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The fastball is the most common type of pitch thrown by pitchers in baseball and softball. "Power pitchers," such as former American major leaguers Nolan Ryan and Roger Clemens, rely on speed to prevent the ball from being hit, have thrown fastballs at speeds of 95–105 miles per hour and up to 108.1 miles per hour. Pitchers who throw more can put movement on the ball, or throw it on the outside of home plate where batters can't reach it. Fastballs are thrown with backspin, so that the Magnus effect creates an upward force on the ball; this causes it to fall less than expected, sometimes causes an optical illusion called a rising fastball. Although it is impossible for a human to throw a baseball fast enough and with enough backspin for the ball to rise, to the batter the pitch seems to rise due to the unexpected lack of natural drop on the pitch. A straight pitch is achieved by gripping the ball with the fingers across the wide part of the seam so that both the index and middle fingers are touching two seams perpendicularly.

A sinking fastball is thrown by gripping it across the narrow part so that both the index and middle fingers are along a seam. Lateral motion is achieved by holding a four-seam fastball off-center, sinking action with a lateral break is thrown by splitting the fingers along the seams. Colloquially, a fastball pitcher'throws heat' or'puts steam on it', among many other variants; the four-seam fastball is the most common variant of the fastball. The pitch is used by the pitcher to get ahead in the count or when he needs to throw a strike; this type of fastball is intended relying more on its velocity. It is perceived as the fastest pitch a pitcher throws, with recorded top speeds above 100 mph; the fastest pitch recognized by MLB was on September 25, 2010, at Petco Park in San Diego by Cincinnati Reds left-handed relief pitcher Aroldis Chapman. It was clocked at 105.1 miles per hour. April 19, 2011 Chapman lit up the stadium radar gun at 106 MPH. Two general methods are used to throw a four-seam fastball.

The first and most traditional way is to find the horseshoe seam area, or the area where the seams are the farthest apart. Keeping those seams parallel to the body, the pitcher places his index and middle fingers perpendicular to them with the pads on the farthest seam from him; the thumb rests underneath the ball about in the middle of the two fingers. With this grip, the thumb will have no seam on which to rest; the four seam fastball is regarded as the main key to advancing to the next level of play. One of a baseball scout's main criteria when scouting a prospect is how fast he throws a four seam fastball; the game of baseball keeps on progressing, as research on the physics of throwing is published and recognized, fastball velocity training has become more effective. This can be shown by looking at the average fastball velocity in the major leagues as time progresses. In 2008 the average fastball thrown in the MLB was 90.9 mph. 5 years it had risen to 92.0. To show the effect that this increase in velocity has had on hitters in the big leagues, we can look at the runs scored stat.

In 2008, the average number of runs a team scored a game was 4.6. How has pitch velocity gone up so much? By the development of better training and clearer communication within the baseball community that velocity is so valued. People like Tom House, Eric Cressey, Kyle Boddy, Ron Wolforth have all pushed the edge and dedicated careers to research on what makes the ultimate pitcher. Pitchers are getting bigger and stronger, pushing their bodies in the weight room as well as with weighted ball throwing. All of this has created a faster, more powerful game for pitchers on the mound today. Higher pitch velocities has resulted other imbalances. A more distant pitcher's mound and other changes have been proposed to restore balance. A two-seam fastball, sometimes called a two-seamer, tailing fastball, running fastball, or sinker is another variant of the straight fastball, it is designed to have more movement than a four-seam fastball, so the batter cannot hit it hard, but it can be more difficult to master and control.

Because of the deviation from the straight trajectory, the two-seam fastball is sometimes called a moving fastball. The pitcher grabs a baseball and finds the area on it where the seams are the closest together, puts his index and middle fingers on each of those seams. A sinker is a similar pitch; each finger should be touching the seam from the pads or tips to the ball of each finger. The thumb should rest underneath the ball in the middle of those two fingers, finding the apex of the horseshoe part of the seam; the thumb needs to rest on that seam from the side to the middle of its pad. If the middle finger is used, more whipping action occurs; this ball tends to move for the pitcher a little bit depending on velocity, arm slot angle, pressure points of the fingers. Retired pitchers Greg Maddux and Pedro Martínez were known for their effective two-seamers. Depending on the grip and pressure applied with the fingers, sometimes the two-seam fastball features more sink than lateral movement. Sinkerballers tend to induce a lot of ground ball ou

Gunman's Walk

Gunman's Walk is a 1958 American CinemaScope Technicolor Western film directed by Phil Karlson and starring Van Heflin and Tab Hunter. Davy Hackett and his hot-tempered, arrogant older brother Ed are about to assist their rancher father Lee on a cattle drive to Wyoming; the brothers meet Cecily "Clee" Chouard, a beautiful half-French, half-Sioux woman, when Ed makes unwanted advances toward her, Davy intervenes. Clee's brother Paul is invited to join the cattle drive. Ed, obsessed with capturing a white mare, resents Paul's interference and pushes him off a cliff to his death, it is witnessed by two Indians, but when the case comes to court, Ed is released because Lee has bribed a man named Sieverts to lie that the death was an accident. Lee disowns him. Sieverts is given 10 horses in exchange. Jailed once again, Ed escapes. Lee hunts down his own son and kills him leads Davy and Clee back to the ranch. Van Heflin as Lee Hackett Tab Hunter as Ed Hackett Kathryn Grant as Clee Chouard James Darren as Davy Hackett Mickey Shaughnessy as Deputy Sheriff Will Motely Robert F. Simon as Sheriff Harry Brill Edward Platt as Purcell Avery Ray Teal as Jensen Sieverts Paul Birch as Bob Selkirk, Lee's caretaker Will Wright as Judge Bert Convy as Paul Chouard Chief Blue Eagle as Black Horse, Indian Paul Bryar as Saloon bartender Harry Antrim as Doctor Everett Glass as Rev. Arthur Stotheby Dorothy Adams as Martha Stotheby Ric Hardman wrote the original script and it was adapted by Frank Nugent.

Van Heflin signed to star in August 1957. Rudolph Mate was meant to be the director but he dropped out. Tab Hunter was borrowed from Warner Bros. Columbia contractee James Darren was assigned to a support role. Filming started in November 1957. Director Phil Karlson says. "He had two sons and this was a story about a father and two sons. He identified completely." List of American films of 1958 Gunman's Walk on IMDb Gunman's Walk at AllMovie Gunman's Walk at the TCM Movie Database Gunman's Walk at the American Film Institute Catalog Review of film at Cinema Retro

Ken Ralston

Kenneth "Ken" Ralston is an American visual effects artist the Visual Effect Supervisor and Creative Head at Sony Pictures Imageworks. Ralston began his career at the seminal commercial animation and visual effects company, Cascade Pictures in Hollywood, where he worked on over 150 advertising campaigns in the early 1970s. In 1976, he was hired at Industrial Light & Magic by Dennis Muren to help George Lucas create the effects for Star Wars, he remained in ILM for 20 years before joining Sony Pictures Imageworks as president. Ralston is best known for his work in the films of Robert Zemeckis. Ralston has won five Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, including a Special Achievement Oscar for the visual effects in Return of the Jedi, regular awards for his work on Cocoon, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Death Becomes Her and Forrest Gump, he was nominated three more times for Dragonslayer, Back to the Future Part II and Alice in Wonderland. Ken has contributed to several DVD commentaries: King Kong - with visual effects creator Ray Harryhausen Mighty Joe Young - with visual effects creator Ray Harryhausen and actress Terry Moore Who Framed Roger Rabbit - with director Robert Zemeckis, producer Frank Marshall, associate producer Steve Starkey, screenwriters Jeffrey Price and Peter Seaman Contact - with visual effects supervisor Stephen Rosenbaum Cast Away - with cinematographer Don Burgess, visual effects supervisor Carey Villegas, sound designer Randy Thom Star Wars The Empire Strikes Back Dragonslayer Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Return of the Jedi Star Trek III: The Search for Spock Cocoon Back to the Future Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home The Golden Child Who Framed Roger Rabbit Back to the Future Part II Dreams Back to the Future Part III The Rocketeer Death Becomes Her Forrest Gump The Mask The American President Jumanji Phenomenon Michael Contact Patch Adams Cast Away America's Sweethearts Men in Black II The Forgotten The Polar Express Beowulf Alice in Wonderland Men in Black 3 Alice Through the Looking Glass Ken Ralston on IMDb

First Law

"First Law" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov, first published in the October 1956 issue of Fantastic Universe magazine and collected in The Rest of the Robots and The Complete Robot. The title of the story is a reference to the first of the Three Laws of Robotics. In 1941 John W. Campbell of Astounding Science Fiction began a new department, "Probability Zero", for short stories, he wanted experienced authors early on, including Isaac Asimov. To Asimov's surprise, Campbell rejected "Big Game" and "First Law" in November and December 1941. Having learned that a rejected story might sell elsewhere, he saved "First Law" until it was published by Fantastic Universe in October 1956; the story is short, only three pages in length, takes the form of Mike Donovan's account of an incident that occurred on Titan, one of Saturn's moons. He tells of a malfunctioning robot named Emma that escaped from the base and was encountered by Donovan while he was lost during a storm.

While Donovan's life was in danger, Emma chose to protect its offspring, a small robot that it had built, instead of assisting him. This was a direct violation of the First Law of Robotics, which states that "a robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm". Maternal instincts in the robot took precedence over its programming, an example of the encountered literary theme of paternalism in Asimov's work. While such direct disobedience of the First Law is not described in any other robot story by Asimov, he points out that the story is told by Donovan, who may be an unreliable narrator. Asimov admits that "I was being funny at the expense of my robots". In The Complete Robot, he points out that this story is intended as a parody and is not to be taken seriously

Place Vendome (band)

Place Vendome is a melodic hard rock / AOR band, founded in 2004 at the direction of Frontiers Records president Serafino Perugino. Place Vendome was formed by Helloween and Unisonic vocalist Michael Kiske, Dennis Ward, Kosta Zafiriou and Uwe Reitenauer from the band Pink Cream 69 and Gunther Werno from the band Vanden Plas; the project has released four full-length albums. Serafino Perugino devised the idea for the Place Vendome project during the winter of 2004, he approached both Michael Kiske and Dennis Ward with the proposition of recording a melodic rock/AOR album. According to Kiske "The whole band was an idea of Serafino Perugino from Frontiers Records... He first got into contact with Dennis Ward of Pink Cream 69 and hired him to oversee the project... He proposed the idea to me and after hearing the songs, I agreed to do the record. I was impressed by the strength of the material." The songwriting for the debut album, Place Vendome, was provided by Dennis Ward, with further contributions from David Readman and Alfred Koffler.

Place Vendome's second album was featured the same line-up. The songwriting for the Streets of Fire album was provided by Torsti Spoof, Ronny Milianowicz, Robert Sall and Magnus Karlsson. A video was filmed for the song "My Guardian Angel", marking Kiske's visual return since 1996. On November 10, 2009, Place Vendome members Michael Kiske, Dennis Ward and Kosta Zafiriou, joined forces with guitarist Mandy Meyer, to form the rock band Unisonic. In 2010, they began their first tour, playing material from the Place Vendome albums, some Helloween classics and only one new song. In 2011, current Gamma Ray and former Helloween guitarist/vocalist Kai Hansen was added to the line-up. During Unisonic's following live performance at Loud Park Festival, the band focused on performing their own material and played only the song "Cross The Line" from the first Place Vendome album. Since Unisonic's self-titled debut album was released in March 2012, the band has not performed any Place Vendome songs during their concerts.

In 2012, Frontiers Records announced that Michael Kiske agreed to start working on a third Place Vendome album. A change in the line-up was announced, with Dirk Bruinenberg replacing Kosta Zafiriou as the drummer; the band's third album, Thunder in the Distance was released on November 1, 2013. The songwriting for this release was provided by Magnus Karlsson, Timo Tolkki, Alessandro Del Vecchio, Tommy Denander, Roberto Tiranti and Andrea Cantarelli, Sören Kronqvist and Brett Jones. A music video was filmed for the song "Talk To Me". In 2016, it was confirmed by Dennis Ward. On November 10, 2016, Ward posted on his social media profile that the album would be entitled Close to the Sun and would feature songs written by Magnus Karlsson, Jani Liimatainen, Olaf Thorsen, Fabio Lione, Simone Mularoni, Aldo Lonobile, Alessandro Del Vecchio and Mike Palace; the new album was released on February 24, 2017 and was the first Place Vendome release to feature guest guitar solos by Gus G, Kai Hansen, Mandy Meyer, Alfred Koffler, Magnus Karlsson, Simone Mularoni and Michael Klein.

Michael Kiske – vocals Dennis Ward – bass guitar Uwe Reitenauer – guitars Gunther Werno – keyboards Dirk Bruinenberg – drumsFormer members Kosta Zafiriou – drums Place Vendome Streets of Fire Thunder in the Distance Close to the Sun Frontiers Records official website Michael Kiske's official website Kiske's collectors guide website Where Wishes Fly - Kiske Fanclub

Andy "The Bull" McSharry

Andy "the Bull" McSharry is an Irish sheep farmer from County Sligo who came to national attention after a seventeen-year campaign during which he objected to casual walkers trespassing on his land, a dispute which inspired other farmers to object to similar treatment. The dispute began in 1992 and concluded in 2009. McSharry lives near Ben Bulben in North County Sligo, he has family. He is known for wearing an Indiana Jones-type broad-brimmed hat and he refers to himself as "the Bull", a reference to the character in John B. Keane's play The Field. Fine Gael's spokesperson on Arts and Tourism Jimmy Deenihan once said of McSharry: “John B would have loved to have met you”; the farmer has been seen driving around on an all-terrain vehicle to ensure his land is not invaded. The dispute began when McSharry's lands were included in a guidebook distributed to walkers despite him not having authorised this; the route through his lands was taken out of the book. The publicity raised by McSharry prompted other farmers to defend their lands.

In 2003, he was convicted of issuing threats to hillwalkers the previous year and, upon refusal to pay a €300 fine, was sent to prison for two weeks in January the following year. He had considered going on hunger strike, saying the publicity generated by the case was attracting more curious people onto his lands and that half a dozen people had trampled down part of his fence. During an interview on his sentencing he said: “There is no way farmers can give away land to strangers. We must get our share. There is no free inch or no free land in the country”. Two hundred farmers, including President of the Irish Farmers' Association John Dillon, protested at his sentencing and gathered outside the gates of Loughan House open prison in County Cavan to welcome him as he was released from his confinement. In an interview with Farm Week on RTÉ Radio 1 after his release he said: "There is no way in hell I will let walkers through my land for nothing". A report sent to Irish Minister for Community and Gaeltacht Affairs Éamon Ó Cuív in January 2004 suggested the establishment of a national council to deal with land ownership and access rights.

Speaking at the annual general meeting of the Irish Cattle and Sheepfarmers' Association in February 2004, McSharry compared the group Keep Ireland Open to the Mafia, saying: "These people want a slice of everyone's action for nothing". A "peace deal" was offered in October 2004 as a "goodwill gesture" where walkers could access lands for one day; the dispute came to an end in September 2009 with Minister Ó Cuív visiting to publicly shake hands with McSharry and launch a new mountain walk at his home in Gleniff. No money exchanged hands. McSharry's story was documented in the RTÉ television series Léargas