The Warszawa was a Polish automobile manufactured from 1951 to 1973 by the FSO Passenger Automobile Factory in Warsaw. The Warszawa was the first new-design Polish car built after the Second World War. Warszawas were popular as taxis because of their ruggedness. However, due to their weight they had high fuel consumption. In total, 254,471 cars were made. Named after the city of Warsaw, the Warszawa was until 1957 identical to the Soviet Pobeda, built under license, given to the Polish by GAZ, as Joseph Stalin's present; the first major modernisation took place in 1957. The new model was called FSO Warszawa M20 model 57, but not long after its name was changed to Warszawa 200. New model received a restyled front-end section; the powertrain was modified too, compression ratio was raised from 6.2:1 to 6.8:1. Since 1962 car could be equipped with the OHV I4 engine, it was much more modern than the archaic sidevalve construction used before. In 1964 the body style was changed to a Ponton, three-box design by becoming mainstream in Europe, though the car retained a rather heavy style to western eyes.
In 1967 it was announced that Perkins four cylinder 1.76-litre diesel engines would be fitted in export market Warszawas, which were scheduled to debut at the Poznań International Fair in June 1967. The Warszawa was the basis for the Żuk and the Nysa. Additionally there was a commercial variant of the saloon car. FSO Warszawa at the IMCDb
A coupé or coupe is a two-door car with a fixed roof. In the 21st century there are four-door cars with a coupé-like roofline sold as "four door coupés" or "quad coupés". Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats; the coupé name is a French language word, the past participle of the verb couper, translating as cut. There are two common pronunciations in English: koo-PAY, the anglicized version of the French pronunciation of coupé. KOOP in American English, due to people spelling the word without the acute accent, which resulted in them pronouncing it as one syllable; this change occurred and before World War II. This pronunciation is more common in the United States, for example the hot rodders' term Deuce Coupe used to refer to a 1932 Ford; the origin of the coupé body style come from the berline horse-drawn carriage. In the 18th century, the coupé version of the berline was introduced, a shortened version with no rear-facing seat. A coupé had a fixed glass window in the front of the passenger compartment.
The term "berline coupé" was shortened to "coupé". The coupé was considered to be an ideal vehicle for women to use to go shopping or to make social visits; the early coupé automobile's passenger compartment followed in general conception the design of horse-drawn coupés, with the driver in the open at the front and an enclosure behind him for two passengers on one bench seat. The French variant for this word thus denoted a car with a small passenger compartment. By the 1910s, the term had evolved to denote a two-door car with the driver and up to two passengers in an enclosure with a single bench seat; the coupé de ville, or coupé chauffeur, was an exception, retaining the open driver's section at front. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers suggested nomenclature for car bodies that included the following: Coupe: An enclosed car operated from the inside with seats for two or three and sometimes a backward-facing fourth seat. Coupelet: A small car seating two or three with a folding top and full height doors with retractable windows.
Convertible coupe: A roadster with a removable coupé roof. During the 20th century, the term coupé was applied to various close-coupled cars. Since the 1960s the term coupé has referred to a two-door car with a fixed roof. Since 2005, several models with four doors have been marketed as "four-door coupés", however reactions are mixed about whether these models are sedans instead of coupés. According to Edmunds, the American online resource for automotive information, "the four-door coupe category doesn't exist." A coupé is a two-door fixed roof car but some manufacturers manage to fit four doors beneath coupe roofs and now describe these cars as four-door coupes. In 1977, International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defined a coupé as having a closed body with limited rear volume, a fixed roof of which a portion may be openable, at least two seats in at least one row, two side doors and a rear opening, at least two side windows. Coupés have been described as "any two-door other than a two-door sedan, smaller than a related four-door in the same model line", "shorter than a sedan of the same model" and that "all two-door two-seaters with a solid roof are coupes."Today, coupé is sometimes used by manufacturers as a marketing term, rather than a technical description of a body style.
This is because coupés in general are seen as more streamlined and sportier overall lines than those of comparable four-door sedans. Automobile manufacturers have therefore begun to use the term loosely, marketing sporty four-door models that feature sloping rooflines as coupés. Manufacturers have used the term "coupé" with reference to several varieties, including: A Berlinetta is a lightweight sporty two-door car with two-seats but including 2+2 cars. A two-door car with no rear seat or with a removable rear seat intended for travelling salespeople and other vendors carrying their wares with them. American manufacturers developed this style of coupe in the late 1930s. A two-door car with a larger rear-seat passenger area, compared with the smaller rear-seat area in a 2+2 body style. Saab uses the term combi coupé for a car body similar to the liftback. A four-door car with a coupé-like roofline at the rear; the low-roof design reduces headroom. The designation, first applied to a low-roof model of the Rover P5 from 1962 until 1973, was revived with the 1985 Toyota Carina ED, the 1992 Infiniti J30 and most with the first model 2005 Mercedes-Benz CLS.
The term originated for marketing reasons. The German press accepted the concept of a four-door coupé and applied it to similar models from other manufacturers such as the 2009 Jaguar XJ. Other manufacturers accepted it, producing recent competing models like Volkswagen Passat CC, BMW F06 and a five-door coupé, the Audi A7; the German automobile club ADAC on its website adopted this concept. In Germany, the definition of the coupé was divided into the classic coupé and 4-door coupé. A two-door designed for driving to the opera with easy access to the rear seats. Features sometimes included a folding front seat next to the driver or a compartment to store top hats, they would have solid rear-quarter panels, with small, circular windows, to enable the occupants to see out without being seen. These opera windows were revived on many U. S. automobiles during the 1970s and early 1980s. A quad coupé is two small rear doors and no B pillar; the three window coupé (commonly jus
Hudson Motor Car Company
The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator to form American Motors Corporation; the Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year. The name "Hudson" came from Joseph L. Hudson, a Detroit department store entrepreneur and founder of Hudson's department store, who provided the necessary capital and gave permission for the company to be named after him. A total of eight Detroit businessmen formed the company on February 20, 1909, to produce an automobile which would sell for less than US$1,000. One of the chief "car men" and organizer of the company was Roy D. Chapin, Sr. a young executive who had worked with Ransom E. Olds.. The company started production, with the first car driven out of a small factory in Detroit on July 3, 1909 at Mack Avenue and Beaufait Street in Detroit, occupying the old Aerocar factory; the new Hudson "Twenty" was one of the first low-priced cars on the American market and successful with more than 4,000 sold the first year.
The 4,508 units made in 1910 was the best first year's production in the history of the automobile industry and put the newly formed company in 17th place industry-wide, "a remarkable achievement at a time" when there were hundreds of makes being marketed. Successful sales volume required a larger factory. A new facility was built on a 22-acre parcel at Jefferson Avenue and Conner Avenue in Detroit's Fairview section, diagonally across from the Chalmers Automobile plant; the land was the former farm of D. J. Campau; until the late 1920s, bodies for Hudson cars were built by Smart. On 1 July 1926, Hudson's new $10 million body plant was completed where the automaker could now build the all-steel closed bodies for both the Hudson and Essex models, it was designed by the firm of renowned industrial architect Albert Kahn with 223,500 square feet and opened on October 29, 1910. Production in 1911 increased to 6,486. For 1914 Hudsons for the American market were now left hand drive; the company had a number of firsts for the auto industry.
The Super Six was the first engine built by Hudson Hudson had developed engine designs and had them manufactured by Continental Motors Company. Most Hudsons until 1957 had straight-6 engines; the dual brake system used a secondary mechanical emergency brake system, which activated the rear brakes when the pedal traveled beyond the normal reach of the primary system. Hudson transmissions used an oil bath and cork clutch mechanism that proved to be as durable as it was smooth. At their peak in 1929, Hudson and Essex produced a combined 300,000 cars in one year, including contributions from Hudson's other factories in Belgium and England. Hudson was the third largest U. S. car maker that year, after Ford Motor Company and Chevrolet. In 1919, Hudson introduced the Essex brand line of automobiles; the Essex found great success by offering one of the first affordable sedans, combined Hudson and Essex sales moved from seventh in the U. S. to third by 1925. In 1932, Hudson began phasing out its Essex nameplate for the modern Terraplane brand name.
The new line was launched on July 1932, with a promotional christening by Amelia Earhart. For 1932 and 1933, the restyled cars were named Essex-Terraplane. Hudson began assembling cars in Canada, contracting Canada Top and Body to build the cars in their Tilbury, plant. In England Terraplanes built at the Brentford factory were still being advertised in 1938. An optional accessory on some 1935-1938 Hudson and Terraplane models was a steering column-mounted electric gear pre-selector and electro-mechanical automatic shifting system, known as the "Electric Hand", manufactured by the Bendix Corporation; this required conventional clutch actions. Cars equipped with Electric Hand carried a conventional shift lever in clips under the dash, which could be pulled out and put to use in case the Electric Hand should fail. Hudson was noted for offering an optional vacuum-powered automatic clutch, starting in the early 1930s. For the 1930 model year Hudson debuted a new flathead inline eight cylinder engine with block and Crankcase cast as a unit and fitted with two cylinder heads.
A 2.75 inch bore and 4.5 inch stroke displaced 218.8 cubic inches developing 80 horsepower at 3,600 rpm with the standard 5.78:1 compression ratio. The 5-main bearing crankshaft had 8 integral counterweights, an industry first, employed a Lanchester vibration damper. Four rubber blocks were used at engine mount points. A valveless oil pump improved the Hudson splash lubrication system; the new eights were the only engine offering in the Hudson line, supplanting the Super Six, which soldiered on in the Essex models. At the 1931 Indianapolis 500, Buddy Marr's #27 Hudson Special finished tenth. In 1936, Hudson revamped its cars, introducing a new "radial safe
The Ford Mustang is an American car manufactured by Ford. It was based on the platform of the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car; the original 1962 Ford Mustang I two-seater concept car had evolved into the 1963 Mustang II four-seater concept car which Ford used to pretest how the public would take interest in the first production Mustang. The 1963 Mustang II concept car was designed with a variation of the production model's front and rear ends with a roof, 2.7 inches shorter. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, thus dubbed as a "1964½" by Mustang fans, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A; the Mustang has undergone several transformations to its current sixth generation. The Mustang created the "pony car" class of American muscle cars, affordable sporty coupes with long hoods and short rear decks, gave rise to competitors such as the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, AMC Javelin, Chrysler's revamped Plymouth Barracuda, the second generation Dodge Challenger.
The Mustang is credited for inspiring the designs of coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were imported to the United States. As of August 2018, over 10 million Mustangs have been produced in the U. S; the Ford Mustang began production five months before the normal start of the 1965 production year. The early production versions are referred to as "1964½ models" but all Mustangs were advertised, VIN coded and titled by Ford as 1965 models, though minor design updates in August 1964 at the "formal" start of the 1965 production year contribute to tracking 1964½ production data separately from 1965 data. With production beginning in Dearborn, Michigan, on March 9, 1964. Executive stylist John Najjar, a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961, working jointly with fellow Ford stylist Philip T. Clark; the Mustang I made its formal debut at the United States Grand Prix in Watkins Glen, New York, on October 7, 1962, where test driver and contemporary Formula One race driver Dan Gurney lapped the track in a demonstration using the second "race" prototype.
His lap times were only off the pace of the F1 race cars. An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, first suggested the Mustang name. Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960; the book's title gave him the idea of adding the "Mustang" name for Ford's new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar or Torino, while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II; as the person responsible for Ford's research on potential names, Eggert added "Mustang" to the list to be tested by focus groups. The name could not be used in Germany, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time. Kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the "T-5" until December 1978. Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in response to the 1971–1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size and concept for 1974.
It designs. Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original model to remain in uninterrupted production over five decades of development and revision. Lee Iacocca's assistant general manager and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey was the head engineer for the T-5 project—supervising the overall development of the car in a record 18 months—while Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager; the T-5 prototype was a mid-mounted engine roadster. This vehicle employed the German Ford Taunus V4 engine, it was claimed that the decision to abandon the two-seat design was in part due to the increase in sales the Thunderbird had seen when enlarged from a two-seater to a 2+2 in 1958. Thus, a four-seat car with full space for the front bucket seats, as planned, a rear bench seat with less space than was common at the time, were standard. A "Fastback 2+2", first manufactured on August 17, 1964, enclosed the trunk space under a sweeping exterior line similar to the second series Corvette Sting Ray and European sports cars such as the Jaguar E-Type coupe.
Favorable publicity articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, the day the car was "officially" revealed. To achieve an advertised list price of US$2,368, the Mustang was based on familiar yet simple components, many of which were in production for other Ford models. Many of the interior, chassis and drivetrain components were derived from those used on Ford's Falcon and Fairlane; this use of common components shortened the learning curve for assembly and repair workers, while at the same time allowing dealers to pick up the Mustang without having to invest in additional spare parts inventory to support the new car line. Original sales forecasts projected less than 100,000 units for the first year; this mark was surpassed in three months from rollout. Another 318,000 would be sold during the model year, in its first eighteen months, more than one million
The Toyota Celica or is an automobile produced by Toyota from 1970 to 2006. The Celica name derives from the Latin word coelica meaning "heavenly" or "celestial". In Japan, the Celica was exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships Toyota Corolla Store. Throughout its life span the Celica has been powered by various four-cylinder engines; the most significant change occurred in August 1985, when the car's drive layout was changed from rear-wheel drive to front-wheel drive. During the first three generations, American market Celicas were powered by various versions of Toyota's R series engines; the four-wheel drive turbocharged model called GT-Four worldwide was produced from 1986 to 1999. Variable valve timing came in certain Japanese models starting from December 1997 and became standard in all models from model year 2000. Through seven generations, the model has gone through many revisions, it has spawned design forks that were spun off to become separate models, including the Toyota Celica Supra.
The Celica was available as notchback and liftback coupes, as well as a convertible. Displayed at the October 1970 Tokyo Motor Show and marketed from December of the same year, the Celica was a two-door hardtop coupe that emphasized styling and driving enjoyment based on a platform shared with the Toyota Carina sedan, one size above the Toyota Corolla; this car was aimed at the North American market and was Toyota's response to the 1964 Ford Mustang, a standard sedan with stylized 2+2 bodywork. Over the generations the Celica evolved into a "sports car". In Japan where different dealer chains handle different models the Celica was exclusive to Toyota Store Japanese dealerships; the Celica filled a market position held by the 1965–1969 Toyota Sports 800, when Toyota Corolla Store locations were known as Toyota Public Store renamed in 1966 as Toyota Corolla Store. The initial trim levels offered were ET, LT, ST and GT with GTV added in 1972. For export markets the Celica was available in three different levels of trim.
At its introduction the Celica was only available as a pillarless hardtop notchback coupe, adopting "coke bottle styling". The prototype SV-1 liftback was shown as a concept car at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show & with slight modifications this was introduced in Japan in April 1973 as the 2.0L RA25 & 1.6L TA27 The liftback was exported to many Asian countries & Europe in RHD form as the RA28 / TA28 with either a 18R 2.0 litre or 1.6 litre 2T-B engine. After the October 1975 facelift it was available in both RHD and LHD forms in other markets; the RV-1 "concept" wagon was shown at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show but it did not reach production. The Japanese GT models had various differences from the ET, LT and ST including the hood flutes, power windows, air conditioning and specific GT trim but shared a few things with the ST – A full length center console and oil pressure/ammeter gauges while the LT had warning lights for these functions. With the exception of the American market, the GT had a 1600 cc 2T-G twincam engine or a 2000 cc 18R-G, not available on the ET, LT or ST and always had 5-speed manual gearboxes.
For the Japanese market GTs had 18R-G motors that were mated to a Porsche designed closer ratio P51 5 speed gearbox whereas export models had the W-50. For the American market only the GT had only a single cam engine with a choice of automatic or 4 speed manual gearboxes on early models upgrading to the W-50 5 speed in 1974–1977. There was the GTV version, which introduced in 1972 with less luxurious interior than the GT to reduce weight; the GTV came with the same motor but with a thicker front sway bar & firmer suspension for better handling. In 1973 Japanese GTVs had a roof console "OK" monitor with a map light and a basic computer which detected blown brake bulbs, brake fluid level, main fuse & a floor console engine oil temperature gauge; the first-generation Celicas can be further broken down into two distinctive models. The first of these was the original with slant nose; this is for coupe model only, TA22, RA20, RA21 & RA22. These models were produced from 1970 to 1975 and came equipped with the 2T, 2T-G 1.6 litre, or 18R 2.0 litre motor.
They had a 95 inches wheelbase. The second series had a flat nose and longer wheelbase; this facelift model appeared in Japan in 1974 but for export was the 1975 model year being TA23, RA23, RA24, RA25, RA28, TA28 & RA29. The Japanese version had engines under 2.0 litres so as to conform to Japanese regulations concerning engine displacement size, thereby allowing buyers to avoid an additional tax for a larger engine. Japanese buyers did pay a higher annual road tax for engines over 1.5 litres while staying under the 2.0 litre threshold. In some markets, the lower-end LT was equipped with the single carbureted four-cylinder 2T engine displacing 1600 cc, while the ST came with a twin Solex downdraft carburetor 2T-B engine; the 2T-G that powered the high-end GT / GTV model was a DOHC 1600 cc engine equipped with twin Mikuni-Solex Carburetors. The first Celica for North America, 1971 ST was powered by 1.9 litre 8R engine. The 1972–1974 models have 2.0 litre 18R-C engines. For 1975–77, the engine for the North American Celica is the 2.2 litre 20R.
The Celica GT and LT models were introduced in the US for the 1974 model year. The top-line GT included a 5-speed W-50 manual transmission, rocker panel GT stripes and styled steel wheels with chrome trim rings; the LT was marketed as an economy model. 1974 saw minor change
Wind tunnels are large tubes with air moving inside. The tunnels are used to copy the actions of an object in flight. Researchers use wind tunnels to learn more about. NASA uses wind tunnels to test scale models of spacecraft; some wind tunnels are big enough to hold full-size versions of vehicles. The wind tunnel moves air around an object, making it seem like the object is flying. Most of the time, powerful fans move air through the tube; the object to be tested is fastened in the tunnel. The object can be a small model of a vehicle, it can be just a piece of a vehicle. It can be spacecraft, it can be a common object like a tennis ball. The air moving around the still object shows what would happen if the object were moving through the air. How the air moves can be studied in different ways. Smoke or dye can be seen as it moves. Threads can be attached to the object to show. Special instruments are used to measure the force of the air on the object; the earliest wind tunnels were invented towards the end of the 19th century, in the early days of aeronautic research, when many attempted to develop successful heavier-than-air flying machines.
The wind tunnel was envisioned as a means of reversing the usual paradigm: instead of the air standing still and an object moving at speed through it, the same effect would be obtained if the object stood still and the air moved at speed past it. In that way a stationary observer could study the flying object in action, could measure the aerodynamic forces being imposed on it; the development of wind tunnels accompanied the development of the airplane. Large wind tunnels were built during World War II. Wind tunnel testing was considered of strategic importance during the Cold War development of supersonic aircraft and missiles. On, wind tunnel study came into its own: the effects of wind on man made structures or objects needed to be studied when buildings became tall enough to present large surfaces to the wind, the resulting forces had to be resisted by the building's internal structure. Determining such forces was required before building codes could specify the required strength of such buildings and such tests continue to be used for large or unusual buildings.
Still wind-tunnel testing was applied to automobiles, not so much to determine aerodynamic forces per se but more to determine ways to reduce the power required to move the vehicle on roadways at a given speed. In these studies, the interaction between the road and the vehicle plays a significant role, this interaction must be taken into consideration when interpreting the test results. In an actual situation the roadway is moving relative to the vehicle but the air is stationary relative to the roadway, but in the wind tunnel the air is moving relative to the roadway, while the roadway is stationary relative to the test vehicle; some automotive-test wind tunnels have incorporated moving belts under the test vehicle in an effort to approximate the actual condition, similar devices are used in wind tunnel testing of aircraft take-off and landing configurations. Wind tunnel testing of sporting equipment has been prevalent over the years, including golf clubs, golf balls, Olympic bobsleds, Olympic cyclists, race car helmets.
Helmet aerodynamics is important in open cockpit race cars. Excessive lift forces on the helmet can cause considerable neck strain on the driver, flow separation on the back side of the helmet can cause turbulent buffeting and thus blurred vision for the driver at high speeds; the advances in computational fluid dynamics modelling on high speed digital computers has reduced the demand for wind tunnel testing. However, CFD results are still not reliable and wind tunnels are used to verify CFD predictions. Air velocity and pressures are measured in several ways in wind tunnels. Air velocity through the test section is determined by Bernoulli's principle. Measurement of the dynamic pressure, the static pressure, the temperature rise in the airflow; the direction of airflow around a model can be determined by tufts of yarn attached to the aerodynamic surfaces. The direction of airflow approaching a surface can be visualized by mounting threads in the airflow ahead of and aft of the test model. Smoke or bubbles of liquid can be introduced into the airflow upstream of the test model, their path around the model can be photographed.
Aerodynamic forces on the test model are measured with beam balances, connected to the test model with beams, strings, or cables. The pressure distributions across the test model have been measured by drilling many small holes along the airflow path, using multi-tube manometers to measure the pressure at each hole. Pressure distributions can more conveniently be measured by the use of pressure-sensitive paint, in which higher local pressure is indicated by lowered fluorescence of the paint at that point. Pressure distributions can be conveniently measured by the use of pressure-sensitive pressure belts, a recent development in which multiple ultra-miniaturized pressure sensor modules are integrated into a flexible strip; the strip is attached to the aerodynamic surface with tape, it sends signals depicting the pressure distribution along its surface. Pressure distributions on a test model can be determined by performing a wake survey, in which either a single pitot tube is used to obtain multiple readings downstream of the test model, or a multiple-tube manometer is mounted downstream and all its readings are taken.
The aerodynamic properties of an object can not all remain the same for a