The movement was given a doctrine by the architect and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in his 1966 book Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. The style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s, particularly in the work of Venturi, Philip Johnson, Charles Moore, in the late 1990s it divided into a multitude of new tendencies, including high-tech architecture, neo-classicism and deconstructivism. The architect and architectural historian Robert Venturi led the attack in 1966 in his book, Complexity, … I welcome the problems and exploit the uncertainties. … I like elements which are rather than pure, compromising rather than clean. … I am for messy vitality over obvious unity, … I prefer both-and to either-or, black and white, and sometimes gray, to black or white. … An architecture of complexity and contradiction must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion, Venturis second book, Learning from Las Vegas, co-authored with his wife, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour, further developed his argument against modernism.
He urged architects take into consideration and to celebrate the architecture in a place. He argued that ornamental and decorative elements accommodate existing needs for variety, Rossi insisted that cities be rebuilt in ways that preserved their historical fabric and local traditions. Similar ideas were and projects were put forward at the Venice Biennale in 1980, the call for a post-modern style was joined by Christian de Portzamparc in France and Ricardo Bofill in Spain, and in Japan by Arata Isozaki. Robert Venturi was both a prominent theorist of postmodernism and an architect who buildings illustrated his ideas, after studying at the American Academy in Rome, he worked in the offices of the modernists Eero Saarinen Louis Kahn until 1958, and became a professor architecture at Yale University. One of his first buildings was the Guild House in Philadelphia and these two houses became symbols of the postmodern movement. He went on to design, in the 1960s and 1970s, Michael Graves designed two of the most prominent buildings in the postmodern style, the Portland Building and the Denver Public Library.
The building has since added to the National Register of Historic Places. The most famous work of architect Charles Moore is the Piazza dItalia in New Orleans, drawing upon the Spanish Revival architecture of the city hall, Moore designed the Beverly Hills Civic Center in a mixture of Spanish Revival, Art Deco and Post-Modern styles. It includes courtyards, colonnades and buildings, with open and semi-enclosed spaces and balconies. Philip Johnson began his career as a pure modernist, in 1935 he co-authored the famous catalog of the Museum of Modern Art exposition on the International Style, and studied with Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer at Harvard. His Glass House in New Canaan, inspired b a similar house by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became an icon of the modernist movement and he worked with Mies on another iconic modernist project, the Seagrams Building in New York City. However, his buildings in the 1970, such as IDS Center in Minneapolis and Pennzoil Place in Houston were massive, sober
The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities. The British Council is a charity registered in England and Wales and it is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Its headquarters are off Trafalgar Square and its Chair is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and chief operating officer Adrian Greer. 1934, British Foreign Office officials created the British Committee for Relations with Other Countries to support English education abroad, promote British culture, the name quickly became British Council for Relations with Other Countries. 1936, The organisation’s name was shortened to the British Council. 1938, The British Council opens its first four offices in Bucarest, Lisbon, the offices in Portugal are currently the oldest in continuous operation in the world. 1942, The British Council undertook a promotion of British culture overseas, the music section of the project was a recording of significant recent compositions by British composers, E. J.
1944, In August, after the liberation of Paris, Austin Gill was sent by the council to reestablish the Paris office,2007, The Russian Foreign Ministry ordered the British Council to close its offices outside Moscow. This caused the British Council to cease carrying out all English-language examinations in Russia from January 2008, in early 2009, a Russian arbitration court ruled that the majority of the tax claims, valued at $6.6 million, were unjustified. All the attackers were killed in counter-attacks by forces guarding the compound, the British Council office was relocated to the British Embassy compound, as the British Council compound was destroyed in the suicide attack. 2013, The British Council in Tripoli, Libya was targeted by a car bomb on the morning of 23 April, diplomatic sources were reported as saying that the bombers were foiled as they were preparing to park a rigged vehicle in front of the compound gate. A jihadist group calling itself the Mujahedeen Brigade was suspected possibly linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, the British Council is organised into 7 Regions.
The British Council has offices in, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad, Venezuela and the United States of America. The British Council has offices in, Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and New Zealand. The British Council has offices in, Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The British Council has offices in, Bangladesh, Nepal, the British Council is a charity governed by Royal Charter. It is a corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign. Its headquarters are off Trafalgar Square and its Chair is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and chief operating officer Adrian Greer
Earls Court Exhibition Centre
It was located in Earls Court within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and was the largest such venue within central London. The founder was John R. Whitley and the first exhibition included performances by Buffalo Bill Cody as part of the American Exhibition and this was followed by Four National Exhibitions, the title of C. Lowes 1892 book about Earls Court and its founder and it was used as one of the venues for both the 1948 and 2012 Olympic Games. It was served by two London Underground stations, Earls Court and West Brompton, opposite its entrances on Warwick Road and Old Brompton Road respectively. In 2013 plans to demolish Earls Court were approved in order to make way for a new residential and retail estate on the site, demolition work began on the site in December 2014. Before 1887 Earls Court was farm land attached to Earls Court Manor, with the arrival of a multiplicity of railway companies, and before London Underground became distinct from the cross country railways, the tracks formed a triangle which became waste ground.
The introduction of two Underground stations, and a network of rails trapped the land. The idea of introducing entertainment to the area was brought about by John Robinson Whitley, Whitley did not profit from his efforts, yet his desire had decided the future of Earls Court and its purpose in years. In 1895 the Great Wheel, a huge Ferris wheel, was created for Imre Kiralfys Empire of India Exhibition, a plaque in the press centre commemorates some of these facts and that Queen Victoria was a frequent visitor to the shows. Kiralfy had built Earls Court in the style of the 1893 Chicago White City for the Columbian Exposition, in 1935 Earls Court was sold and the new owners decided to construct a show centre to rival any other in the world and to dominate the nearby Olympia exhibition hall. The plan was to create Europes largest structure by volume, the project did not go exactly to plan, it ran over budget and was late in completion. The Earls Court Motor Show immediately followed and the Commercial Vehicle show, in spite of all the problems during the latter part of its construction, the project was eventually completed at a cost of £1.5 million.
Following the construction of Earls Court Two, this building became known sometimes as Earls Court One. In response to the drastic need to increase space, Earls Court Two was constructed at a cost of £100 million. The barrel-roofed hall links with Earls Court One and the halls 17,000 sq m floor was entirely column-free, the hall was opened by Princess Diana on 17 October 1991 for the Motorfair. Earls Court Two was demolished by Capco Plc in 2015 and it was situated on land originally occupied by a mass of sheds linked to the Lillie Bridge Engineering and Railway Depot. Earls Court hosted many shows and exhibitions throughout the years, including the Earls Court Motor Show the Ideal Home Show, each summer from 1950 to 1999 Earls Court was home to the Royal Tournament, the first and biggest military tattoo in the world. For this the area now occupied by Earls Court Two became a stables, notable historic exhibitions at the centre include, The American Show,1887
English Heritage is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection. This comprises over 400 of Englands historic buildings and sites spanning more than 5,000 years of history, within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrians Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaques scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings and it was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to establish it as an independent trust. Over the centuries, what is now called Heritage has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the Kings Works after the Norman Conquest, the Office of Works, the Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Works, and the Ministry of Works. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Culture, the states legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882.
Central government subsequently developed several systems of protection for different types of assets, introducing listing for buildings after WW2. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984, soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of parks and gardens, was set up in 1984. Registration is a consideration in the planning process. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions, in 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive. As a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks, the administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. It was retained on grounds of performing a function which should remain independent from Government.
However the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity, the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage them. The change occurred on 1 April 2015 with the planning and heritage protection functions remaining an independent, non-departmental public body. The new trust has a licence to operate the properties until 2023, English Heritage is the guardian of over 400 sites and monuments, the most famous of which include Stonehenge, Iron Bridge and Dover Castle
Admiralty, Hong Kong
Admiralty is the eastern extension of the central business district on the Hong Kong Island of Hong Kong. It is located on the end of the Central and Western District, bordered by Wan Chai to the east. The name of Admiralty refers to the former Admiralty Dock in the area housed a naval dockyard. The dock was demolished when land was reclaimed and developed northward as the HMS Tamar naval base. The Chinese name, Kam Chung, golden Bell, refers to a gold-coloured bell that was used for timekeeping at Wellington Barracks. The area was developed as an area by the British military in the 19th century. They built the Wellington Barracks, Murray Barracks, Victoria Barracks, following the urbanisation of the north shore of Hong Kong Island, the military area split the urban area. The Hong Kong Government tried many times to get the land from the British military to connect the two areas, but the military refused. It was not until the 1970s that the land was returned to government and changed to commercial buildings.
The Admiralty Station of the MTR was built on the site of the Hong Kong dockyards which was built in 1878. After its completion, the area became known as Admiralty. During the 2014 Hong Kong protests, substantial tracts of the area were occupied by suffragists, buildings in Admiralty consist primarily of office buildings, government buildings, shopping malls and hotels. There are several parks in the area, Hong Kong Park, Tamar Park, the main development of the area in recent years has been the development of the Tamar site into the Central Government Complex, which started operating in 2011. Facing Victoria Harbour, the houses the Office of the Chief Executive, the Legislative Council Complex. The complex is connected to the MTR Admiralty Station via an underground walkway, both roads run from west to east and connect Central to Wan Chai. Other streets include Rodney Street and Tim Mei Avenue, trams are running across Admiralty along Queensway. Most of the buildings of the area are connected through the Central Elevated Walkway, the area is served by the peaktram and Admiralty Station of the MTR.
It is a station between Island Line, Tsuen Wan Line and South Island Line
Lots Road Power Station
It is sometimes erroneously referred to as Fulham Power Station, a name properly applied to another former station a mile upriver. A power station at Lots Road was originally planned by the Brompton, the B&PCR was controlled by the District Railway from 1898, and was sold in 1901 to Charles Yerkes Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company, which built the station to provide power to the DR. The station allowed the District line trains to change from steam haulage to electric, at around the same time the Metropolitan Railway built its power station at Neasden. The station was built end-on to the Thames, on the bank of the tidal Chelsea Creek. Construction started in 1902 and was completed in December 1904, the station becoming operational in February 1905, the station burned 700 tonnes of coal a day and had a generating capacity of 50,000 kW. At the time it was claimed to be the largest power station ever built, the station was re-equipped and improved several times. During the early 1920s a sump & hopper system for more efficient fuel handling was installed and it was designed by The Underfeed Stoker Company and constructed under their stewardship by Peter Lind & Company, who still trade in London today.
The modernisation undertaken in the 1960s converted the station to 50 Hz generation, the number of chimneys was reduced from the original four to two. Between 1974 and 1977, with the discovery of gas in the North Sea. The station worked in conjunction with the ex-London County Council Tramways power station at Greenwich to supply the London Underground network, the station played a part in the birth of commercial radio in the UK. When the first two stations, LBC and Capital Radio, opened in October 1973, the site for their medium wave transmitters was not complete. As a result, a temporary Tee antenna was strung up between the two chimneys, until the permanent site at Saffron Green was ready in 1975. Some years the site was used again, on 720 kHz which was in use until 2001 when the transmitter was moved to Crystal Palace. In the 1990s, it was decided not to re-equip Lots Road again and it was finally shut down on 21 October 2002, and since all power for the tube system has been supplied from the National Grid.
The scheme was delayed because Kensington and Chelsea Council refused planning permission for one of the towers, on 30 January 2006 the Secretary of State granted planning permission for the development. In 2007 the developer hoped to complete the scheme by 2013 and it has since been delayed by the economic downturn, and no revised date is yet available. On 13 September 2010, Thames Water announced that they would be building their Thames Tideway super sewer, One of their preferred access sites adjoins the proposed Lots Road development site as shown on the Thames Water Website under Cremorne Wharf Foreshore. The consultation period ended in Autumn 2010, on 26 September 2013, developer Hutchison Whampoa Properties broke ground on the eight-acre site, rebranding it as Chelsea Waterfront, with Mayor of London Boris Johnson speaking at the ceremony
Convoys Wharf, formerly called the Kings Yard, is the site of Deptford Dockyard, the first of the Royal Dockyards, built on a riverside site in Deptford, by the River Thames in London. It was first developed in 1513 by Henry VIII to build vessels for the Royal Navy, Convoys Wharf covers most of the site of Sayes Court manor house and gardens, home of diarist John Evelyn. The site was owned until 2008 by News International, which used it to import newsprint and it is now owned by Hutchison Whampoa Limited and is subject to a planning application to convert it into residential units, although a large part of the site has safeguarded wharf status. The eastern area adjoining Watergate Street was Palmers Wharf, the Kings Yard was established in 1513 by Henry VIII as the first Royal Dockyard building vessels for the Royal Navy, and the leading dockyard of the period. It brought a population and prosperity to Deptford. In 1698 Tsar Peter I of Russia aged 25, came to Deptford to learn about shipbuilding and he was granted the use of John Evelyn’s Sayes Court, adjoining the Royal Dockyard, by William III.
In three months he and his party caused considerable damage to the gardens, and to the house, with much of the furniture broke. Sir Christopher Wren was instructed to survey the property and declared it entirely ruined, at the mouth of Deptford Creek, on the Fairview Housing estate, there is a statue, designed by Mihail Chemiakin and gifted by Russia commemorating Peters visit. By the 18th century, due to the silting of the Thames and it was shut down from 1830 to 1844 and in 1864 a Parliamentary Committee recommended that the dockyards at Deptford should be closed. Their recommendation was accepted and the Deptford dockyard was closed in May 1869 and it had produced some 450 ships, the last being the wooden screw corvette HMS Druid launched in 1869. The complete site at Deptford, including a lease on the LB&SCR docks, was acquired and the market opened in 1871, By 1889 the site had been extended to 27 acres. In 1907 at its peak,184,971 cattle and 49,350 sheep were imported through the market but by 1912 these figures had declined to 21,547 cattle and 11,993 sheep.
The Foreign Cattle Market was taken over by the War Department in 1914, on an agreement from the City of London Corporation. The Royal Naval Victulling Depot operated here included a rum store. During the Second World War a bomb destroyed one of the storehouses and killed a number of men, during the war, because of the Blitz some of the stores were dispersed to various locations including Park Royal. The yard served as a United States Advance Amphibious Vehicle base, on the closure of the Victualling Depot in the 1960s the establishment was renamed The Royal Naval Stores Depot and moved to a new building within Convoys Wharf. The Depot was the main Air Freight hub for the RN and was busy during Falklands War. It continued as the central RN Stationey Store and Joint Services Baggage oprerations, the site purchased by News International from the UK Ministry of Defence for £1,600,000, and a remainder in 1986, for £340,000
Herman Miller (manufacturer)
Herman Miller, Inc. based in Zeeland, Michigan, is a major American manufacturer of office furniture and home furnishings. Among classic Herman Miller products are the Equa chair, Aeron chair, Noguchi table, Marshmallow sofa, Herman Miller is credited with the invention of the office cubicle in 1968 under then-director of research Robert Propst. Herman Miller was founded in 1905 as the Star Furniture Co. in Zeeland, initially the company produced high quality furniture, especially bedroom suites, in historic revival styles. It became Herman Miller, Inc. in 1960, until 1930, the company produced only traditional wood furniture. Rohde turned the company in a new direction and in 1933, Herman Miller debuted a line of modern furniture at the Century of Progress exposition in Chicago. In 1941, the opened a showroom in the Merchandise Mart in Chicago. Rohde died in 1944 and was replaced by architect George Nelson, dirk Jan De Pree continued to serve as Herman Miller CEO until 1961, when he was forced by illness to step-down.
He was succeeded by his son, Hugh De Pree, Hugh served as company CEO until the mid-1980s, when he was succeeded by his brother Max De Pree, who held the position until 1990. In 1961, Herman Miller added the Herman Miller Research Division, based in Ann Arbor and this division developed the Action Office line in 1964 under the supervision of Robert Propst and with the design assistance of George Nelsons New York design studio. Though the initial line, known as Action Office I, was not a success, it led Propst to develop the Action Office II line, the impact of Action Office II on the workplace cannot be overstated, as it revolutionized the office environment. In 1978, Action Office II was renamed simply Action Office, Herman Millers line of Action Office products has generated sales of over $5 billion to date. Designer Tom Newhouse introduced the Newhouse group of free-standing furniture in 1987, Ray Wilkes designed the Modular Seating Group, popularly known as the Chicklet Chairs. Artist Stephen Frykholm is noted for his contributions to Herman Miller.
”Herman Miller is consistently recognized as one of Fortune Magazines Most Admired Companies, having placed at the top of the list for Furniture companies for the past 18 consecutive years. According to CNN Money, as of March 2011, Herman Miller is ranked as the second most admired company in the Home Equipment and they scored first in Innovation, People Management, Use of Corporate Assets, Social Responsibility, and Quality of Products/Services. In Quality of Management they scored second place, third in Long Term Investments, fourth in Financial Soundness, in March 2008, they settled an antitrust lawsuit with the states of New York and Illinois for $750,000. The lawsuit focused on Herman Millers use of a suggested retail pricing policy, many companies employ such policies to avoid price erosion in the internet channel. Herman Miller has engaged in a number of initiatives to promote sustainability, the company has developed a technique of mixing sawdust with chicken manure to produce topsoil.
The company uses a database to every chemical in each product used by the company
The Peak Tower is a leisure and shopping complex located at Victoria Gap, near the summit of Victoria Peak on Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. It houses the upper terminal of the Peak Tram, both the Peak Tower and the Peak Tram are owned by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels group, the owner of Hong Kongs famous Peninsula Hotel along with many other properties. The tower and tram are jointly promoted by the branding known as The Peak. The Peak Tower is located at an elevation of 396 m,156 m below the summit of Victoria Peak, in 1881, Alexander Findlay Smith, who owned a hotel on the Peak, petitioned for the right to introduce a funicular railway to Hong Kong. It took three years to build, as much of the equipment and rails had to be hauled uphill by the workers. A simple wooden structure was built for the first terminal, the Peak Tram was opened for public service on 28 May 1888 by the Governor Sir George William des Voeux. The current Peak Tower is the second on the site, the original tower was designed by Hong Kong architect Chung Wah Nan.
Construction of the first one started in 1960, and it was opened on 29 August 1969, the Tower Restaurant was situated on the top deck while the Peak Coffee Shop was located on the floor below. Both the upper floors were supported by two columns allowing a space between the upper and lower parts of the tower. This design feature has been retained in the tower. The first tower was demolished in 1993 and a ceremony on the new tower was held the same year. The current Peak Tower was the work of the British architect Terry Farrell and it has seven floors with a total area of 10,400 m² with a wok shape at the top. A viewing platform located on the third floor overlooks Victoria Harbour, the building was altered from 2005-2006 at a cost of $100 million. The lower portion was glassed in to increase space. Apart from the Peak Tram terminal, viewing terrace, and gift shops, Hong Kongs Historical Adventure and the Peak Explorer Motion Simulator. The Peak Tower is located close to a leisure and shopping centre