Father's Day is a day of honoring fatherhood, paternal bonds, as well as the influence of fathers in society. In Catholic countries of Europe, it has been celebrated on March 19 since the Middle Ages; this celebration was brought by the Spanish and Portuguese to Latin America, where March 19 is still used for it, though many countries in Europe and the Americas have adopted the U. S. date, the third Sunday of June. It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most in the months of March and June according to the home nation's customs, it complements similar celebrations honoring family members, such as Mother's Day, Siblings Day and Grandparents' Day. In its modern form it was founded by Sonora Smart Dodd. A customary day for the celebration of fatherhood in Catholic Europe is known to date back to at least 1508, it is observed on March 19, as the feast day of Saint Joseph, referred to as the fatherly Nutritor Domini in Catholicism and "the putative father of Jesus" in southern European tradition.
This celebration was brought to the Americas by the Portuguese. The Catholic Church supported the custom of a celebration of fatherhood on St. Joseph's Day from either the last years of the 14th century or from the early 15th century on the initiative of the Franciscans. In the Coptic Church, the celebration of fatherhood is observed on St Joseph's Day, but the Copts observe this celebration on July 20; this Coptic celebration may date back to the fifth century. Father's Day was not celebrated outside Catholic traditions, until the 20th century; as a civic celebration in the US, it was inaugurated in the early 20th century to complement Mother's Day by celebrating fathers and male parenting. After Anna Jarvis' successful promotion of Mother's Day in Grafton, West Virginia, the first observance of a day honoring fathers was held on July 5, 1908, in Fairmont, West Virginia, in the Williams Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church South, now known as Central United Methodist Church. Grace Golden Clayton was mourning the loss of her father, when in December 1907, the Monongah Mining Disaster in nearby Monongah killed 361 men, 250 of them fathers, leaving around a thousand fatherless children.
Clayton suggested. Clayton's event did not have repercussions outside Fairmont for several reasons. Two events overshadowed this event: the celebration of Independence Day July 4, 1908, with 12,000 attendants and several shows, including a hot-air balloon event, which took over the headlines in the following days, the death of a 16-year-old girl on July 4; the local church and council were overwhelmed and they did not think of promoting the event, it was not celebrated again for many years. The original sermon was not reproduced by the press and it was lost. Clayton was a quiet person, who never promoted the event and never talked to other persons about it. In 1911, Jane Addams proposed that a citywide Father's Day celebration be held in Chicago, but she was turned down. In 1912, a Father's Day celebration was held in Vancouver, suggested by Methodist pastor J. J. Berringer of the Irvington Methodist Church, they mistakenly believed. They followed a 1911 suggestion by the Portland Oregonian. Harry C.
Meek, a member of Lions Clubs International, claimed that he had first come up with the idea for Father's Day in 1915. Meek said; the Lions Club has named him the "Originator of Father's Day". Meek made many efforts to make it an official holiday. On June 19, 1910, a Father's Day celebration was held at the YMCA in Spokane, Washington, by Sonora Smart Dodd, her father, the civil war veteran William Jackson Smart, was a single parent who raised his six children there. She was a member of Old Centenary Presbyterian Church, where she first proposed the idea. After hearing a sermon about Jarvis' Mother's Day in 1909 at Central Methodist Episcopal Church, she told her pastor that fathers should have a similar holiday to honor them. Although she suggested June 5, her father's birthday, the pastors did not have enough time to prepare their sermons, the celebration was deferred to the third Sunday in June. Several local clergymen accepted the idea, on June 19, 1910, the first Father's Day, "sermons honoring fathers were presented throughout the city".
However, in the 1920s, Dodd stopped promoting the celebration because she was studying at the Art Institute of Chicago, it faded into relative obscurity in Spokane. In the 1930s, Dodd returned to Spokane and started promoting the celebration again, raising awareness at a national level, she had the help of those trade groups that would benefit most from the holiday, for example the manufacturers of ties, tobacco pipes, any traditional presents for fathers. By 1938, she had the help of the Father's Day Council, founded by the New York Associated Men's Wear Retailers to consolidate and systematize the holiday's commercial promotion. Americans resisted the holiday for its first few decades, viewing it as nothing more than an attempt by merchants to replicate the commercial success of Mother's Day, newspapers featured cynical and sarcastic attacks and jokes. However, the said merchants remained resilient and incorporated these attacks into their advertisements. By the mid-1980s, the Father's Day Council wrote, " has become
Estadio Panamericano is a multi-use stadium located near Cojimar, a city ward of Havana, Cuba. It is used for athletics, as an alternate site for the Cuba national football team, it was first used as the main stadium for the 1991 Pan American Games. The stadium is able to hold 34,000 people, it served as the site of an episode of the American version of Top Gear in 2016. The episode showed the stadium in disrepair and abandoned; the stadium was renovated in 2008 with an artificial turf replacing the original grass turf. The stadium faces nearby Boca de Cojimar. Seating is open air with a covered grandstand to the east side. Surrounding the football field is an oval track. Estadio Latinoamericano Estadio Pedro Marrero Media related to Estadio Panamericano at Wikimedia Commons
OshKosh B'gosh is an American children's apparel company founded in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, in 1895. It is a subsidiary of Carter's. A small-town manufacturer of adult work clothing, it has become best known for its children's clothing bibbed overalls; the original children's overalls, dating from the early twentieth century, were intended to let parents dress their children like their fathers. According to the company, sales of the product increased after Miles Kimball, an Oshkosh-based mail-order catalog, featured a pair of the overalls in its national catalog in 1960; as a result, OshKosh began to sell their products through department stores and expanded their children's line. Children's clothing made up 15 percent of the company's sales in 1979. Oshkosh B'Gosh clothes are no longer made in Oshkosh. Downsizing of domestic operations and massive outsourcing and manufacturing at Mexican and Honduran subsidiaries saw the domestic manufacturing share drop below 10% by the year 2000; the company was sold to Carter's, another clothing manufacturer in 2005 for $312 million, though it still operates under the original name.
Today, the company sells accessories, pants, sweaters, t-shirts, tank tops, its trademark overalls. The company produces clothing for babies, toddlers and youth; the company has over three hundred stores in the United States of America. The company now has its headquarters in Suite 1800 at Phipps Tower in Atlanta's Buckhead district. Official website
Minerve was the 48-gun Portuguese Navy frigate Nossa Senhora da Vitória, a Minerva, launched in 1788. The French took her into service as Minerve; the British had her broken up. N.a S.a da Vitória, a Minerva spent the first two decades of her career guarding Portuguese waters. In 1807 she was part of the flotilla involved in the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. In November 1809 Minerva sailed under Captain Pinto. On 22 November 1809 she encountered the French frigate Bellone, under Captain Duperré; the distance between the two ships being too great for Duperré to catch them before nightfall, he shadowed Minerva until the next morning. On 23, at 9:00, Bellone had taken a favourable position at pistol range. Understanding the advantage that this configuration gave to Bellone, Pinto turned, but the French followed and fired a raking broadside. Pinto turned the other way, only to receive another broadside. Minerva ran downwind, but Bellone followed and maintained fire, until Minerva surrendered.
The fight had lasted for forty-five minutes. The French commissioned Minerva as Minerve, appointed Pierre Bouvet as her captain. Duperré, hindered by the damage Bellone had sustained, the reduction and dispersion of his crew over his prizes, the 500 prisoners he had aboard, decided to return to Île de France, where he arrived on 2 January 1810, accompanied by Manche, which they had met en route. At Île de France the French replaced her carronades with 18-pounder short guns. Minerve and Manche sailed together, capturing the East Indiamen Windham and Ceylon in the Action of 3 July 1810. On their return to Île de France, the squadron fought in the Battle of Grand Port. Minerve was surrendered to the British after the Invasion of Île de France in December 1810, was broken up shortly thereafter. Demerliac, Alain La Marine De Louis XVI: Nomenclature Des Navires Français De 1774 À 1792.. ISBN 2-906381-23-3 Esparteiro, Comandante António Marques Catálogo Dos Navios Brigantinos. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours, 1671 - 1870.
Group Retozel-Maury Millau. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922. Troude, Onésime-Joachim. Batailles navales de la France. 4. Challamel ainé. pp. 160–162. Les bâtiments ayant porté le nom de Minerve, netmarine.net
In mathematics, or more group theory, the omega and agemo subgroups described the so-called "power structure" of a finite p-group. They were introduced in where they were used to describe a class of finite p-groups whose structure was sufficiently similar to that of finite abelian p-groups, the so-called, regular p-groups; the relationship between power and commutator structure forms a central theme in the modern study of p-groups, as exemplified in the work on uniformly powerful p-groups. The word "agemo" is just "omega" spelled backwards, the agemo subgroup is denoted by an upside-down omega; the omega subgroups are the series of subgroups of a finite p-group, G, indexed by the natural numbers: Ω i = ⟨ ⟩. The agemo subgroups are the series of subgroups: ℧ i = ⟨ ⟩; when i = 1 and p is odd i is omitted from the definition. When p is an omitted i may mean either i = 1 or i = 2 depending on local convention. In this article, we use the convention that an omitted i always indicates i = 1; the dihedral group of order 8, G, satisfies: ℧ = Z = = Φ = Soc is the unique normal subgroup of order 2 realized as the subgroup containing the identity and a 180° rotation.
However Ω = G is the entire group. This shows that Ω need not be the set of elements of order p; the quaternion group of order 8, H, satisfies Ω = ℧ = Z = = Φ = Soc is the unique subgroup of order 2 realized as the subgroup containing only 1 and −1. The Sylow p-subgroup, P, of the symmetric group on p2 points is the wreath product of two cyclic groups of prime order; when p = 2, this is just the dihedral group of order 8. It too satisfies Ω = P. Again ℧ = Z = Soc is cyclic of order p, but = Φ is elementary abelian of order pp−1; the semidirect product of a cyclic group of order 4 acting non-trivially on a cyclic group of order 4, K = ⟨ a, b: a 4 = b 4 = 1, b a = a b 3 ⟩, has ℧ elementary abelian of order 4, but the set of squares is simply. Here the element aabb of ℧ is not a square, showing that ℧ is not the set of squares. In this section, let G be a finite p-group of order |G| = pn and exponent exp = pk have a number of useful properties. General properties Both Ωi and ℧i are characteristic subgroups of G for all natural numbers, i.
The omega and agemo subgroups form two normal series:G = ℧0 ≥ ℧1 ≥ ℧2 ≥... ≥ ℧k−2 ≥ ℧k−1 > ℧k = 1 G = Ωk ≥ Ωk−1 ≥ Ωk−2 ≥... ≥ Ω2 ≥ Ω1 > Ω0 = 1 and the series are loosely intertwined: For all i between 1 and k: ℧i ≤ Ωk−i, but ℧i−1 is not contained in Ωk−i. Behavior under quotients and subgroups If H ≤ G is a subgroup of G and N ⊲ G is a normal subgroup of G, then: ℧i ≤ H ∩ ℧i Ωi = H ∩ Ωi ℧i ⊲ G Ωi ⊲ G ℧i = ℧iN/N Ωi ≥ ΩiN/NRelation to other important subgroups Soc = Ω, the subgroup consisting of central elements of order p is the socle, Soc, of G Φ = ℧, the subgroup generated by all pth powers and commutators is the Frattini subgroup, Φ, of G. Relations in special classes of groups In an abelian p-group, or more in a regular p-group:|℧i|⋅|Ωi| = |G| =, where |H| is the order of H and = |H|/|K| denotes the index of the subgroups K ≤ H; the first application of the omega and agemo subgroups was to draw out the analogy of regular p-groups with abelian p-groups in. Groups in which Ω ≤ Z were studied by John G. Thompson and have seen several more recent applications.
The dual notion, groups with ≤ ℧ were introduced by Avinoam Mann. These groups were critical for the proof of the coclass conjectures which introduced an important way to understand the structure and classification of finite p-groups. Dixon, J. D.. Analytic pro-p-groups, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-39580-1, MR 1152800 Hall, Philip, "A contribution to the theory of groups of prime-power order", Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 36: 29–95, doi:10.1112/plms/s2-36.1.29 Leedham-Green, C. R.. New Series, 27, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-853548-5, MR 1918951 McKay, Finite p-groups, Queen Mary Maths Notes, 18, University of London, ISBN 978-0-902480-17-9, MR 1802994
Marthinus Versfeld was a South African philosopher. From 1937 to 1972 he taught at the University of Cape Town, he was celebrated as researcher, enjoyed the recognition of the South African literary community and was known as an opponent of the Apartheid system. His work ranged from scholarly books to playful essays on issues like ethics, the meaning of life. Versfeld came from an Afrikaans family with a long history in the Western Cape region of South Africa, he attended the South African College Schools and did his undergraduate and Master's studies at the University of Cape Town. He moved on to Glasgow where he completed his doctoral dissertation on Descartes' metaphysics under the supervision of Archibald Bowman. In 1937 he was appointed as lecturer at UCT. During his student years he became disaffected from the Protestant faith; however in the late 1930s he went through a time of serious religious uncertainty. He converted to Catholicism in the early 1940s. After the publication of his thesis as An essay on the metaphysics of Descartes, Versfeld's first book was the polemical Oor gode en afgode.
This book contains a damning critique of war and racism. He argued that "Christian nationalism" – a key concept from the Apartheid ideology – was a contradiction in terms. Arguably Versfeld's most systematic books are The mirror of philosophers. One finds in these books his engagement with Medieval philosophy – Augustine and Aquinas – as well as with modern and contemporary philosophers, his work is characterised by the quest for an ethic of care for the environment. This ethic is developed from intensive studies in philosophical anthropology. In the horizon of his work remains his opposition to the injust political dispensation in South Africa; the bulk of his philosophy was published in collections of scholarly essays. He did, however publish translations and essays for the broader public; the nexus of anthropology and ethics is arguably the most important theme running through his work of the 1960s and 1970s. The playfulness and humour, as well as his ethic of simplicity – themes for which he became best known – appear in these works, as they did since Klip en klei.
One notices the gradual increase in his attention to classical Eastern wisdom: he offered a translation of Lao-Tzu's Tao te ching and a series of essays in Our selves and in Pots and poetry. Eating became a central motive in his ethics, as is witnessed by Food for thought All Versfeld's work bear the trace of his religious convictions. However, it is not possible to give a single characterisation of the way this conviction affected his work. In the 1948 book, Oor gode en afgode one finds him lauding the early Christian Church's anti-imperialism or, advocating a version of "Christian science". At the same time, this fervour is opposed to the petit-bourgeois morality of South African cultural conservatism and it is explicitly against the ideological combination of "Christian Nationalism". In his work, Versfeld expresses his critique of religious apologetics – against "some superficial fools who write books on apologetics". At the end of his life, he reiterated this view: “there are works of Catholic apologetics of the recent past which claim to provide all the answers, falling far short of the wisdom of the sage in Chuang-zu who said: ‘We come nowhere being near right, since we have the answers.”
Furthermore, he acknowledged the ambiguity of his own faith: "To be a Christian cannot mean to conform to a type or to coincide with the paradigm case. And if you are asked by anybody with such an idea in the back of his mind, whether you are a Christian, it is intensely embarrassing. You may say no, not because you are Judas, but because you are trying not to be." Still he would conclude: "True religion finds itself comic.". This negative-theological trait of his religious thought is accompanied by a secularising turn – his philosophy is shot through with the conviction that "The secular is the miraculous." Much earlier this not-knowing was at the centre of his philosophical anthropology. In the autobiographical essay, "Descartes and me", Versfeld described his intellectual development as the move away from the certainty of the Cartesian cogito to the Augustine’s "factus eram ipse mihi magna questio, I became a great puzzle to myself."On the one hand, this affected Versfeld’s self-understanding as a philosopher.
In 1960 he could describe his work as "post-modern". The playfulness that characterise his work in the decades, could be construed as the appropriation of the fundamental uncertainty at the centre of his thought. Hence he could open his 1971 inaugural lecture as follows: “I must confess at once that I do not know what philosophy is; this sometimes embarrasses me before the innocence of students, but not before those who have come to realise that the things by which we live are the things about which we know least. We do not know what life is, or what knowing is, or what truth and goodness are.” In years he would drive this irony to its utmost: “I have fought a long duel with seriousness. That is why there is no need to take me seriously.”On the other hand, Versfeld took over from both Descartes and Augustine the central significance of understanding the human being for his philosophy. This is reflected in the titles of books such as Our Persons. In fact, he claimed that "Philosophy ought to start with anthropolo