The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. As a commercial and industrial city with a port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region. Bremen is the second most populous city in Northern Germany and eleventh in Germany, Bremen is a major cultural and economic hub in the northern regions of Germany. Bremen is home to dozens of galleries and museums, ranging from historical sculptures to major art museums. Bremen has a reputation as a working class city, along with this, Bremen is home to a large number of multinational companies and manufacturing centers. Companies headquartered in Bremen include the Hachez chocolate company and Vector Foiltec, four-time German football champions Werder Bremen are based in the city. Bremen is some 60 km south from the Weser mouth on the North Sea, with Bremerhaven right on the mouth the two comprise the state of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
The marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12,000 BC, burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. Since The Renaissance, some scientists have believed that the entry Fabiranum or Phabiranon in Ptolemys Fourth Map of Europe, written in 150 AD, but Ptolemy gives geographic coordinates, and by these dates Phabiranon is situated northeast of the mouth of river Visurgis. At that time the Chauci lived in the now called north-western Germany or Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons, during the Saxon Wars the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, and lost the war. Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, made a new law, the Lex Saxonum which stated that Saxons were not allowed to worship Odin, in 787 Willehad of Bremen became the first Bishop of Bremen. The citys first stone walls were built in 1032, around this time trade with Norway and the northern Netherlands began to grow, thus increasing the importance of the city.
The city was recognised as an entity with its own laws. Property was to be inherited without feudal claims for reversion to its original owner. This privilege laid the foundation for Bremens status of imperial immediacy, since the city was the major taxpayer, its consent was generally sought. In this way the city wielded fiscal and political power within the Prince-Archbishopric, in 1260 Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. In 1350, the number of inhabitants reached 20,000, around this time the Hansekogge became a unique product of Bremen
Turkish people, or the Turks, known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages, ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, the ethnonym Turk may be first discerned in Herodotus reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians, during the first century AD. Pomponius Mela refers to the Turcae in the north of the Sea of Azov. The first definite references to the Turks come mainly from Chinese sources in the sixth century, in these sources, Turk appears as Tujue, which referred to the Göktürks. Although Turk refers to Turkish people, it may sometimes refer to the wider language group of Turkic peoples. In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers, the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not usually as Turks.
In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a more positive connotation. The Turkish-speakers of Anatolia were the most loyal supporters of Ottoman rule, Turkish Jews, Christians, or even Alevis may be considered non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish Arab followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia are sometimes considered Turks, article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a Turk as anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship. Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengriism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as servants, during the booty of Arab raids, the Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants.
Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian, under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasids, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle, as the Abbasid caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia, when the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture, in dire straits, the Byzantine Empire turned to the West for help setting in motion the pleas that led to the First Crusade.
Once the Crusaders took Iznik, the Seljuk Turks established the Sultanate of Rum from their new capital, Konya, by the 12th century the Europeans had begun to call the Anatolian region Turchia or Turkey, meaning the land of the Turks
The Funen Painters or Fynboerne were a loose group of Danish artists who formed an art colony on the island of Funen at the very beginning of the 20th century. They were strongly influenced by Kristian Zahrtmann who taught at the Artists Studio School in Copenhagen from 1885 to 1908, like Zahrtmann, they abandoned the traditions of the Danish Academy and ventured into Naturalism and Realism. The close-knit core members of the group were Johannes Larsen from Kerteminde in the corner of Funen and Fritz Syberg and Peter Hansen. Christine married Sigurd Swane who moved to Kerteminde to establish their family home, Møllebakken, near Kerteminde, became the home of Johannes and Alhed Larsen and soon developed into a meeting place for the Funen Artists at the beginning of the 20th century. They were joined by Harald Giersing, who married Sybergs sister Besse, another artist associated with the group was Poul S. Christiansen who came from the north of Funen and became a close friend of Zahrtmann after he joined his school in 1885.
It was there that he met Johannes Larsen, as a result of their paintings of everyday country life, the Funen Painters were sometimes disparagingly called bondemalerne or the peasant painters. The three main artists among the Funen Painters had much in common, as in Philipsens artwork, the influence of Paul Gauguin and Impressionism can be seen in their paintings. Zahrtmann had however encouraged the artists to develop their own style although all three emulated his use of strong colour, Johannes Larsen refused to be identified with a so-called Funen School, preferring to ascribe their relationship to a common background and their close friendship. The Johannes Larsen Museum on Møllebakken near Kerteminde is the home of the artist. The Faaborg Museum in the town of Faaborg on Funens southern coast is closely associated with the Funen Painters, especially Fritz Syberg. The museum puts on exhibitions of the Funen Painters works. Danish art Skagen Painters Bornholm school of painters
The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains
Farum municipality was a municipality in the northeast of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. On January 1,2007 it merged with Værløse municipality to form the new Furesø municipality as a consequence of Denmarks Municipal Reform. The municipality had a population of 18,662, covered an area of 23 km², and was, according to size, the main town and the site of its municipal council was Farum. Other villages were Bregnerød and Stavnsholt, neighboring municipalities were Birkerød to the east, Allerød to the north, Stenløse to the southwest and Værløse to the south. The municipality Søllerød to the southeast was separated from Farum by the lake Furesø, most of Farums border to Værløse was made up by the lake Farum Sø, except for a short isthmus at Fiskebæk. Between the two lakes of Farum Sø and Furesø, along the isthmus, runs a north-south traffic corridor with motorway and this corridor effectively divides the former municipality in two sections, called Farum East and Farum West, which are only connected by bridges across the motorway.
In 1901 Farum had 1,200 inhabitants, in the early 1950s the population was ca. Through the 1960s and 1970s the community turned into a town due to its proximity to Copenhagen. By 1980 the population was over 16,000. in 1952 Farum, although the municipality consisted of only one parish, it was not affected by the municipal reform of 1970. The longtime mayor Peter Brixtofte was involved in a scandal that became the focus of national scrutiny in 2002. He was forced to resign after being implicated in a variety of corruption, Brixtoftes policy of forcing the unemployed to work in return for benefits was first controversial but has since become a nationwide rule. Another way of creating funds was to sell off public services, in June 2006 Brixtofte was sentenced to two years prison. After Brixtoftes economic schemes went bust, Farum had to raise its municipal tax drastically, the neighbouring municipality of Værløse protested against being merged with Farum, as the government had proposed. Other municipalities with greater economic difficulties protested against this, also, a newly closed air force air base was given to Furesø municipality to own and perhaps turn into a recreational area.
Farums last mayor was Lars Carpens who had replaced Brixtofte in 2002, Farum Furesø municipality Farum station Municipal statistics, NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata
The Folketing, known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament of the Kingdom of Denmark. Established in 1849, until 1953 the Folketing was the house of a bicameral parliament, called the Rigsdag. It meets in Christiansborg Palace, on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, the Folketing passes all laws, approves the cabinet, and supervises the work of the government. It is responsible for adopting the states budgets and approving the states accounts, as set out in the Danish Constitution, the Folketing shares power with the reigning monarch. In practice, the role is limited to signing laws passed by the legislature. The Folketing consists of 179 representatives,175 from Denmark,2 from Greenland, general elections must be held every four years, but it is within the powers of the Prime Minister to ask the monarch to call for an election before the term has elapsed. On a vote of no confidence, the Folketing may force a single Minister or the government to resign.
Members are democratically elected by proportional representation,135 by the DHondt method and 40 by the Sainte-Laguë method, the Danish political system has traditionally generated coalitions. Most post-war governments have been minority coalitions ruling with the support of non-government parties, the most recent general election took place on 18 June 2015 and the Folketing reconvened on 6 October. The first sitting of the house was attended by Queen Margrethe II, from 1849 to 1953 the Folketing was one of the two houses in the bicameral parliament known as the Rigsdag, the other house was known as the Landsting. Since both houses, in principle, had power, the terms upper house and lower house were not generally used. The difference between the houses was voter representation, the Folketing was elected by common vote among men and consisted mainly of independent farmers and merchants as well as the educated classes. From 1915 both men and women had the right of vote for both houses, and the Landsting was elected by vote, although indirectly and with a higher age limit than for the Folketing.
During the next decades, law-making mainly took place in the Folketing, in 1953, a revised constitution was adopted by popular vote. Among the changes was the elimination of the Landsting and the introduction of a unicameral parliament, Christiansborg Palace has been the domicile of parliament since 1849. The palace is located in the heart of Copenhagen, winning a seat in parliament requires only 2% of the vote. With such a low threshold, a large number of parties are represented in the chamber, making it all. No party has achieved this since 1901, all Danish governments since have been coalitions or one-party minority governments
Peter Brixtofte was a Member of the Danish Parliament representing Venstre from 1973 to 1977, from 1979 to 1981, during 1983 and from 1990 to 8 February 2005. Brixtofte served as the Tax Minister of Denmark from 19 November 1992 to 24 January 1993 and he is best known as having been the Mayor of Farum. He was criminally convicted for actions taken while holding that office and was jailed. He was the brother of Brixx Member, Jens Brixtofte, for several years Brixttofte was the Mayor of Farum with his party having had an absolute majority. He was quite popular and Farum was generally considered a successful municipality thanks to its success in finding jobs for the unemployed and it was held up as having been a good example by Liberal politicians during national elections. Brixtofte made headlines with a highly untraditional sale-and-lease-back model where the municipality sold buildings and facilities to private companies, due to various national tax issues this was highly advantageous for both parties.
This scheme allowed the municipality to have one of the lowest tax rates in Denmark at the time as spending a huge amount of money on various welfare programs. Every child in school was given a computer and the elderly were offered a free annual trip to a foreign holiday destination. A lot of building projects were initiated such as a sports arena and marina completely out of proportion to what one would expect from a city of this size. Due to the tax issues of the model the expenses for these programs were largely covered by all taxpayers of Denmark. For a long time, the status of the scheme was unclear. In February 2002 several scandals surrounding his administration were revealed in the media, the first headlines involved exceptionally high spending in his administration. It was claimed that he routinely drank luxury red wine on the expense account. Furthermore, the wine was bought at a restaurant in which Brixtofte was a shareholder. Municipal employees reported that the mayor had over years shown increasing signs of alcoholism and established an autocratic.
Council members said he had attempted to prevent them from investigating his spending, svend Petersen has previously been found guilty in fraud in an unrelated case. During the initial investigations, several documents important to the case mysteriously disappeared from the town hall, eventually the investigations resulted in two criminal cases being raised against Brixtofte who pleaded not guilty in both. On 20 June 2006 Brixtofte was found guilty in the case and was sentenced to jail for 2 years
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as sediment mixed in suspension with water in a body of such as a river. It may exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body, Silt has a moderate specific area with a typically non-sticky, plastic feel. Silt usually has a floury feel when dry, and a slippery feel when wet, Silt can be visually observed with a hand lens. Silt is created by a variety of physical processes capable of splitting the generally sand-sized quartz crystals of primary rocks by exploiting deficiencies in their lattice and these involve chemical weathering of rock and regolith, and a number of physical weathering processes such as frost shattering and haloclasty. The main process is abrasion through transport, including fluvial comminution, aeolian attrition and it is in semi-arid environments that substantial quantities of silt are produced. Silt is sometimes known as rock flour or stone dust, especially produced by glacial action.
Mineralogically, silt is composed mainly of quartz and feldspar, sedimentary rock composed mainly of silt is known as siltstone. Liquefaction created by an earthquake is silt suspended in water that is hydrodynamically forced up from below ground level. In the Udden–Wentworth scale, silt particles range between 0.0039 and 0.0625 mm, larger than clay but smaller than sand particles, ISO14688 grades silts between 0.002 mm and 0.063 mm. In actuality, silt is chemically distinct from clay, and unlike clay, grains of silt are approximately the size in all dimensions, furthermore. Clays are formed from thin plate-shaped particles held together by electrostatic forces, according to the U. S. Department of Agriculture Soil Texture Classification system, the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.05 mm particle size. The USDA system has been adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization, in the Unified Soil Classification System and the AASHTO Soil Classification system, the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.075 mm particle size.
Silts and clays are distinguished mechanically by their plasticity, Silt is easily transported in water or other liquid and is fine enough to be carried long distances by air in the form of dust. Thick deposits of silty material resulting from deposition by aeolian processes are called loess. Silt and clay contribute to turbidity in water, Silt is transported by streams or by water currents in the ocean. When silt appears as a pollutant in water the phenomenon is known as siltation, deposited by annual floods along the Nile River, created the rich, fertile soil that sustained the Ancient Egyptian civilization. In south east Bangladesh, in the Noakhali district, cross dams were built in the 1960s whereby silt gradually started forming new land called chars, the district of Noakhali has gained more than 28 square miles of land in the past 50 years