A fashion week is a fashion industry event, lasting one week, where fashion designers, brands or "houses" display their latest collections in runway fashion shows to buyers and the media. These events influence trends for the upcoming seasons; the most prominent fashion weeks are held in the fashion capitals of the world. As the fashion scene turns more multipolar in the 21st century, other centers such as Sydney, São Paulo, Mumbai, Berlin, Los Angeles, Monaco, Taipei, New Delhi, Copenhagen, Jakarta, Tokyo and Borneo host fashion weeks; the concept of fashion week began in Paris, when marketers used to hire women to wear couture items in public places, from racetracks to salons. These parades began to become social events of their own. In France, runway shows are still called "défilés de mode" which when translated means "fashion parades." In 1903, a New York City shop called Ehrich Brothers put on what is thought to have been the country’s first fashion show to lure middle-class women into the store.
By 1910, many big department stores were holding shows of their own. It is that American retailers saw the "fashion parades" in couture salons, decided to use the idea; these "parades" were an effective way to promote stores, improve their status. By the 1920s, the fashion show had been used by retailers across the country, they were staged, held in the shop’s restaurant during lunch or teatime. These shows were more theatrical than those of today based upon a single theme, accompanied with a narrative commentary; the shows were hugely popular, enticing crowds in their thousands – crowds so large, that stores in New York in the 1950s had to obtain a license to have live models. In 1943, the first-ever "fashion week," New York Fashion Week, was held, with one main purpose: to give fashion buyers alternatives to French fashion during World War II, when workers in the fashion industry were unable to travel to Paris; until 1994, shows were held in different locations, such as hotels, or lofts. From 1994 to 2009, the event was held in a tent behind the New York Public Library.
Lincoln Center was the Fashion Week venue from 2010 to 2015, after which it moved to Clarkson Square, an events venue in SoHo. The first Paris fashion week began in 1973. Although there are many notable fashion weeks around the world, only four are known as the "Big Four". Paris began holding couture shows in 1945, Milan Fashion Week was founded by the Italian Chamber of Commerce in 1958, Paris Fashion Week was further organized in 1973 under the French Fashion Federation, London Fashion Week was founded by the British Fashion Council in 1984. Although these key organizations still organize the main shows, there are independent events and producers in all cities, as well. There are two kinds of shows, those of womenswear and menswear. There are shows particular to each location. For example, most haute couture shows are held in Paris, while most bridal shows are held in New York. Paris' haute couture shows take place in Paris in July. Due to rules set down by the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture, haute couture can only be shown in Paris.
Recent designers have shown inter-seasonal collections between the traditional Autumn/Winter and Spring/Summer seasons. These collections are more commercial than the main season collections and help shorten the customer's wait for new season clothes; the inter-seasonal collections are Pre-Fall. There is no fixed schedule for these shows in any of the major fashion capitals but they happen three months after the main season shows; some designers show their inter-seasonal collections outside their home city. For example, Karl Lagerfeld has shown his Resort and Pre-Fall collections for Chanel in cities such as Moscow, Los Angeles, Monte Carlo instead of Paris. Many designers put on presentations as opposed to traditional shows during Resort and Pre-Fall either to cut down costs or because they feel the clothes can be better understood in this medium; some fashion weeks can be genre-specific, such as Miami Fashion Week and Rio Summer fashion week, which focus on swimwear, the haute couture shows in Paris which display one-of-a-kind designer originals, Indonesia Islamic Fashion Week for Muslim fashion.
Bangalore Fashion Week displays festive wear and Bridal Fashion Week, while Portland Fashion Week showcases some eco-friendly designers. Bread and Butter Berlin hosts the leading fashion show for everyday fashion. In recent years, shows have begun to feature garments that are available for sale online or in stores; the other move has been to "see now, buy now" shows featuring clickable video, where looks are available online following, or during the show. "See now, buy now" experiences have included shows from Tom Ford, Nicole Miller, Tommy Hilfiger. For example, in 2019 at the Tommy x Zendaya show, Hilfiger commented on the innovation of the "see now, buy now" concept; the advent of "see now, buy now" shopping has come about in response to so-called "fast fashion" retailers, who copy designs from the runway and bring them to retail faster than traditional design houses. In spite of the call to rethink the runways with the idea "see now, buy now," as of 2017, the French Federation of Fashion has opposed the change.
Fashion week happens twice a year in the major fashion capitals of the world.
Henry William Bruton was a Gloucester businessman, a key figure in the development of the city during the part of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. He was born in Gloucestershire, on 14 May 1843, the son of Henry Bruton Snr. In 1862, Bruton's father moved to Gloucester and formed the estate agents and auctioneers Bruton, Knowles & Co. in partnership with William Knowles. Henry Jr. joined the firm in 1864 and became a partner in 1870. He was responsible for the development of the weekly Gloucester livestock market from 1871 but he was involved in the sales of Chepstow Castle, Tintern Abbey and Cowley Manor, he was a director of the Gloucester Gas Light Company. Bruton held numerous voluntary offices, he was a Justice of the Peace, a Freemason, a City Councillor, member of the School Board and the Public Library Committee. He was once Churchwarden of St. Mark's in Gloucester. Bruton's interests included William Thackeray and Charles Dickens and he was Vice President of the Dickens Fellowship.
Bruton was a founding member of The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society and the Gloucester Rotary Club. He collected mezzotints. Bruton's younger brother was Sir James Bruton, the Member of Parliament for Gloucester from 1918 to 1923. In 1871, Bruton married Flora Emily Tew Smith and they had six sons and six daughters. One daughter died in 1894 and a son, was killed in Italy during the First World War whilst serving with the Gloucestershire Regiment. Flora died in 1904. Bruton was buried with her at Matson; the firm founded by Bruton's father, which he expanded, continues in business as Bruton Knowles Property Consultants and Bruton Way in Gloucester marks the family name. Bruton Knowles home page
The Actors is a 2003 film written and directed by Conor McPherson and starring Dylan Moran and Michael Caine. In supporting roles are Michael Gambon, Miranda Richardson and Lena Headey; the Actors is a contemporary comedy set in Dublin. It follows the exploits of two mediocre stage actors as they devise a plan to con a retired gangster out of £50,000; the gangster owes the money to a third party. The actors take advantage of this fact by impersonating this'unidentified' third party, claiming the debt as their own. To pull it off they enlist Moran's eerily intelligent nine-year-old niece, who restructures the plan each time something goes wrong; the two protagonists are acting in a version of Shakespeare's Richard III in which everyone dresses in Nazi uniform, a sly nod to Ian McKellen's production. The film is centred on the Olympia Theatre, it is noteworthy for featuring the famous glass awning over the entrance which has since been destroyed in a traffic accident; the glass awning has since been rebuilt to its full former glory.
Michael Caine as Anthony O'Malley Dylan Moran as Tom Quirk Lena Headey as Dolores Abigail Iversen as Mary Aisling O'Sullivan as Rita Ben Miller as Clive Michael Gambon as Barreller Simon Delaney as Ronnie Alvaro Lucchesi as Lesley Michael McElhatton as Jock Miranda Richardson as Mrs. Magnani Alison Doody as herself Marty Whelan as himself Deirdre O'Kane as Stage Manager Empire gives the film 2/5, describing it as "Based on an idea by Neil Jordan, The Actors had the potential to be gut-achingly funny, but instead it ends up raising a few paltry smiles." Act One - The Michael Nyman Band and Moss Hall Junior Choir Star Of The Sea - Laura Cullinan, Bebhinn Ni Chiosain, Cliona Ni Chiosain & Niamh H Reynolds Zinc Bar Walk - The Michael Nyman Band A Certain Party - The Michael Nyman Band House On Fire - The Michael Nyman Band Act Two - The Michael Nyman Band Could This Be Love? - Lena Headey & Dylan Moran Mary Directs Tom - The Michael Nyman Band Una's Waltz - Una Ni Chiosain/Conor McPherson Rope Trick - The Michael Nyman Band Dolores On The Beach - The Michael Nyman Band Return To The Scene Of The Crime - The Michael Nyman Band Seems So Long - Cathy Davey Wheelchair Chase - The Michael Nyman Band Tubbetstown Elegy - The Michael Nyman Band Lovely Morning - Cathy Davey Mrs O'Growny Appears - The Michael Nyman Band Zinc Piano - The Michael Nyman Band Final Act - The Michael Nyman Band The Actors on IMDb The Actors at Rotten Tomatoes
Warsaw Fortress was a system of fortifications built in Warsaw, Poland during the 19th century when the city was part of the Russian Empire. The fortress belonged to a chain of fortresses built in Congress Poland and the region adjacent to it during this period, it was built in stages, with the first part, known as Warsaw Citadel, built the years 1832-1834, in the immediate aftermath of the November Uprising of 1830. This initial fortification was continually improved by the addition of further forts in its vicinity, with the work completed in 1874. In 1879 the government of the Russian Empire decided to carry ouf a major expansion of the fortress, which would incorporate a system of large forts surrounding the whole city. 20 forts forming this new system were constructed between 1883 and 1890. There were plans to combine the Warsaw fortress with the nearby Modlin Fortress by building a chain of connecting forts, but this work was carried out only partially; the rapid progress in the power of siege artillery required the forts to be continually strengthened.
In the final period of its existence the fortress consisted of 29 forts and major works, including the older forts of the original Citadel, which were reinforced by numerous smaller fieldworks. As a result of the defeat in the war with Japan in 1904-1905, the Russian Empire carried out a major rethinking of its military strategy; as part of this reevaluation and the resulting changes in strategic deployments, it was decided that maintaining the Warsaw Fortress was no longer cost-effective. In 1909 the decision was made to abolish the fortress. Work started out to demolish its works but it proceeded slowly. In 1913, with the worsening international situation before the outbreak of the First World War, the decision was reversed, hasty work started to return the fortress to combat readiness; these defenses were never put to the test, as Warsaw was evacuated by the Russian army without a fight in August, 1915, during its general retreat that summer. After Poland regained its independence in 1918 the dismantling of some fortifications resumed, others were taken over by the Polish Army and used as storage sites or barracks, though over the years these were abandoned.
Some forts were prepared for defense during the Battle of Warsaw in 1920, others saw heavy fighting during the siege of the city in September, 1939 though their defensive strength was vastly reduced due to advances in military technology. Today many of the forts are still in existence, but some were built over and no trace of them remains. At present the city lacks a unified concept for their use, though their historical value is recognized, they are not maintained and hence not open to the public for sightseeing. Only the Citadel and some of its adjacent forts are well open to tourists. 1:25,000 German map from 1914, with the fortifications of the fortress highlighted: NW segment NE segment SE segment SW segment
Spanish Battleship was a male fawn - brindle greyhound. He is celebrated as one of Ireland's greatest racing greyhounds. Spanish Battleship was whelped in August 1951 as part of a litter of seven, his owner Tim'Chubb' O'Connor had leased a bitch called Ballyseedy Memory from breeder Tadgh Drummond so that he could mate her with Spanish Chestnut. After the litter was born he was reared by sister of Chubb O'Connor; the greyhound avoided being sold to the UK after being bitten by a pig and therefore stayed in Ireland to recover. He was entered for the 1953 St Leger at Limerick but after winning a heat he failed to progress from the second round. O'Connor felt that he had gone well enough and phoned trainer Tom Lynch in Dublin and asked him to train the dog for forthcoming 1953 Irish Greyhound Derby; the Derby was due to be held at Harolds Cross where regular racegoers had seen Spanish Battleship perform well there. He won the competition and was well on his way to becoming the greatest greyhound in the history of Irish racing.
Next he was to take part in three competitions the Laurels, the McCalmont Cup and McAlinden Cup and remarkably he won every single qualifier but on all three occasions when he lined up in the finals he was to fail at the final hurdle. However it was considered a successful year for the greyhound. Spanish Battleship claimed the Tostal Cup at Harolds Cross and Easter Cup at Shelbourne Park before an injury curtailed his efforts in the Callanan Cup final and connections worried that the dog would not be fit in time to defend his Irish Derby title; the Irish Derby was taking place at Shelbourne Park and the good news was that Spanish Battleship was fit to defend his crown and would be hot favourite based on his current form. Leafy Ash who had finished second in the 1954 English Greyhound Derby recorded 29.93 in a first night, first round heat to set the bar. The following evening Spanish Battleship broke the track record with a remarkable 28.50 run, leading to the Irish press stating that it was a foregone conclusion for the dog to win again.
After a second round win he equalled his own track record in the semi-finals. The final looked like a formality and so it proved as Spanish Battleship wrote his name into the history books as the first two time Irish Derby winner. Despite missing his break in the decider he showed enough of that renowned early pace to win by three lengths in 29.64. Before ending the 1954 season he would win the Tipperary Cup with two track record runs and a victory in the McCalmont Cup. Spanish Battleship started his Irish campaign in similar circumstances as the previous year by winning the Easter Cup again but losing in the Tostal Cup. In July he went for a third successive time Irish Derby title; the four year old was still in great form but many feared that younger greyhounds would get the better of him and those fears were heightened when caught before the line by Crostys Bell in a first round defeat. Trainer Tom Lynch had other entries in the competition and two dead heated in that first round, they were Imperial Toast and Dancing Jester.
Makra Bibs had defeated Spanish Battleship in the Tostal Cup and he went fastest in 29.68. Due to there being only 36 entries this year there was a rest before the semi-finals and Lynch gave Battleship a trial which seemed to help because when the semis arrived he won his heat from Mile Bush Champion by three lengths and Makra Bibs failed to make the final; the Harolds Cross stadium was overwhelmed by crowds attempting to get a look at the greyhound in the final and he was backed into favourite at 5–4 with Crostys Bell drifting in the market at 7–4. Spanish Battleship was first away from the traps again and stretched to a three length victory from Crostys Bell. Ireland celebrated the best greyhound they had seen and he became a national icon. Before he retired, he broke the track record at Cork Greyhound Stadium during his Laurels victory that month followed by another McCalmont Cup success and ran in a few exhibition races. Connections turned down a £15,000 bid from a London syndicate, a staggering amount in 1955.
In December he travelled to England for the first and only time with White City his destination for a special match race with Duet leader and Hi There. Age had caught up with him and home track advantage to his rivals proved too much as he trailed in last. Tom Lynch and Tim O’Connor retired him to stud
Cyclostrema pompholyx is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Liotiidae. The maximum diameter of the base is 4.2 mm. The height of the shell attains 3.0 mm. The white and polished shell contains three rounded enlarging whorls; the sculpture consists of incremental striae. The suture is deep but not channelled; the whorls are round, but the spire is hardly rising above the body whorl. The base of the shell is rounded, with a narrow umbilicus, into which the whorl descends without any angle or other change of curve; the large aperture is the upper part a little angulated at the suture. The simple margin is somewhat expanded but hardly reflected; this species occurs in the Gulf of Mexico. Rosenberg, G. F. Moretzsohn, E. F. García. 2009. Gastropoda of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in Felder, D. L. and D. K. Camp, Gulf of Mexico–Origins and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas