Fashion is a popular style in clothing, lifestyle, makeup and body. Fashion is a distinctive and constant trend in the style in which people present themselves. A fashion can become the prevailing style in behaviour or manifest the newest creations of designers, technologists and design managers; because the more technical term costume is linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, while the word "fashion" refers to clothing, including the study of clothing. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. High-flying trendsetters in fashion can aspire to the label haute couture. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to India, Turkey or China, would remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries; the Japanese shōgun's secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of changing fashions in Chinese clothing.
Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East. Additionally, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa. Cloth was used as a form of currency in trade with the Portuguese and Dutch as early as the 16th Century. Locally produced cloth and cheaper European imports were assembled into new styles to accommodate the growing elite class of West Africans and resident gold and slave traders. There was an strong tradition of cloth-weaving in Oyo and the areas inhabited by the Igbo people; the beginning in Europe of continual and rapid change in clothing styles can be reliably dated.
Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century, though they tend to rely on contemporary imagery and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century. The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment from calf-length to covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look bigger; this created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over trousers. The pace of change accelerated in the following century, women and men's fashion in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became complex. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images to within five years in the case of images from the 15th century. Changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had been a similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles.
These national styles remained different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century; the "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, after a struggle in the mid-17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly.
Men's fashions were derived from military models, changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the 1620s, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike. Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, the textile industry led many trends, the history of fashion design is understood to date from 1858 when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris; the Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees
Monster High is an American fashion doll franchise created by Mattel and launched in July 2010. The characters are inspired by monster movies, sci-fi horror, thriller fiction, various other creatures. Monster High was created by Garrett Sander, with illustrations by Kellee Riley and illustrator Glen Hanson; the franchise includes many consumer products such as stationery, key chains, various toys, play sets. Book series have been created. In 2010, an animated web series was released on YouTube, it has resulted in the production and release of a number of direct-to-videos, some of which have been broadcast as television specials and films on Nickelodeon. The web series and videos serve. In 2015, the series released a reboot and origin story called Welcome to Monster High, using new face molds, movie animation, a slogan, the song "This Is How We Boo", performed by Jordin Sparks. In the town of New Salem, the teenage children of famous monsters attend a school for monsters called Monster High, their stories are told through the TV series/ webseries and films, as well as through diaries included with the dolls.
Monster High features a variety of fictional characters, many of whom are students at the titular high school. The female characters are classified as Ghouls and the male characters are classified as Mansters; the characters are the sons and daughters, or related to monsters that have been popularized in fiction. The franchise's official website identifies six of the characters as Original Ghouls: Frankie Stein is the daughter of Frankenstein's monster and his bride, she has white hair with black streaks though her mother has black hair with white streaks, light, mint-green skin, the color of mint-chip ice cream. Frankie is a simulacrum, meaning her body is made of many different parts, similar to a hybrid, but she is more than three or four monsters, she is clumsy and always kind to others. She has a new crush on Neighthan Rot. In the series, she used to date Jackson Jekyll and Holt Hyde but this is different in the diaries where both characters have relationships with Draculara instead. Draculaura is a vampire, the daughter of Count Dracula.
She is in a relationship with Clawdeen's older brother Clawd Wolf. She is a vegan; the diaries show she used to date Jackson Holt Hyde. She has fangs and dresses in pink and white. Clawdeen Wolf is the daughter of the Werewolf, she is described as furry and sweet. Clawdeen is a bit, or more than a bit, of a fashionista, as she loves fashion with clothes and clothing design, she has a bit of a temper at times when messed with, but can control it when coaxed properly. Her wolf ears are pierced in multiple places. Cleo de Nile is the daughter of the Mummy Ramses de Nile and is 5842 years old at the start of the series, she is the captain of the fearleading squad. Cleo prefers to accessorize with mummy wrappings, she is based on Cleopatra. She is the queen of the social scene and has a boyfriend named Deuce Gorgon. Lagoona Blue is the daughter of a sea nymph. Lagoona is from "Down Under" and speaks with an Australian accent, she can talk with water animals. She is in a relationship will Gillington "Gil" Webber.
Ghoulia Yelps is the daughter of the zombies, Cleo de Nile's personal assistant. She is smart, but can only speak a zombie language which consists of moans and groans, she wears red glasses. Ghoulia is absent from the 2016 reboot; the initial characters were created by his twin brother Darren. In researching the look, the Sander brothers went shopping with girls and noted they were buying goth fashion items such as skulls and black, they remarked that because the characters are monsters, they had more freedom to do things that ordinary kids could not do. Other inspirations include children's interests in Lady Gaga. Kiyomi Haverly, Mattel's design vice president, said "Honestly, it was surprising to us. We just noticed girls were into darker goth fashion." The dolls were illustrated by Kellee Riley. The main Monster High products are playscale fashion dolls 10.5 inch tall. Over 700 million have been produced, their bodies are made from ABS plastic and their heads are made from soft PVC. The dolls have many skin tones, including blue, green and pink, in addition to human skin tones.
Each character has a unique head mold, except for C. A. Cupid and Meowlody/Purrsephone. All female dolls have rooted saran or hair, but male dolls may have flocked or hard, colored plastic hair; each doll has its own fashion style and personality and each has attributes of the monsters to which it is related. While they are marketed at children, collectors' edition dolls have been produced, they are particularly popular with'OOAK' doll artists - artists who repaint and modify commercially available dolls. In 2016, the doll series was'rebooted' with cuter faces rather than the'fierce' look of the original, they changed their slogan from "Be Yourself, Be Unique, Be a Monster" to "How Do You Boo?" Other Monster High merchandise includes vinyl figurines, plushies and Mega Bloks toys. There have been anima
Alexander Doll Company
Alexander Doll Company is an American manufacturer of collectible dolls. The business was founded in 1923 by Beatrice Alexander, a New York City woman who designed and sewed cloth dolls. Styling herself Madame Alexander, which became the trade name for her dolls, Alexander went on to create dolls replicating famous personalities and characters in books, films and art. Among her notable creations were dolls replicating the Dionne quintuplets, Scarlett O'Hara, the royal family and attendees at the 1953 coronation of Queen Elizabeth II; the company produced its first fashion doll, "Cissy". Continually aiming to improve her product, Alexander began making hard plastic dolls after World War I and vinyl plastic dolls in the 1960s. By the 1960s the company was the leading American doll manufacturer. In the 1980s, it released one million dolls annually. Beatrice Alexander ran the company for 65 years and sold it in 1988; as of 2016, the company has produced characters. Other popular dolls have been'Pussycat'—a large baby doll dressed in fine coat and dress, a Mary, Queen of Scots Portrait Doll, the characters from Little Women, a series of international dolls in native costumes.
She has created many topical doll series, such as "The First Ladies of the United States," depicting each in her inaugural gown, as well as "The Opera Series", a "Fairy Tale Series", many more. Her 8" Wendy doll, introduced in 1953, is still being made today and is considered to be a valuable collectible. A December 2005 article in Forbes magazine analyzed the most popular American toys by decade, with help from the Toy Industry Association; the Madame Alexander collectible dolls led the list for the 1920–1929 decade, beating out the yo-yo. Alexandra Fairchild Ford is a line of 16" collectible fashion dolls for adult collectors; as of 2009, Madame Alexander has begun creating dolls for Dollie & Me, which specializes in matching clothing for girls and dolls. In June 2012, the Madame Alexander Doll Company was sold to owners of Dollie & Me; the Madame Alexander Doll Club is separate from The Alexander Doll Company, but the company supports club efforts by creating new limited edition dolls for club events.
The club holds events and conventions all over the US. The club publishes a quarterly magazine for members called The Review; as of 2013, Gale Jarvis, president of Madame Alexander Doll, announced that Isaac Mizrahi of Xcel Brands will "create a selection of Madame Alexander dolls, doll apparel and doll accessories under the Isaac Mizrahi New York label." The "doll collection will launch at the American International Toy Fair in New York in February" 2014. United Federation of Doll Collectors What's Cooking with Madame Alexander The Alexander Doll Company with The Heritage Gallery Madame Alexander Doll Club The Jewish Women's Encyclopedia The Jewish Women's Archive United Federation of Doll Collectors
A bisque doll or porcelain doll is a doll made or wholly out of bisque or biscuit porcelain. Bisque dolls are characterized by their skin-like matte finish, they had their peak of popularity between 1860 and 1900 with German dolls. Bisque dolls are collectible, antique dolls can be worth thousands of dollars. Antique German and French bisque dolls from the 19th century were made as children's playthings, but contemporary bisque dolls are predominantly made directly for the collectors market. Colloquially the terms porcelain doll, bisque doll and china doll are sometimes used interchangeably, but collectors, when referring to antique dolls, make a distinction between china dolls, made of glazed porcelain, bisque dolls, made of unglazed porcelain. When referring to contemporary dolls the terms porcelain and bisque are sometimes used interchangeably. Most bisque dolls have a body made of another material. Bisque is unglazed porcelain with a matte finish, it is tinted or painted a realistic skin color.
The bisque head is attached to a body made of cloth or leather, or a jointed body made of wood, papier-mâché or composition, a mix of pulp, sawdust and similar materials. Doll bodies are only made of bisque because of its fragility and weight. Dolls that are made of bisque are called all-bisque dolls. Bisque dolls have eyes made of glass, they vary in size, from lifesize down to half an inch. When producing a bisque doll, ceramic raw materials are shaped in a mold and fired at more than 1,260 °C; the head is painted more than once to create skin tones and facial characteristics, fired again after each layer. Antique German and French bisque dolls from the 19th century were made as children's playthings, but contemporary bisque dolls are predominantly made directly for the collectors market; the earliest European porcelain dolls were china dolls, made predominantly in Germany between 1840 and 1880. China dolls were made of white glazed porcelain, giving them a characteristic glossy appearance, their hair was painted on.
Parian dolls were made in Germany of white unglazed porcelain from the 1850s onwards. French and German bisque dolls began taking over the market after 1860, their production continued after World War I; these dolls wore wigs made from mohair or human hair. Between 1860 and 1890 most bisque dolls were fashion dolls, made to represent grown up women, they were intended for children of affluent families to play with and dress in contemporary fashions. These dolls came from French companies like Jumeau, Gaultier, Rohmer and Huret, though their heads were manufactured in Germany. In the Passage Choiseul area of Paris an industry grew around making clothing and accessories for the dolls. Up until the mid-19th century, most dolls were made to represent grown-ups, when childlike dolls first appeared it was a big shift. By the late 19th century childlike dolls overtook the market. Foremost among these were the French Bébés from doll makers like Jumeau, Bru and Gaultier, which grew in popularity between the 1860s and 1880s.
These were high quality dolls made with great skill. Like the earlier fashion dolls, they were made for children and dressed in contemporary children's clothing. In the 1890s German doll makers began taking over the market with less expensive dolls. In response, the French doll makers began making dolls as a consortium under the name Société Française de Fabrication de Bébés et Jouets but these French Bébés were of lesser quality. German childlike dolls were predominantly produced between 1890 and 1930; the earliest ones are referred to as dolly-faced dolls and were made by companies like Armand Marseille, Simon & Halbig, Kämmer & Reinhardt, Kestner. Many came from the Thuringen region. In the early 20th century companies like Kämmer & Reinhardt and Kestner began making more realistic and expressive childlike dolls called character-faced dolls. Small lower-priced all-bisque dolls known as penny dolls were common from the late 19th century to the 1930s, they were made of a single piece of bisque.
A few German manufacturers like Kestner made more detailed dolls of bisque with articulated necks, arms, or legs. Bisque was the most common material for European doll heads until after the turn of the 20th century, when composition gained favor. Production of composition dolls was strong in the United States. Kewpie dolls from the early 20th century were still made of bisque, celluloid was a popular material, despite the fire danger. Bisque dolls were made as commercial products in Germany for the toy rather than collector market until the late 1930s and Japan produced many small bisque dolls in the 1920s and 1930s cold painted with oil colours, which have subsequently washed off. At about the same time, just before the Second World War, hobbyist production of reproduction dolls, firstly elaborately moulded female doll heads from the 1860s and 1870s, began in the US with doll artists such as Emma Clear. Reproduction bisque doll making grew as a hobby in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, expanding during the 1970s and by about c. 1980 spreading to Europe, Great Britain and Australia, via companies retailing moulds and supplies such as Seeley's and Wandke, which ran large scale networks of classes and seminars.
Another branch of bisque doll making that emerged during the 1940s in the USA was "artists dolls" which were original creatively designed and moulded dolls that were not copies of 19th century or early 20th
Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration. Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits involving parodies of the doll and her lifestyle. Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company's largest and most profitable line. However, sales have declined since 2014; the doll transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise. She had a significant impact on social values by conveying characteristics of female independence, with her multitude of accessories, an idealized upscale life-style that can be shared with affluent friends.
Starting in 1987, Barbie has expanded into a media franchise, including animated films, television specials, video games, music. Ruth Handler watched her daughter Barbara play with paper dolls, noticed that she enjoyed giving them adult roles. At the time, most children's toy dolls were representations of infants. Realizing that there could be a gap in the market, Handler suggested the idea of an adult-bodied doll to her husband Elliot, a co-founder of the Mattel toy company, he was unenthusiastic about the idea, as were Mattel's directors. During a trip to Europe in 1956 with her children Barbara and Kenneth, Ruth Handler came across a German toy doll called Bild Lilli; the adult-figured doll was what Handler had in mind, so she purchased three of them. She gave one to her daughter and took the others back to Mattel; the Lilli doll was based on a popular character appearing in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for the newspaper Bild. Lilli was a blonde bombshell, a working girl who knew what she wanted and was not above using men to get it.
The Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955, although it was sold to adults, it became popular with children who enjoyed dressing her up in outfits that were available separately. Upon her return to the United States, Handler redesigned the doll and the doll was given a new name, after Handler's daughter Barbara; the doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959. This date is used as Barbie's official birthday; the first Barbie doll wore a black and white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail, was available as either a blonde or brunette. The doll was marketed as a "Teen-age Fashion Model," with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson; the first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers. Around 350,000 Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production. Louis Marx and Company sued Mattel in March 1961. After licensing Lilli, they claimed that Mattel had “infringed on Greiner & Hausser's patent for Bild-Lilli’s hip joint, claimed that Barbie was "a direct take-off and copy" of Bild-Lilli.
The company additionally claimed that Mattel "falsely and misleadingly represented itself as having originated the design". Mattel counter-claimed and the case was settled out of court in 1963. In 1964, Mattel bought Greiner & Hausser's copyright and patent rights for the Bild-Lilli doll for $21,600. Ruth Handler believed that it was important for Barbie to have an adult appearance, early market research showed that some parents were unhappy about the doll's chest, which had distinct breasts. Barbie's appearance has been changed many times, most notably in 1971 when the doll's eyes were adjusted to look forwards rather than having the demure sideways glance of the original model. Barbie was one of the first toys to have a marketing strategy based extensively on television advertising, copied by other toys, it is estimated that over a billion Barbie dolls have been sold worldwide in over 150 countries, with Mattel claiming that three Barbie dolls are sold every second. The standard range of Barbie dolls and related accessories are manufactured to 1/6 scale, known as playscale.
The standard dolls are 11½ inches tall. Barbie products include not only the range of dolls with their clothes and accessories, but a large range of Barbie branded goods such as books, apparel and video games. Barbie has had a media franchise starting in 1987, when she began appearing in a series of animated films. Barbie's direct-to-DVD animated films have sold over 110 million units worldwide, as of 2013. In addition, the brand has had two television specials and the Rockers: Out of This World and Barbie and the Sensations: Rockin' Back to Earth, as well as a hit song, "Barbie Girl" by Aqua, she is a supporting character in the Pixar films Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3. Barbie has become a cultural icon and has been given honors that are rare in the toy world. In 1974, a section of Times Square in New York City was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris at the Louvre held a Barbie exhibit in 2016. The exhibit featured 700 Barbie dolls over two floors as well as works by contemporary artists and documents that contextualize Barbie.
In 1986, the artist Andy Warhol created a painting of Barbie. The painting sold at auction at Christie's, London for $1.1 million. In 2015, The Andy Warhol Foundation teamed up with Mattel to create an Andy Warhol Barbie. Outsider artist Al Carbee took
Sindy is a British fashion doll created by Pedigree Dolls & Toys in 1963. A rival to Barbie, Sindy's wholesome look and range of fashions and accessories made it the best-selling toy in the United Kingdom in 1968 and 1970. After Marx Toys' unsuccessful attempt to introduce Sindy in the United States in the late 1970s, Hasbro bought the rights to Sindy and remodelled the doll to look more American; as a result, the doll's popularity declined and Barbie manufacturer Mattel filed a lawsuit for copyright infringement, settled when Hasbro agreed to remodel Sindy's face. During the 1990s, Barbie's share of the doll market continued to grow while Sindy's diminished, which led to Sindy being delisted from major retailers in 1997. Hasbro returned the doll's licence to Pedigree, the doll was relaunched in 1999, manufactured by Vivid Imaginations. Sindy's 40th anniversary in 2003 saw a new manufacturer, New Moons, another relaunch and redesign. After 20 years of producing dolls, Pedigree Dolls & Toys, a British company in Exeter, sought to expand its product range to include a trendy fashion doll.
American toy manufacturer Mattel offered Pedigree a licence to produce Barbie, which Pedigree declined due to market research showing Barbie was unpopular with British buyers. Instead Pedigree manufactured its own doll based on Tammy. With permission from Tammy's manufacturer, the Ideal Toy Company, Pedigree borrowed Tammy's slogan, "The doll you love to dress"; the name "Sindy" was chosen after a street poll where young girls were shown a photo of the doll and asked to choose their favourite name from a list of four. The most popular choice was "Cindy", the spelling was made more distinctive for trademarking; the Sindy doll was launched in September 1963, London retailers were sent a promotional 45rpm gramophone record to introduce the doll, which included Pedigree's marketing text below. Sindy is the swinging girl that every little girl longs to be. Sindy has sports clothes, glamour clothes, everyday clothes — a dog, skates, a gramophone — everything... Every genuine Sindy outfit is a child's dream come true.
Each one is designed for today's fashionable young women by today's leading women designers. They are authentic miniature replicas of the latest adult clothes. Pedigree Toys' market research was correct – Sindy's "girl next door" look made her more popular than Barbie in Britain. Sindy's boyfriend Paul was released in 1965, her younger sister Patch in 1966. Sindy's friends Vicki and Mitzi, Patch's friends Poppet and Betsy debuted in 1968. Sindy was the best selling toy in Britain in 1968 and 1970. Sindy's success in the 1960s was due to the increasing range of accessories, with up to 70% of Sindy's turnover from sales of accessories. Mattel did not expand Barbie's accessories until the 1980s, this was a significant difference between the dolls. During the 1970s, Pedigree focused on developing more Sindy products and neglected advertising and market research, risking Sindy's "girl next door" image becoming old-fashioned. In 1978, Sindy was introduced to the United States market by Marx Toys. Child star Susan Olsen, who played Cindy Brady on the popular family sitcom The Brady Bunch, was featured in a U.
S. produced commercial for the doll. Most of Sindy's accessories and fashions were similar to those sold in the United Kingdom, except for the addition of a friend, a McDonald's-themed Sindy. Marx Toys went into receivership in 1980 and Sindy was withdrawn from the US market. During the 1980s, Pedigree's new marketing director David Brown made several changes, including increasing advertising and market research, consulting with fashion experts to ensure the doll's image was kept up to date. Pedigree produced a number of evening dresses designed by The Emmanuels, famous for designing Princess Diana's wedding gown, shortly after Mattel released gowns for Barbie designed by Oscar de la Renta. Due to its success, a second collection of designs was released the next year, including a bubble dress and lingerie. An older-looking Sindy doll was released with male and female companions Mark and Marie; the advertising campaign was worth £1.5 million. In 1986, Sindy manufacturers took advantage of new colour-changing technology and released Magic Moments Sindy, a doll whose hair and swimming costume changed colour when immersed in warm water.
Sindy's senior designer Jane Braithwaite travelled to Paris each month to research fashion trends for Sindy's clothing in an attempt to reverse declining sales. As an example of Sindy's continually updated fashions, during this period the doll's footwear included kitten heels, knee-high boots, ankle boots, slippers, court shoes and slingbacks. In 1987, Sindy's product manager Edward Machin announced that Sindy would reclaim the lead over Barbie within two years. Hasbro redesigned Sindy and spent £1.5 m on advertising. A Sindy magazine was launched in this period to challenge the fortnightly Barbie magazine. A £1 million advertising campaign was introduced in 1991 with five advertisements highlighting Sindy's collection of beach and pool wear; the advertisement showed footage of Sindy combined with live action sequences from a look-alike. In 1993, Sindy was featured in a £500,000 advertising campaign for the fashion company Alexon Group. Sindy was used to contrast her childish fashion with the sophistication of Alexon's fashion range.
Each double page spread showed Sindy in a typical outfit superimposed on a real-life setting. The opposite page showed a real woman dressed in Alexon's clothes above the line'Dressing up for grown ups'. Hasbro introduced Sindy in France and continental Europe in 1994 after minor facial modifications to reduce her resemblance to Barbie. A Neilsen study suggested Sindy could obtain 20% of the
A collectable is any object regarded as being of value or interest to a collector. There are numerous types of terms to denote those types. An antique is a collectable, old. A curio is a small fascinating or unusual item sought by collectors. A manufactured collectable is an item made for people to collect. A "manufactured" collectable is an item made for people to collect. Examples of items sold as collectables include plates, bells, graphics and dolls; some companies that produce manufactured collectables are members of The Gift and Collectibles Guild. Special editions, limited editions and variants on these terms fall under the category of manufactured collectables and are used as a marketing incentive for various types of product, they were applied to products related to the arts—such as books, prints or recorded music and films—but are now used for cars, fine wine and many other collectables. A special edition includes extra material of some kind. A limited edition is restricted in the number of copies produced, although that number may or may not be low.
Items sold in limited editions may be limited by an announced quantity, or by a particular period of production one year. In either case, items may not be numbered. Manufacturers and retailers have used collectables in a number of ways to increase sales. One use is in the form of licensed collectables based on intellectual properties, such as images and logos from literature, movies, radio and video games. A large subsection of licensing includes advertising and character collectibles. Another use of collectables in retail is in the form of premiums. Collectables have played an important role in tourism, in the form of souvenirs. Another important field of collecting, big business is memorabilia, which includes collectables related to a person, event or media, including T-shirts and numerous other collectables marketed to fans. Collectables are items of limited supply that are sought for a variety of reasons including a possible increase in value. In a financial sense, collectables can be viewed as a hedge against inflation.
Over time, their value can increase as they become more rare due to loss, damage or destruction. One drawback to investing in collectables is the potential lack of liquidity for obscure items. There is a risk for fraud; the 1960s through the early 1990s were major years for the manufacturing of contemporary collectables. While some individuals purchased contemporary collectables to enjoy and use, many purchased them as investments. Speculative markets developed for many of these pieces; because so many people bought for investment purposes, duplicates are common. And although many collectables were labeled as "limited editions", the actual number of items produced was large. There is little demand for many items produced during this time period, their market values are low; the urge to collect unusual and fascinating objects is not limited to humans. The Renaissance Cabinet of Curiosities was an antecedent both of modern museums and modern collecting; the earliest manufactured collectables were included as incentives with other products, such as cigarette cards in packs of cigarettes.
Popular items developed a secondary market and sometimes became the subject of "collectable crazes". Many collectable items came to be sold separately, instead of being used as marketing tools to increase the appeal of other products. To encourage collecting, manufacturers create an entire series of a given collectable, with each item differentiated in some fashion. Examples include different designs of Beanie Babies. Enthusiasts will try to assemble a complete set of the available variations. Collector editions are another way of supporting collectables, they are produced in limited amount and contain additional content that can be valuable for a collector. This practice is popular in video games. Early versions of a product, manufactured in smaller quantities before its popularity as a collectable developed, sometimes command exorbitant premiums on the secondary market. Dolls and other toys made during an adult collector's childhood can command such premiums. Unless rare or made as a one-of-a-kind, in a mature market, collectables prove to be a spectacular investment.
Collecting List of collectables Collecting: A Rationale