However, no permanent settlements were made until 1763, when François Breton settled near Potosi and began to operate a mine bearing his name; the Bellview Valley, near Caledonia and Belgrade, was settled in 1802 by the families of Annanias McCoy, Benjamin Crow, Robert Reed. Washington County was organized on August 21, 1813, out of Ste. Genevieve County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 762 square miles, of which 760 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles is water. Franklin County Jefferson County St. Francois County Iron County Crawford County Mark Twain National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 23,344 people, 8,406 households, 6,237 families residing in the county.
The population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 9,894 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.47% White, 2.48% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 1.08% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,406 households out of which 36.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.80% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 29.20% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years.
For every 100 females there were 106.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,001, the median income for a family was $38,193. Males had a median income of $27,871 versus $18,206 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,095. About 17.10% of families and 20.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.40% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or older. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives County Membership Report, Washington County is a part of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the majority religion; the most predominant denominations among residents in Washington County who adhere to a religion are Roman Catholics, Southern Baptists, Baptist Missionary Association of America. Republicans and Democrats hold an equal number of the elected positions in the county. Washington County is divided into three legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives.
District 118 – Currently represented by Ben Harris and consists of the northeastern part of the county and includes Cadet, Mineral Point, Old Mines, Richwoods and part of Potosi. District 119 – Currently represented by Nate Tate. Consists of the northwestern part of the county, including Pea Ridge. District 144 – Currently represented by Paul Fitzwater. Consists of the southern parts of the county including Belgrade, Courtois, Hopewell and part of Potosi. All of Washington County is a part of Missouri's 3rd District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Gary Romine. Washington County is included in Missouri's 8th Congressional District and is represented by Jason T. Smith in the U. S. House of Representatives. Smith won a special election on Tuesday, June 4, 2013, to finish out the remaining term of U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson. Emerson announced her resignation a month after being reelected with over 70 percent of the vote in the district, she resigned to become CEO of the National Rural Electric Cooperative.
At the presidential level, Washington County is a independent-leaning or battleground county although it does have a tendency to lean Democratic. While George W. Bush carried Washington County in 2004, he narrowly lost the county to Al Gore in 2000, both times the margins of victory were closer than in many of the other rural areas. Bill Clinton carried Washington County both times in 1992 and 1996 by convincing double-digit margins, unlike most of the other rural counties in Missouri, Washington County was one of only nine counties in Missouri that favored Barack Obama over John McCain. Obama won Washington County by just five votes in the 2008 election. Like most rural areas throughout Missouri, voters in Washington County adhere to and culturally conservative principles but are more moderate or populist on economic issues, typical of the Dixiecrat philosophy. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed Washington County with 81.37 percent of the vote.
The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state to ban same-sex marriage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it failed in Washington County with 56.48
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Ste. Genevieve, Missouri
Ste. Genevieve is a city in Ste. Genevieve Township and is the county seat of Ste. Genevieve County, United States; the population was 4,410 at the 2010 census. Founded in 1735 by French Canadian colonists and settlers from east of the river, it was the first organized European settlement west of the Mississippi River in present-day Missouri. Founded around 1740 by Canadien settlers and migrants from settlements in the Illinois Country just east of the Mississippi River, Ste. Geneviève is the oldest permanent European settlement in Missouri, it was named for the patron saint of Paris, the capital of France. While most residents were of French-Canadian descent, many of the founding families had been in the Illinois Country for two or three generations, it is one of the oldest colonial settlements west of the Mississippi River. This area was known as Illinois Country, or the Upper Louisiana territory. Traditional accounts suggested a founding of 1735 or so, but the historian Carl Ekberg has documented a more founding about 1750.
The population to the east of the river needed more land, as the soils in the older villages had become exhausted. Improved relations with hostile Native Americans, such as the Osage, made settlement possible. Prior to the French Canadian settlers, indigenous peoples known as the Mississippian culture and earlier cultures had been living in the region for more than a thousand years. At the time of settlement, however, no Indian tribe lived nearby on the west bank. Jacques-Nicolas Bellin's map of 1755, the first to show Ste. Genevieve in the Illinois Country, showed the Kaskaskia natives on the east side of the river, but no Indian village on the west side within 100 miles of Ste. Genevieve. Osage hunting and war parties did enter the area from the north and west; the region had been abandoned by 1500 due to environmental exhaustion, after the peak of Mississippian-culture civilization at Cahokia, the center of the mounds culture. At the time of its founding, Ste. Genevieve was the last of a triad of French Canadian settlements in this area of the mid-Mississippi Valley region.
About five miles northeast of Ste. Genevieve on the east side of the river was Fort de Chartres. Kaskaskia, which became Illinois’ first capital upon statehood, was located about five miles southeast. Prairie du Rocher and Cahokia, Illinois were early local French colonial settlements on the east side of the river. Following defeat by the British in the French and Indian War, in 1762 with the Treaty of Fontainebleau, France secretly ceded the area of the west bank of the Mississippi River to Spain, which formed Louisiana; the Spanish moved the capital of Upper Louisiana from Fort de Chartres fifty miles upriver to St. Louis, they ruled with a light hand and through French-speaking officials. Although under Spanish control for more than 40 years, Ste. Genevieve retained its French language and character. In 1763, the French ceded the land east of the Mississippi to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris that ended Europe's Seven Years' War known on the North American front as the French and Indian War.
French-speaking people from Canada and settlers east of the Mississippi went west to escape British rule. Genevieve after George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763; this transformed all of the captured French land between the Mississippi and the Appalachian Mountains, except Quebec, into an Indian Reserve. The king required settlers to leave or get British permission to stay; these requirements were violated by European-American settlers, who resented efforts to restrict their expansion. During the 1770s, Little Osage and Missouri tribes raided Ste. Genevieve to steal settlers' horses, but the fur trade, marriage of French-Canadian men with Native American women, other commercial dealings created many ties between Native Americans and the Canadiens. During the 1780s, some Shawnee and Lenape migrated to the west side of the Mississippi following American victory in its Revolutionary War; the tribes established villages south of Ste. Genevieve; the Peoria moved near Ste. Genevieve in the 1780s but had a peaceful relationship with the village.
It was not until the 1790s. In addition, they attacked the Shawnee. While at one point Spanish administrators wanted to attack the Big Osage, there were not sufficient French settlers to recruit for a militia to do so; the Big Osage had 1250 men in their village, lived in the prairie. In 1794 Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, the Spanish governor at New Orleans, appointed brothers Pierre Chouteau and Auguste Chouteau of St. Louis to have exclusive trading privileges with the Big Osage, they built a trading post on the Osage River in Big Osage territory. While the natives did not cease their raids on Ste. Genevieve, commercial diplomacy and rewards of the fur trade eased some relations. Following the great flood of 1785, the town moved from its initial location on the floodplain of the Mississippi River, to its present location two miles north and about a half mile inland, it continued to prosper as a village devoted to agriculture wheat and tobacco production. Most of the families were yeomen farmers.
The village raised sufficient grain to send many tons of flour annually for sale to Lower Louisiana and New Orleans. This was essential to the survival of the southern colonies, which could not grow sufficient grain in their cli
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Annexation is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible acquisition of one state's territory by another state. It is held to be an illegal act, it is distinct from conquest, which refers to the acquisition of control over a territory involving a change of sovereignty, differs from cession, in which territory is given or sold through treaty, since annexation is a unilateral act where territory is seized and held by one state. It follows military occupation of a territory. Annexation can be legitimized via general recognition by international bodies. International law regarding the use of force by states has evolved in the 20th century. Key agreements include the 1907 Porter Convention, the 1920 Covenant of the League of Nations and the 1928 Kellogg–Briand Pact, culminating in Article 2 of Chapter I of the United Nations Charter, in force today: "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations".
Since the use of force against territorial integrity or political independence is illegal, the question as to whether title or sovereignty can be transferred in such a situation has been the subject of legal debate. It is held that countries are under obligation to abide by the Stimson Doctrine that a state: "cannot admit the legality of any situation de facto nor... recognize any treaty or agreement entered into between those Governments... not... recognize any situation, treaty or agreement which may be brought about by means contrary to the covenants and obligations of the Pact of Paris of August 27, 1928". These principles were reconfirmed by the 1970 Friendly Relations Declaration. During World War II, the use of annexation deprived whole populations of the safeguards provided by international laws governing military occupations; the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 amplified the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 with respect to the question of the protection of civilians. The authors of the Fourth Geneva Convention made a point of giving the rules regarding inviolability of rights "an absolute character", thus making it much more difficult for a state to bypass international law through the use of annexation.
GCIV Article 47, in the first paragraph in Section III: Occupied territories, restricted the effects of annexation on the rights of persons within those territories: Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory. In 1954, the residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, a Portuguese enclave within India, ended Portuguese rule with the help of nationalist volunteers. From 1954 to 1961, the territory enjoyed de facto independence. In 1961, the territory was merged with India after its government signed an agreement with the Indian government. In 1961, India and Portugal engaged in a brief military conflict over Portuguese-controlled Goa and Daman and Diu.
India invaded and conquered the areas after 36 hours of fighting, ending 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in India. The action was viewed in India as a liberation of Indian territory. A condemnation of the action by the United Nations Security Council was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Goa and Daman and Diu were incorporated into India. During the British colonial rule in India, Sikkim had an ambiguous status, as an Indian princely state or as an Indian protectorate. Prior to Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, acting as the leader of Executive Council, agreed that Sikkim would not be treated as an Indian state. Between 1947 and 1950, Sikkim enjoyed de facto independence. However, the Indian independence spurred popular political movements in Sikkim and the ruler Chogyal came under pressure, he requested Indian help to quell the uprising, offered. Subsequently, in 1950, India signed a treaty with Sikkim bringing it under its suzerainty, controlling its external affairs, defence and communications.
A state council was established in 1955 to allow for constitutional government under the Sikkimese monarch. Meanwhile, trouble was brewing in the state after the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for the Nepalese. In 1967 India and China went to war in Sikkim, Cho La incident where a Chinese occupation was attempted and repulsed. In 1973, riots in front of the palace led to a formal request for protection from India; the Chogyal was proving to be unpopular with the people. In 1975, the Kazi appealed to the Indian Parliament for a change in Sikkim's status so that it could become a state of India. In April, the Indian Army moved into Sikkim, seizing the city of Gangtok and disarming the Palace Guards. A referendum was held in. A few weeks on May 16, 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the monarchy was abolished. On 18 September 1955 at 10:16 am, in what would be the final territorial expansion of the British Empire, Rockall was declared annexed by the British Crown when Lieutenant-Commander
Presbyterian Orphanage of Missouri
Presbyterian Orphanage of Missouri known as Farmington Children's Home and Presbyterian Children's Home, is a historic orphanage and national historic district located at 412 West Liberty Street in Farmington, St. Francois County, Missouri; the district encompasses five contributing large brick buildings built between 1939 and the early 1950s in the Georgian Revival style. They are the Administration Building and Dining Hall, built in 1939 and enlarged in the 1940s, two large dormitories built in the early 1950s, a smaller "hospital" building known as Holmes Cottage built in 1940; the Presbyterian Children's Home vacated the campus in 1999. The campus is an apartment complex for senior citizens, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006
Pilot Knob, Missouri
Pilot Knob is a city in Iron County, United States. The population was 746 at the 2010 census, it lies eightteen miles south east of twenty seven miles north east of Centerville. Pilot Knob was platted in 1858; the city was named from the Pilot Knob mountain nearby, which served as a navigational landmark or "pilot" to hunters and travelers. A post office called Pilot Knob has been in operation since 1858; the Battle of Pilot Knob in the fall of 1864 was a notable clash in the area during the Civil War. A museum near the battle site is dedicated to this event. Pilot Knob is located at 37°37′25″N 90°38′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.90 square miles, of which, 0.89 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 746 people, 335 households, 195 families residing in the city; the population density was 838.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 392 housing units at an average density of 440.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 94.37% White, 1.34% Black or African American, 1.47% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 2.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.61% of the population. There were 335 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.8% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 39.9 years. 24.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.4% male and 53.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 697 people, 283 households, 189 families residing in the city; the population density was 803.7 people per square mile. There were 326 housing units at an average density of 375.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 91.97% White, 5.88% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.86% from other races, 0.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.72% of the population. There were 283 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $19,702, the median income for a family was $22,794.
Males had a median income of $22,344 versus $16,691 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,487. About 20.1% of families and 27.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.3% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over