Fast Five

Fast Five is a 2011 American heist action film directed by Justin Lin and written by Chris Morgan. A sequel to 2009's Fast & Furious, it is the fifth installment in The Fast Saga franchise and stars Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Jordana Brewster, Tyrese Gibson, Chris "Ludacris" Bridges, Matt Schulze, Sung Kang, Dwayne Johnson and Joaquim de Almeida. Fast Five follows Dominic Toretto, Brian O'Conner and Mia Toretto as they plan a heist to steal $100 million from corrupt businessman Hernan Reyes while being pursued for arrest by U. S. Diplomatic Security Service agent Luke Hobbs. While developing Fast Five, Universal Studios deliberately departed from the street racing theme prevalent in previous films in the series, to transform the franchise into a heist action series involving cars. By doing so, they hoped to attract wider audiences that might otherwise be put off by a heavy emphasis on cars and car culture. Fast Five is considered the transitional film in the series, featuring only one car race and giving more attention to action set pieces such as gun fights and the heist of $100 million.

The production mounted a comprehensive marketing campaign, marketing the film through social media, virtual games, cinema chains, automobile manufacturers and at NASCAR races. Fast Five was released first in Australia on April 20, 2011, in the United States on April 29, 2011; the film achieved financial success, breaking box office records for the highest-grossing April opening weekend and the second-highest spring opening weekend, surpassing Fast & Furious to become the highest-grossing film in the franchise. Fast Five grossed over $625 million worldwide, making it number 66 on the all-time worldwide list of highest-grossing films, in unadjusted dollars, the seventh-highest-grossing film of 2011. Fast Five received positive reviews, with critics praising the combination of comedy and "action sequences that toy idly with the laws of physics". Johnson was singled out for praise in numerous reviews for his performance, with critics calling him "the best thing, by far, in Fast Five" and remarking that scenes shared by Johnson and Diesel were the "best moments".

Despite the positive response, many were critical of the film's running time, considering it too long, others criticized the treatment of women, stating " cameo strikingly in buttock form. Others have first names." South American reviewers were critical of the film's portrayal of Rio de Janeiro as a haven for drug trafficking and corruption, labeling it a "stereotype". A sequel, Fast & Furious 6, was released in May 2013 to box office success, surpassing Fast Five as the highest-grossing film in the franchise. Another sequel, Furious 7, released in April 2015, soon surpassed Fast & Furious 6, grossing over $1.5 billion worldwide. As Dominic "Dom" Toretto is being transported to Lompoc Prison by bus, his sister Mia Toretto and friend Brian O'Conner lead an assault on the bus, freeing Dom. While the authorities search for them, the trio escapes to Rio de Janeiro. Awaiting Dom's arrival and Brian join their friend Vince and other participants on a job to steal three cars from a train. Brian and Mia discover that agents from the U.

S. Drug Enforcement Administration are on the train and that the cars are seized property; when Dom arrives at the train with his accomplices, he realizes that one of them, Zizi, is only interested in stealing one car, a Ford GT40. Dom has Mia steal the car herself before he and Brian fight Zizi and his henchmen, during which Zizi kills the DEA agents assigned to the vehicles. Dom and Brian are captured and brought to crime lord Hernan Reyes, the owner of the cars and Zizi's boss. Reyes orders the pair interrogated to discover the location of the car, but they manage to escape and retreat to their safehouse. While Brian and Mia examine the car to discover its importance, Vince arrives and is caught trying to remove a computer chip from it, he admits he was planning to sell the chip to Reyes on his own, Dom forces him to leave. Brian investigates the chip and discovers it contains the complete financial details of Reyes' criminal empire, including the locations of US$100 million in cash. Diplomatic Security Service agent Luke Hobbs and his team arrive in Rio to arrest Brian.

With the help of local officer Elena Neves, they travel to Dom's safehouse, but find it under assault by Reyes' men. Brian and Mia escape. Dom suggests they split up and leave Rio. Dom suggests they steal the money from Reyes to start a new life, they organize a team to perform the heist: Han, Tej, Gisele and Santos. Vince joins the team after saving Mia from being captured by Reyes' men; the crew infiltrate one of Reyes' facilities and set fire to the money there, baiting him into consolidating his money at a single location: a secure vault inside a police station. Hobbs and his team find and arrest Dom, Mia and Vince. While transporting them to the airport for extradition to the United States, the convoy is attacked by Reyes' men, who kill Hobbs' team. Hobbs and Elena are saved by Dom, Brian and Vince, who escape the assault, but Vince is fatally shot. Wanting to avenge his murdered team and Elena agree to help with the heist; the gang break into the police station and tear the vault holding Reyes' money from the building using their cars, dragging it through the city.

After an extensive police chase, Dom has Brian continue without him while he attacks the police and the pursuing Reyes, using the vault attached to his car to smash their vehicles. Brian retur


An op-ed, short for "opposite the editorial page", is a written prose piece published by a newspaper or magazine which expresses the opinion of an author not affiliated with the publication's editorial board. Op-eds are different from both letters to the editor; the direct ancestor of the modern op-ed page was created in 1921 by Herbert Bayard Swope of The New York Evening World. When Swope took over as editor in 1920, he realized that the page opposite the editorials was "a catchall for book reviews, society boilerplate, obituaries", he wrote: It occurred to me that nothing is more interesting than opinion when opinion is interesting, so I devised a method of cleaning off the page opposite the editorial, which became the most important in America... and thereon I decided to print opinions, ignoring facts. Swope included only opinions by employees of his newspaper, leaving the "modern" op-ed page to be developed in 1970 under the direction of The New York Times editor John B. Oakes; the first op-ed page of The New York Times appeared on 21 September 1970.

Writes media scholar Michael Socolow of Oakes' innovation: The Times' effort synthesized various antecedents and editorial visions. Journalistic innovation is complex, involves multiple external factors; the Times' op-ed page appeared in an era of democratizing cultural and political discourse and of economic distress for the company itself. The newspaper's executives developed a place for outside contributors with space reserved for sale at a premium rate for additional commentaries and other purposes. Beginning in the 1930s, radio began to threaten print journalism, a process, accelerated by the rise of television. To combat this, major newspapers such as The New York Times and The Washington Post began including more subjective and opinionated journalism, adding more columns and increasing the extent of their op-ed pages; the various connections between op-eds and funding from interest groups have raised concern. In 2011, in an open letter to The New York Times, a group of U. S. journalists and academics called for conflict of interest transparency in op-eds.

Feuilleton Pundit The OpEd Project – "an initiative to expand public debate and to increase the number of women in thought leadership positions." The Do Good Gauge – is a research proposal. The many essays describe the problem or give direction to solution in the inefficiencies of political and social discourse; the website attempts to facilitate public authorship in pursuit of civic virtue. "What we talk about when we talk about editing". The New York Times. July 31, 2005. Retrieved October 16, 2011

African Democracy Forum

The African Democracy Forum, is a regional network launched in Abuja, Nigeria in October 2000. It comprises civil society organisations, media institutions, community based organisations, academic institutions and donor entities that work on democracy, democratic research, protection of human rights, upholding the rule of law and promoting good governance through the twin principles of transparency and accountability in the African continent. ADF acts as a platform for mutual support and sharing of resources for over 450 organisations and individuals; the ADF is a regional network of the World Movement for Democracy, a network of organizations from around the world advocating for democracy. The ADF uses the knowledge of its members to create a strong network of communication, its members include leading human rights and democracy activists who use their experiences to teach others. The ADF seeks to provide democrats with the opportunity to express their views, to have a platform for mutual support and resources in an effort to consolidate democracy in Africa.

The ADF works to monitor democracy on the continent, protect democrats, support the development of information technology in Africa, share advocacy skills, train members of the network and maintain a dialogue with state leaders, empower individuals at the grass-roots level, encourage civil society organizations in conflict areas to use the ADF to seek support. The ADF General Assemblies focus on bringing together ADF members to develop civil society strategies to address specific issues, such as post-conflict elections, democracy education, monitoring human rights violations, fighting against corruption; the ADF holds conferences and workshops concerning democracy in post-conflict situations, women's political participation in Africa. The ADF has created training programs on “Information and Communication Technologies,” “Democratic Leadership and Conflict Resolution,” and “Non-Violent Movement.” The organization from time-to-time issues statements regarding issues that affect democratic development in Africa.

In addition to serving as the World Movement's Africa regional network, the ADF and its member organizations are involved in the non-governmental process for the Community of Democracies, the Human Rights Council Network, or HRCNet. Democrats in Africa founded the ADF in October 2000 in anticipation of the Second Assembly of the World Movement for Democracy; the ADF participated in the Assembly in São Paulo, Brazil, in November 2000 where 60 participants from 25 countries in Africa participated in workshops and worked together to create strategies to further democracy in Africa. The participants in the regional workshop created an extensive list of goals and tactics to help aid democracy in Africa, outlined some of the issues impeding its growth. In 2003, the ADF met in South Africa. At the conference, Ayesha Imam of Nigeria, a member of the ADF Steering Committee, gave the opening address and discussed the importance of including women, the poor and minorities in the democratic process. Christopher Landsberg of South Africa, former director of the Centre for Policy Research, gave the keynote address to the participants.

The conference included workshops focusing on various sub-regions of the continent and specific policy areas important to democracy in Africa. The ADF participated in the Third World Movement for Democracy Assembly in Durban, South Africa in 2004; the regional workshop at the Assembly was divided into three sessions: the overall development of the ADF, a discussion of the ADF constitution, the election of an ADF Management Committee the ADF Steering Committee. The Management Committee presented a draft of the ADF Constitution, at the end of the Assembly the newly created Drafting Committee presented the document to the participants; the draft was accepted as a working document, participants agreed to continue to discuss the draft over the online listserv before accepting a final version. At the end of the workshop, the participants elected the members of the Management Committee, paying close attention to the gender and linguistic balances of the Committee. At the Fifth Assembly of the World Movement for Democracy, the Management Committee of the ADF met to review the issues of the operation and management of the organization.

The group decided to send the Chair of the Committee to the Secretariat in Nairobi to assess ADF's readiness to address the current challenges facing democracy work in Africa. The Committee used the information gathered to create a strategic plan for the organization for the next three years; the plan identified issues and areas of priority for the ADF, helped to prioritize the ADF's activities in the upcoming years. After its initial discussion in 2004, the ADF members discussed at length necessary changes to the draft Constitution; the ADF members formally adopted the final version of the document at their meeting in April 2006. The Constitution outlines the structure and activities of the organization; the ADF is led by a Management Committee, previous called the Steering Committee. The tasks of the Committee are to prioritize ADF activities, to oversee the work of the ADF Secretariat and the ADF coordinator, to provide guidance to the coordinator and Secretariat as necessary, to assist in fundraising for ADF activities.

As stated in the Constitution, Management Committee members are elected by ADF members every two years. The current members of the Management Committee are: ex officio members by virtue of being an African member of the World Movement for Democracy Steering Committee African Democracy Forum, Community of Democracies, Human Rights Council Network, https://web.a