Three Bridges is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley, in the county of West Sussex in England. Three Bridges was a tiny hamlet, which first began to grow with the coming of the London and Brighton Railway in 1841. Despite beliefs to the contrary, the village was not named after rail bridges, but three much older crossings over streams in the area; the hamlet became the site of an important railway junction in 1848 with the opening of the branch line to Horsham and thence to Portsmouth. The railway established marshalling yards to the south of the village. A further branch line to East Grinstead was opened in 1855; the village changed radically with the coming of the New town development in the Crawley area in the late 1940s. Three Bridges was one of the first group of neighbourhoods to be built. There are 13 neighbourhoods. Three Bridges continues to be the site of an important rail station at the intersection of the London to Brighton line and the London to Portsmouth Line, but the branch line to East Grinstead closed on 1 January 1967.
A rolling stock depot, Three Bridges depot, was constructed in the early 2010s for the Thameslink rolling stock programme Three Bridges ROC, the main operating center for the south east, is located close to Three Bridges station. Hazelwick School is a comprehensive school located in Three Bridges, it was opened as a Secondary Modern School in 1953, which became a Comprehensive school in the mid 1960s. It is designated as a Technology and Humanities College. Hazelwick has more than 2100 pupils. Many former school pupils became famous including Gareth Southgate and Chico Slimani, it educated two of the controversial Fertilizer Bomb plotters, Omar Khyam and Jawad Akbar who were arrested and imprisoned for life sentences due to Government Home Security surveillance during Operation Crevice. Primary schools in Three Bridges include Three Bridges Primary School. Three Bridges F. C. play in Division One South. Crawley Town F. C. play in the fourth tier of football in England. Three Bridges Cricket Club play in the Sussex Cricket League.
Crawley Hockey Club plays their home matches at Hazelwick School Three Bridges Football Club Crawley Lawn Tennis Club Three Bridges Cricket Club Crawley Borough Council Hazelwick School Three Bridges Station
A public–private partnership is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, transport systems and sewerage systems. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a language game; when understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services; when understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of, the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative.
Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times. Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena; the engineering and economics professions take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives. Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors; the use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and unavailable. According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time"; because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior. PPPs involve a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer.
In other types, capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may be in kind. In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make the project economically viable. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period. In all cases, the partnerships include a transfer of significant risks to the private sector in an integrated and holistic way, minimizing interfaces for the public entity. An optimal risk allocation is the main value generator for this model of delivering public service. There are many drivers for PPPs. One common driver involves the claim that PPPs enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.
Another common driver is that PPPs may be structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing. Rather, the PPP borrowing is incurred by the private sector vehicle implementing the project. On PPP projects where the cost of using the service is intended to be borne by the end user, the PPP is, from the public sector's perspective, an "off-balance sheet" method of financing the delivery of new or refurbished public sector assets. On PPP projects where the public sector intends to compensate the private sector through availability payments once the facility is established or renewed, the financing is, from the public sector's perspective, "on-balance sheet". Financing costs will be higher for a PPP than for a traditional public financing, because of the private sector higher cost of capital. However, extra financing costs can be offset by private sector efficiency, savings resulting from a holistic approach to delivering the project or se
Broadfield, West Sussex
Broadfield is a neighbourhood within the town of Crawley in West Sussex, England. Broadfield is located in the south west of the town, it is bordered by Bewbush to Southgate to the north east and Tilgate to the east. Broadfield is divided into two local government wards. Broadfield was built in several stages and is densely populated. There is a mixture of property types, including private estates, housing association, council houses and self-build. Broadfield has one central shopping parade, the Barton, one of the largest neighbourhood parade in the town. Unlike many of the parades in the town, which are council run, the Barton is owned and managed by the shop-owners. There is a wide variety of a library, a church, a nearby mosque and a large medical centre. There is a community centre, run as a charitable organisation overseen by trustees from the churches. There are two infant/primary schools in the neighbourhood, an adventure playground, several open spaces with football pitches, Broadfield Stadium, home to Crawley Town Football Club.
In 2005 a purpose built Sure Start Children's Centre was opened on Creasys Drive providing support and facilities for families of under 5's. The Broadfield centre works with a similar establishment in Bewbush. Next to the stadium is Broadfield Park. Broadfield House was the hunting lodge for the estate, the park contains a small lake and some woods. To the south of Broadfield are the Buchan Country Park and part of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty at Pease Pottage; the latter is home to a Scout camp. Broadfield is served by various bus services including the 24-hour Crawley Fastway bus service to Gatwick. In recent years the neighbourhood has gained a more positive image with which many residents are proud to be associated. Crawley Borough Council's website Broadfield Stadium Broadfield Youth & Community Centre Christ The Lord Church Broadfield Christian Fellowship
Surrey is a subdivision of the English region of South East England in the United Kingdom. A historic and ceremonial county, Surrey is one of the home counties; the county borders Kent to the east, East Sussex and West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. Inhabited by about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, both the third most populous home county and the third most populous county in the South East. Guildford is considered to be the county town; however despite the town's designation, Surrey County Council has never been based there, being instead seated throughout its history in London. Since the borders of Surrey were altered in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 which created Greater London, none of these places are now in Surrey, marking an example of a de facto capital, located outside of its administrative area. Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge and Ewell, Mole Valley and Banstead, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge and Woking.
Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth and death registration, social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and small parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 plus Bromley and Hounslow; the form of Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county due to economic, aesthetic and logistical factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London and the highest cost of living in the UK outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland in England, having been rural since it was shorn in 1965 of the urbanised swathes of South London which had hitherto been part of the county, it has large protected green spaces. It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to London and to Heathrow and Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services into Central London. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs; the ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking.
It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057, they are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county counc
Three Bridges railway station
Three Bridges railway station is located in and named after the village of Three Bridges, now a district of Crawley, West Sussex, England. It is at the point where the Arun Valley Line diverges from the Brighton Main Line and Thameslink, 29 miles 21 chains down the line from London Bridge via Redhill; the original Italianate style railway station on the East side of the line at Three Bridges was opened in July 1841 by the London and Brighton Railway at a point next to their proposed branch to Horsham. It was designed by the architect David Mocatta, was one of a series of standardised modular buildings used by the railway; this building was demolished 5 May 1985. Mocatta's plans for the station indicate that it was going to be known as "Crawley" but according to The London and Brighton railway guide, of 1841 and the 1846 timetable it was named "Three Bridges" from the time it was opened; the London and Brighton Railway merged with others to become the London Brighton and South Coast Railway in 1846, the branch to Horsham was opened two years later.
Three Bridges was enlarged in July 1855 with the construction of a branch line to East Grinstead and again enlarged in 1906/9 at the time of the quadrupling of the main line. The present ticket office was built on the west side of the line and new platforms and station buildings for the new lines. Three Bridges was a key site for the electrification scheme for the Brighton main line during 1932/33, housing the control room for the scheme, was one of three locations where current was taken from the national network and transmitted to substations. Electric multiple unit trains began to run between London and Three Bridges on 17 July 1932; the line was electrified throughout on 30 December. At the same time the practice of using "slip coaches" for East Grinstead at Three Bridges from expresses bound for the south coast was abandoned by the Southern Railway; the line from Three Bridges to Horsham was electrified in May 1938. The single-track branch line to East Grinstead was never electrified, it remained steam operated, using tank locomotives of the H classes hauling push -- pull trains.
After the end of steam operation in 1964, it was briefly operated by diesel-electric multiple units of British Rail Class 205 but closed on 2 January 1967. There have been four recorded accidents at Three Bridges station, the first two of which were minor and involved no injuries. On 12 April 1858 an engine collided with passenger carriages, on 18 October 1863 an excursion train hit the buffer stops. Two members of station staff died on 13 December 1868 from an explosion of naphtha in a truck of a goods train. On 28 January 1933 an electric train crashed into the back of a steam freight train waiting at the signal box; the driver of the electric train and the guard of the freight train were both injured. An engine shed; this was closed in 1909 to make way for the enlargement of the station and a new depot was established in the fork between the Brighton and Horsham lines in 1911, which remained open until June 1964. The original small goods yard to the south of the station was extended during the First World War and was used as a marshalling yard for munitions trains heading for the Continent.
Trains from the Great Western Railway and the London and North Western Railway were brought here for onward transmission to Newhaven Harbour. In the early 2000s, Virgin CrossCountry built a depot at Three Bridges to service its Class 220 Voyagers, it closed following CrossCountry withdrawing its Gatwick and Brighton services in December 2008. In 2010 Network Rail selected Three Bridges as its preferred site for a signalling centre for trains operating in the southeast of England, being central to the London and future Thameslink services, with no major negative planning issues. A 1.7 ha site 0.5 mi south of Three Bridges station was selected, located in the "fork" between the Arun Valley Line and Brighton Main Line. The operating centre build was designed as a 71.45 by 34.8 m three-storey building with 6,980 m2 of floorspace, providing railway operational and administrational and training facilities. Equipment was on the ground floor, with the operation rooms on first and second floors. In December 2011, Network Rail began construction of a rail operating centre at Three Bridges, one of 14 countrywide intended to replace several hundred signalboxes.
The facility was constructed by C. Spencer Ltd, was expected to employ around 600 people, with a 900-person net job benefit once complete; the facility was opened in January 2014. In 2009 Network Rail submitted a planning application for a rolling stock depot including a three road shed for trains to be procured under the Thameslink rolling stock programme; as of August 2014, the depot is under construction. The station remains an important junction on the Brighton Main Line throughout Southern Railway and British Railways ownership. Train services are now provided by Thameslink train operating companies. Besides a booking hall, the station has refreshment facilities and shops, as well as toilets and accessibility li
Redhill is a town in the borough of Reigate and Banstead within the county of Surrey, England. The town, which adjoins the town of Reigate to the west, is due south of Croydon in Greater London, is part of the London commuter belt; the town is the post town and commercial area of three adjoining communities: Merstham and Whitebushes, as well as of two small rural villages to the east in the Tandridge District and Nutfield. Redhill is sited about 3 miles south of a minor pass at Merstham in the North Downs, through which passes the London-Brighton road. Beneath this pass, two rival railway companies excavated the Merstham tunnels, which are still used by regular commuter trains and goods transport, with the two railway lines intersecting to the south of Redhill station. A major factor in the development of the town was the coming of the railways. Redhill railway station continues to be an important junction. A town formed here in part of the rural parishes of Reigate Foreign and Merstham when a turnpike road was built in 1818.
The settlement was known as "Warwick Town" after Warwick Road, became known as Redhill when the post office moved from Red Hill Common in the south-west of the town in 1856. Redhill is one of the few places in the UK where fuller's earth can be extracted, though production ceased in 2000. Alfred Nobel demonstrated dynamite for the first time at a Merstham quarry, 2 miles north of Redhill in 1868. A large, Victorian psychiatric hospital with well-trimmed grounds, the Royal Earlswood Hospital the Philanthropic Society's farm school for convicts' children, first established in 1788 at St. George's Fields, relocated to Earlswood in what was the south of Redhill in 1855. Prince Albert laid the first stone in 1853. Another inmate James Henry Pullen was an autistic savant, he was a brilliant artist whose work was accepted by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Some of Pullen's ship models and art work used to be on display at the town's Belfry Shopping Centre but have now been moved to the Langdon Down Museum in Teddington.
The principal building has been converted to apartments and the renovated grounds provide green open space to balance the large common south-west of Earlswood railway station. Richard Carrington, an amateur astronomer, moved to Redhill in 1852, built a house and observatory. Dome Way, where Redhill's only tower block stands, is named after it; the site suited an isolated observatory, being on a spur of high ground surrounded by lower fields and marsh. Here in 1859 he made astronomical observations that first corroborated the existence of solar flares as well as their electrical influence upon the Earth and its aurorae. In 1863 he published records of sunspot observations that first demonstrated differential rotation in the Sun. In 1865 ill health prompted him to sell his move to Churt, Surrey. St John the Evangelist, built in 1843, was the first of Redhill's three Anglican parish churches; the parish stretched from Gatton in the north to Sidlow in the south. The construction, to the east of Redhill, of the M23 motorway between 1972 and 1975 reduced north-south traffic through the town.
The natural gap in the North Downs north of Merstham is at an elevation of 120 metres above sea level. From this point run undulating slopes of significant chalk and some fuller's earth deposits, underlying regular humus topsoil in the distance to Redhill's town centre. Reigate High Street, further along the Holmesdale gap, is at an elevation of around 85 metres or 280 feet with a small hill to the north where Reigate Castle is sited. Redhill Common, now built on at St John's, is on the Greensand Ridge; the Redhill Brook runs through the town culverted, upstream to the immediate north-east of the town are The Moors nature reserve and the large 2010–2012 Watercolour housing development, comprising 25 acres of lakes and wildlife habitat managed by the Surrey Wildlife Trust. The brook enters a culvert behind Redhill station and reappears at Halford's car park; the flat area of Redhill's town centre was a marshy flood plain caused by its silted waters. The railway and A23 pass through or near the gap cut by the brook through the Greensand Ridge at Earlswood, just south of the town.
The meandering stream joins the River Mole south west of Woodhatch, Reigate at an elevation of 50m metres, after flowing southwards westwards. Holmethorpe can refer to two neighbouring developments, one residential, the other commercial/industrial and separated by the west track of the Brighton Main Line directly north of Redhill. A Holmethorpe Industrial Estate member's organisation exists to provide security to and advertise recruitment among its 66 businesses and to work on traffic and local authority planning matters. Holmethorpe had at the 2001 census a population of 1,128. Watercolour is a 2008–2012 built settlement and neighbourhood in Redhill towards the village of Merstham across lakes from the Greensand Ridge of the wooded village of Bletchingley and on the site of the former Holmethorpe Gravel Quarry. Redstone Hill is above the Royal Mail sorting office and depot, centred around one of three Redhill conservation areas, across the station using the A25 or subway from most of the town.
This neighbourhood includes a hotel-restaurant and unusually for a conservation area, no nat
Horley is a town in the borough of Reigate and Banstead in Surrey, England south of the towns of Reigate and Redhill. The county border with West Sussex is to the south with Crawley and Gatwick Airport close to the town. With fast links by train round-the-clock to London from Horley railway station, it qualifies as a commuter town and has a significant economy of its own, including business parks and a long high street. In the past the Weald was a densely marshy area. During Saxon times, the Manor of Horley came under the control of the Benedictine Abbey of St Peter at Chertsey. In the Domesday Book of 1086, the Manor was within the hundred known as Cherchefelle which in 1199 became known as Reigate; the Manor passed to Henry VIII on the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539 and changed hands several times during the next sixty years. About 1 mile to the east is the overgrown but well-preserved site of Thunderfield Castle, a twelfth-century ring and bailey castle. In 1602 it became the property of Christ's Hospital in London and the original map of the manor is now held at the Guildhall in the City of London.
This shows. One was around the area occupied by the Six Bells public house; the Common was enclosed in 1816, new roads were laid and the intervening land was sold. In 1809 and in 1816, two turnpikes were introduced to allow the operation of regular coach services from London to Brighton; the railway was laid in 1841 and a station was built in the town. From that position, from that date, Horley grew at a slow rate until 1950. Since its population has doubled as it became a dormitory town for London commuters. In 1908 the first scout patrol, the pewit patrol, was established. After gaining members this patrol formed 1st Horley scout group which them merged with 2nd Horley in 2006; the Local Government Act 1972 changed the boundary of Surrey and West Sussex and placed Horley and Charlwood in West Sussex. The removal of Gatwick Airport and the surrounding area from Surrey into West Sussex met some fierce local opposition with the result that the parishes of Horley and Charlwood were subsequently returned to Surrey in the eponymous Charlwood and Horley Act 1974, leaving the airport to stay in West Sussex.
The Horley Master Plan, approved by Reigate & Banstead Borough Council in February 2005, permits 2,600 new homes to be built. This prompted immediate controversy as the area as with most of non-metropolitan Surrey, i.e. since its reduction in 1974, is Metropolitan Green Belt however is permitted where in pursuance with the local plan, meeting national criteria including demonstrating environmental sustainability and upholding the character of existing localities. The town is within the East Surrey constituency represented by the MP Sam Gyimah. Horley is part of the Borough of Reigate and Banstead, but has a town council; the Town Mayor and Chairman of the Town Council for the year 2018-19 is Councillor David Powell. Horley was moved into West Sussex with Gatwick Airport by the Local Government Act 1972. Due to public opposition to these the changes, they were returned to Surrey in the Charlwood and Horley Act 1974, although the airport and Lowfield Heath stayed in West Sussex. Horley is at an altitude of around 54 metres above mean sea level.
Salfords in the civil parish of Salfords and Sidlow, on the road to Redhill, is to the north and Gatwick Airport is between Horley and Crawley to the south. The village of Charlwood is to the west and Smallfield is to the east across the M23 Motorway. Horley has been twinned with Vimy, France since 1991 The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average, apartments was 22.6%. The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings. There has been a substantial increase in housing and population since 2011, including the large new development at Westvale Park north west of the town centre. At one time the airline Dan-Air had its head office in the now demolished Newman House in Horley. Horley was home to the Matbro works which produced forklift trucks from the 1950s to the 1980s and pioneered telescopic handlers.
The bright yellow Teleram 40 and Teleram C machines were popular with farmers and construction companies. Horley is the present home of Scotia Gas Networks. Today, about a third of the population work locally, while another third commute south to Gatwick and Crawley, the final third travel further to London and Reigate. Horley is home to the Archway Theatre under the arches of the Victoria Road railway bridge, it consists of a bar, studio theatre and rehearsal rooms. The main auditorium seats 95 and the studio seats 40; the company presents 10 full productions each year as well as a number of studio events and youth productions. Horley is served by Metrobus bus routes connecting with Redhill, Three Bridges, East Grinstead and Gatwick Airport, as well as the outlying villages of Charlwood and Smallfield. Horley railway station is served by Southern on the Brighton Main Line. Horley has one secondary school, three primary schools, two junior schools, two infant schools. There is no sixth form provision, so most students go to