Single-family detached home
A stand-alone house is a free-standing residential building. Sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling; the definition of this type of house may vary between statistical agencies. The definition, however includes two elements: a single-family means that the building is a structure maintained and used as a single dwelling unit. Though a dwelling unit shares one or more walls with another dwelling unit, it is a single family residence if it has direct access to a street or thoroughfare and does not share heating facilities, hot water equipment, nor any other essential facility or service with any other dwelling unit. In some jurisdictions, allowances are made for basement suites or mother-in-law suites without changing the description from "single family", it does exclude, any short-term accommodation, large-scale rental accommodation, or condominiums. Most single-family homes are built on lots larger than the structure itself, adding an area surrounding the house, called a yard in North American English or a garden in British English.
Garages can be found on most lots. Houses with an attached front entry garage, closer to the street than any other part of the house is derisively called a snout house. Terms corresponding to single-family detached home in common use are single-family home, single-detached dwelling, detached house, separate house. In the United Kingdom, the term single-family home is unknown, except through Internet exposure to U. S. media. Whereas in the U. S. housing is divided into "single-family homes", "multi-family dwellings", "condo/townhouse", etc. the primary division of residential property in British terminology is between "houses" and "flats". In pre-industrial societies, most people lived in multi-family dwellings for most of their lives. A child lived with their parents from birth until marriage, generally moved in with the parents of the man or the woman, so that the grandparents could help raise the young children and so the middle generation could care for their aging parents; this type of arrangement saved some of the effort and materials used for construction and, in colder climates, heating.
If people had to move to a new place or were wealthy enough, they could build or buy a home for their own family, but this was not the norm. The idea of a nuclear family living separately from their relatives as the norm is a recent development related to rising living standards in North America and Europe during the early modern and modern eras. In the New World, where land was plentiful, settlement patterns were quite different from the close-knit villages of Europe, meaning many more people lived in large farms separated from their neighbors; this has produced a cultural preference in settler societies for space. A countervailing trend has been industrialization and urbanization, which has seen more and more people around the world move into multi-story apartment blocks. In the New World, this type of densification was halted and reversed following the Second World War when increased automobile ownership and cheaper building and heating costs produced suburbanization instead. Single-family homes are now common in rural and suburban and some urban areas across the New World and Europe, as well as wealthier enclaves within the Third World.
They are most common in high-income regions. For example, in Canada, according to the 2006 census, 55.3% of the population lived single-detached houses but this varied by region. In the ville of Montreal, Canada's second-most populous municipality, only 7.5% of the population lived in single-detached homes, while in the city of Calgary, the third most populous, 57.8% did. Note that this includes the "city limits" populations only, not the wider region; the term "single-family detached" describes who lives in it. It does not indicate shape, or location; because they are not surrounded by other buildings, the potential size of a single-family house is limited only by the budget of the builder and local law. They can range from a tiny country cottage or cabin or a small suburban prefabricated home to a large mansion, aristocratic estate or stately home. Sizes in real estate advertising are given in area, or by the number of bedrooms or bathrooms/toilets; the choice in materials used or the shape chosen will depend on what is common to the vernacular architecture of that region, or the lasting trends in professionally designed tract housing.
A traditional log and plaster hut, a timber frame and drywall North American starter home, or a European-style concrete-and-slate house are all varieties of single-family detached housing. Single-detached homes have both disadvantages; the entire space around the building is private to the owner and family, in most cases, one can add onto the existing house if more room is needed. They typically have no property management fees, such as the ones associated with condominia and townhomes; these are considered advantages. Since single detached homes are built in places where land is more plentiful, there is a distinct cost advantage per square foot (although this varies based
Flintholm is a modern neighbourhood in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located just south of Flintholm station, on the border with Vanløse, it is the result of a redevelopment of a former gasworks site which began in 2004 and is still ongoing; the neighborhood covers an area of about 10 hectares and consists of a mixture of housing, offices and several minor green spaces. The only surviving building from the gasworks, The Yellow Villa, now serves as a local cultural centre. Flintholm takes its name from an estate, founded when a large area of farm land which had until belonged to Ladegården, a farm under Copenhagen Castle, was auctioned off in lots in 1765, it was named after a farmer, who acquired the property in the 1790s. In 1827, most of the land was sold off to a neighbouring estate, Grøndal, while the house, including a small wood and a garden, was sold to H. J. Grove, a post officer, who used it as a summer retreat; the area remained open countryside until the 1890s when it was acquired by the City and designated for municipal utility and service functions.
Frederiksberg's second gasworks opened at 76 Finsensvej in 1895 and was in 1908 joined by Finsen Power Station down the road. Flintholm House was adapted for use as an infectious decease hospital, it consisted of 12 beds in 40 beds in two tent wings. It was in use in 1917, when Frederiksberg was hit by an outbreak of scarlet fever, again a few years during an outbreak of smallpox. Up through the century, Frederiksberg Gasworks saw several expansions in the years after World War II, before it was closed down in 1964. In 2001, prompted by the opening of Flintholm station, Frederiksberg Municipality, in collaboration with DSB and private investors, decided to develop a masterplan for redevelopment of the area into a new mixed-use neighbourhood; the new streets and spaces that were created were named for Danish revue artists, such as Preben Kaas, Dirch Passer, Elga Olga, Kjeld Petersen, Marguerite Viby and Stig Lommer. The area is therefore known as Revykvarteret "The Revue Quarter"; the only surviving building from the gasworks is a building known as the Yellow House.
It is now used as a local cultural centre. It was listed in 2003. Flintholm Church is not located within the area but further south at Peter Bangs Vej. NCC's Flintholm Company House was designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Architects and is located next to Flintholm Station, it contains 3m000 square metres for retail and cafés. KPMG inaugurated their new Danish head office in the area in 2011, their building has room for 1,700 employees. Flintholm station is an important hub for transport, serving both the Frederikssund and Ringlines of the S-train network and the M1 and M2 lines of the Copenhagen Metro. White Houses, Frederiksberg Den Gule Villa
White Houses, Frederiksberg
The White Houses in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, are a building society development built for workers at Frederiksberg Gasworks. It is located near Frederiksberg Gardens; the first gasworks in Frederiksberg opened in 1860 and was located at H. C. Ørsteds Vej. When the installation of gas in private homes became common in the 1890s, it was decided to build a new plant at Flintholm, which opened in 1895, it was located in rural surroundings a few kilometres outside town and with no public transport available, it prompted a wish for new residences for its workers, located closer to their new workplace. Frederiksberg Gasworks Workers' Building Society was founded in 1898 after an act adopted earlier that year provided for state loans for the construction of workers housing; the building society acquired a 4.5 hectare site at Peter Bangs Vej, just under one kilometre from Frederiksberg Gasworks. The architects Gotfred Tvede and Olaf Schmidth were charged with the design of the houses which were built in 1788 and 1900.
The development contained 194 dwellings as well as a building with retail space. Frederiksberg Workers' Building Society was dissolved in 1922 when the apartments were converted into private ownership; the development consists of seven detached houses. The design is based on a cubic volume where the length and height of roof ridge all measure 8.46 m. The semi-detached houses consist of two cubes put together. Gotfred Tvede and Olaf Schmidth created seven different designs for variation; the buildings are designed in a Neo-Baroque style locally known as palæstil, inspired by 18th-century Rococo mansions, popular in Denmark at the time. Common features are white-dressed facades, Mansard roofs with red tiles, gable dormers and small paned windows; the house owners are now organized in Vejlauget FAB. The houses are located on Peter Bangs Vej, Kronprinsensvej, Folkets Allé, Frihedsvej and Broderskabsvej. Ida Auken, politician Eberts Villaby Lyset Official website Interactive map of the development Original renderings
M2 is a line of the Copenhagen Metro, colored yellow on the map. It runs from Vanløse to Lufthavnen through the center of Copenhagen, sharing track with the M1 from Vanløse to Christianshavn; the line was built along with M1 as part of the redevelopment of Ørestad. The principle of the line was passed in 1992, construction commenced in 1998; the line opened in several stages between 2002 and 2007. It is owned by Metroselskabet and operated by Metro Service, operates with a headway between four and twenty minutes; the line is 14.2 kilometers long, runs in a tunnel through the city center between Lindevang and Amager Strand. It connects the eastern borough of Vanløse and the municipality of Frederiksberg to the city center of Copenhagen, as well as the western parts of Amager and Copenhagen Airport, it provides transfer to DSB trains at two stations. Its southern end, in the district of Amager Øst follows the same route as a disused railway line, along the coast of Øresund; the background for the metro was the urban development of the Ørestad area of Copenhagen.
The principle of building a rail transit was passed by the Parliament of Denmark on 24 June 1992, with the Ørestad Act. The responsibility for developing the area, as well as building and operating the metro, was given to the Ørestad Development Corporation, a joint venture between Copenhagen Municipality and the Ministry of Finance. Three modes of transport were considered: a tramway, a light rail and a rapid transit. In October 1994, the Development Corporation chose a light rapid transit system; the decision to build stage 2, from Nørreport to Vanløse, stage 3 to the airport, was made by parliament on 21 December 1994. Stage 2 involved the establishment of the company Fredriksbergbaneselskapet I/S in February 1995, owned 70% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 30% by Fredriksberg Municipality; the third stage would be built by Østamagerbaneselskapet I/S, established in September 1995 and owned 55% by the Ørestad Development Corporation and 45% by Copenhagen County. In October 1996, a contract was signed with the Copenhagen Metro Construction Group for building the lines, with Ansaldo for delivery of the trains and operate the system the first five years.
COMET was a consortium comprised Astaldi, Bachy, SAE, Ilbau, NCC Rasmussen & Schiøtz Anlæg and Tarmac Construction. Construction started in November 1996, with the moving of underground pipes and wires around the station areas. In August 1997, work commenced at the depot, in September, COMET started the first mainline construction work. In October and November, the two tunnel boring machines, christened Liva and Bette, were delivered, they started digging each barrel of the tunnel from Islands Brygge in February 1998. The same month, the Public Transport Authority gave the necessary permits to operate a driverless metro; the section between Fasanvej and Frederiksberg is a former S-train line, was last operated as such on 20 June 1998. The first section of tunnel was completed by September 1998, after which the TMBs moved to Havnegade. By December 1998, work had started on all the initial nine stations. Plans for M2 were presented to the public in April 1999, with a debate emerging if the proposed elevated solution was the best.
In May, the first trains were delivered, trial runs began at the depot. In December, the tunnels were completed to Strandlodsvej, the TMBs were moved to Havnegade, where they started to grind towards Frederiksberg. From 1 January 2000, the S-train service from Solbjerg to Vanløse was terminated, work to rebuild to metro started. By February 2001, all tunnels were finished. In March 2001, the Copenhagen County Council decided to start construction of stage 3. On 6 November 2001, the first train operates through a tunnel section and on 28 November, laying of tracks along stage 1 and stage 2A completed. An agreement about financing stage 3 was reached on 12 April. By 22 May, the 18 delivered; the section from Nørreport to Lergravsparken and Vesterport was opened on 19 October 2002. The system had a 12-minute headway on each of the two services. From 3 December this was reduced to 9 minutes, from 19 December to 6 minutes. Operation of the system was subcontracted to Ansaldo, who again subcontracted it to Metro Service, a subsidiary of Serco.
The contract had a duration of five years, with an option for extension for another three. Trial runs on the next section of metro, stage 2A from Nørreport to Frederiksberg, began on 24 February, it opened on 29 May 2003. All changes to bus and tin schedules in Copenhagen took place on 25 May, but to allow Queen Margrethe II to open the line, the opening needed to be adapted to her calendar; this caused four days without a bus service along the line. Stage 2B, from Frederiksberg to Vanløse, opened on 12 October. Forum Station was nominated for the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture in 2005. In 2007, the Ørestad Development Corporation was discontinued, the ownership of the metro was transferred to Metroselskabet I/S; the 4.5-kilometre stage 3 opened on 28 September 2007, from Lergravsparken to the airport. It followed for the most part the route of the former Amager Line of the Danish State Railways. With this stage complete, 34 trains had been delivered. However, the line had caused a heated debate, several locals had organized themselves in the Amager Metro Group.
They demanded that the line instead be tunneled, arguing that it caused a physical barrier in Amager and that it created noise pollution. M2 starts at Vanløse, which serves a residential area, where there is transfer to the S-train's lines C and H; the line starts elevated and is located in fare zone 2. The
Howitzvej is a street in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from Falkoner Allé in the east to Nordre Fasanvej where it turns into Finsensvej before the name changes again to Jernbane Allé on the border with Vanløse. Howitzvej and its continuation Finsensvej was established in about 1755 and was first referred to as"The Road to the Numbers" with a reference to a series of numbered lots; the road became known as Lampevej from about 1860. The new name referred to one of the first outdoor street lamps in Copenhagen, situated outside a midwife's practice to make it easier for customers to find their way ind the dark; the railway to Roskilde crossed Lampevej at Nordre Fasanvej from 1864 when Copenhagen Central Station was moved to a new location. The road received its current name on 1 January 1906 to avoid identification with the Lampevej Murder, an infamous murder which had taken place at the site in 1889; the first Frederiksberg Hospital opened on the south side of the road in 1863.
August Neubert moved his cotton mill from Schlesvig to Lampevej in 1864. The railway crossing disappeared. Frederiksberg Hospital moved to its new site at Nordre Fasanvej in 1903. A small portion of its old site was given to Frederiksbjerg Fødehjem m a birth clinic for indigent women from Frederiksberg and Valby created at the initiative of Frantz Howitz. Vibe-Hastrups chemical factory was completed at Howitzvej 53 in 1910 to design by Ejnar Thuren; the radio factory To-R Radio was located at No. 11-13 from 1933 until 1947 when it moved to Vanløse. On the north side of the street is a complex of buildings which includes Frederiksberg Courthouse, Frederiksberg Fire Station, Solbjerg Church and the former Frederiksberg Police Station; the latter is now under conversion into the Student and Innovation House, a student run innovation house. The church and police station surround a courtyard with a statue in a water basin; the three buildings are connected by two short colonnades. The police station building is to the east attached to the fire station.
Frederiksberg Courthouse was in 2010 expanded with an extension designed by 3XN. The new and old buildings are connected by a skyway. Fasanvej metro station is located just south of the beginning of the street; the Nørrebro Route of Copenhagen's super bikeway network crosses the street just east of Nordre Fasanvej. On a gable at the corner of Nordre Fasanvej is a large mural depicting a tree, it was created by Thor Lindeneg
Nyelandsvej is a street in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It runs from Falkoner Allé in the southeast to a roundabout at the north end of Dalgas Boulevard in the northwest; the more urban, eastern part of the street, between Falkoner Allé and Nordre Fasanvej, separates an area with Copenhagen Business School's Solbjerg Campus and Frederiksberg Centret to the south from the Svømmehal Quarter to the north. The western part of the street is the site of the multi-purpose venue Keddelhallen and follows the south side of Frederiksberg Hospital before entering an area with Single-family detached homes. Nyelandsvej was established in 1883-84 and received its name on 17 April 1884, it is named for Stephan Peter Nyeland, provisionmaster at the Navel Department, who owned a country estate on Falkonér Allé between 1837 and 1875 on whose land part of Nyelandsvej and Bentzonsvej. Københavns Mælkeforsyning, whose name was changed to Solbjerg Majeri, opened on the street at No. 25 in 1884.
Its old buildings were ereplaced by new ones in the 1920s and it developed into one of the largest employers in Frederiksberg. It had direct access to Frederiksberg Station's fraight teraain; the dairy closed in the mid-1970s. The street section west of Nordre Fasanvej was established in 1884 but was called Bergersvej until 1900. Copenhagen County Hospital was built on the north side of the road in the 1890s; the buildings became part of Frederiksberg Hospital when Copenhagen County Hospital completed its move to Gentofte in 1939. Frederiksberg Incineration Plant opened on the other side of the street in 1903. Skolen på Nyelandsvej at No. 23. is a public primary school. It was built in 1891–92 to design by Christian Laurits Thuren. No. 27– is the former home of Frederiksberg Seminarium and now houses Metropolitan University College's Department of Education and Learning. The Godthaab Church was inaugurated in 1911. Designed by Gotfred Tvede, it is part of a complex which included Godhaab Parish's day care center and General Classens Asyl.
The adjacent residential building were built from 1913 by Arbejdernes Andels-Boligforening efterto design by Viggo Thalbitzer, og er det første eksempel i Danmark på et boligbyggeri ud fra almennyttige principper. The multi-purpose venue Keddelhallen is occupies the surviving buildings of Frederiksberg Incineration Plant, they were adapted for their current use in 2001. Fasanvej Station is situated kust south of the intersection with Nordre Fasanvej, it is served by the M1 and M2 lines of Copenhagen Metro
Baroque Revival architecture
The Baroque Revival known as Neo-Baroque, was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, but is not of the Baroque period proper—i.e. The 17th and 18th centuries. Elements of the Baroque architectural tradition were an essential part of the curriculum of the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the pre-eminent school of architecture in the second half of the 19th century, are integral to the Beaux-Arts architecture it engendered both in France and abroad. An ebullient sense of European imperialism encouraged an official architecture to reflect it in Britain and France, in Germany and Italy the Baroque revival expressed pride in the new power of the unified state. Akasaka Palace, Japan Alferaki Palace, Russia Ashton Memorial, England Belfast City Hall, Northern Ireland Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Saint Petersburg, Russia Bode Museum, Germany British Columbia Parliament Buildings, British Columbia, Canada Burgtheater, Austria Christiansborg Palace, Denmark Cluj-Napoca National Theatre, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Ortaköy Mosque, Turkey Dolmabahçe Palace, Turkey The Elms Mansion, Rhode Island, United States National Theatre, Norway Palais Garnier, France Rosecliff Mansion, Rhode Island, United States Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Semperoper, Germany Sofia University rectorate, Bulgaria Zachęta National Gallery of Art, Poland St. Barbara's Church, New York, United States St. John Cantius Church, United States Church of St. Ignatius Loyola, New York City, United States Church of Saints Peter and Paul, Ireland Cathedral of Salta, Argentina Széchenyi thermal bath, Hungary Volkstheater, Austria National Art Gallery of Bulgaria, Bulgaria Wenckheim Palace, Hungary Stefánia Palace, Hungary Gran Teatro de La Habana, Cuba Old Parliament Building, Sri Lanka Altare della Patria, Italy House of the National Assembly of Serbia, Serbia.
Durban City Hall, South AfricaThere are number of post-modern buildings with a style that might be called "Baroque", for example the Dancing House in Prague by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry, who have described it as "new Baroque". Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer Arthur Meinig Sir Edwin Lutyens Members of the Armenian Balyan family Charles Garnier Baroque List of Baroque architecture Second Empire architecture Beaux-Arts architecture Edwardian Baroque architecture Wilhelminism James Stevens Curl. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. 2000. — Encyclopedia.com. Accessed 3 Jan. 2010