Father Christmas

Father Christmas is the traditional English name for the personification of Christmas. Although now known as a Christmas gift-bringer, considered to be synonymous with American culture's Santa Claus, now known worldwide, he was part of an unrelated and much older English folkloric tradition; the recognisably modern figure of the English Father Christmas developed in the late Victorian period, but Christmas had been personified for centuries before then. English personifications of Christmas were first recorded in the 15th century, with Father Christmas himself first appearing in the mid 17th century in the aftermath of the English Civil War; the Puritan-controlled English government had legislated to abolish Christmas, considering it papist, had outlawed its traditional customs. Royalist political pamphleteers, linking the old traditions with their cause, adopted Old Father Christmas as the symbol of'the good old days' of feasting and good cheer. Following the Restoration in 1660, Father Christmas's profile declined.

His character was maintained during the late 18th and into the 19th century by the Christmas folk plays known as mummers plays. Until Victorian times, Father Christmas was concerned with adult merry-making, he had no particular connection with children, nor with the giving of presents, nocturnal visits, stockings or chimneys. But as Victorian Christmases developed into child-centric family festivals, Father Christmas became a bringer of gifts; the popular American myth of Santa Claus arrived in England in the 1850s and Father Christmas started to take on Santa's attributes. By the 1880s the new customs had become established, with the nocturnal visitor sometimes being known as Santa Claus and sometimes as Father Christmas, he was illustrated wearing a long red hooded gown trimmed with white fur. Any residual distinctions between Father Christmas and Santa Claus faded away in the early years of the 20th century, modern dictionaries consider the terms Father Christmas and Santa Claus to be synonymous.

The custom of merrymaking and feasting at Christmastide first appears in the historical record during the High Middle Ages. This certainly represented a continuation of pre-Christian midwinter celebrations in Britain of which—as the historian Ronald Hutton has pointed out—"we have no details at all." Personifications came and when they did they reflected the existing custom. The first known English personification of Christmas was associated with merry-making and drinking. A carol attributed to Richard Smart, Rector of Plymtree in Devon from 1435 to 1477, has'Sir Christemas' announcing the news of Christ's birth and encouraging his listeners to drink: "Buvez bien par toute la compagnie, / Make good cheer and be right merry, / And sing with us now joyfully: Nowell, nowell."Many late medieval Christmas customs incorporated both sacred and secular themes. In Norwich in January 1443, at a traditional battle between the flesh and the spirit, John Gladman and disguised as'King of Christmas', rode behind a pageant of the months "disguysed as the seson requird" on a horse decorated with tinfoil.

In most of England the archaic word'Yule' had been replaced by'Christmas' by the 11th century, but in some places'Yule' survived as the normal dialect term. The City of York maintained an annual St Thomas's Day celebration of The Riding of Yule and his Wife which involved a figure representing Yule who carried bread and a leg of lamb. In 1572 the riding was suppressed on the orders of the Archbishop, who complained of the "undecent and uncomely disguising" which drew multitudes of people from divine service; such personifications, illustrating the medieval fondness for pageantry and symbolism, extended throughout the Tudor and Stuart periods with Lord of Misrule characters, sometimes called'Captain Christmas','Prince Christmas' or'The Christmas Lord', presiding over feasting and entertainment in grand houses, university colleges and Inns of Court. In his allegorical play Summer's Last Will and Testament, written in about 1592, Thomas Nashe introduces for comic effect a miserly Christmas character who refuses to keep the feast.

He is reminded by Summer of the traditional role that he ought to be playing: "Christmas, how chance thou com’st not as the rest, / Accompanied with some music, or some song? / A merry carol would have graced thee well. Early 17th century writers used the techniques of personification and allegory as a means of defending Christmas from attacks by radical Protestants. Responding to a perceived decline in the levels of Christmas hospitality provided by the gentry, Ben Jonson in Christmas, His Masque dressed his Old Christmas in out-of-date fashions: "attir'd in round Hose, long Stockings, a close Doublet, a high crownd Hat with a Broach, a long thin beard, a Truncheon, little Ruffes, white shoes, his Scarffes, Garters tyed crosse". Surrounded by guards, Christmas asserts his rightful place in the Protestant Church and protests against attempts to exclude him: "Why Gentlemen, doe you know what you doe? Ha! would you ha'kept me out? Christmas, old Christmas? Christmas of London, Captaine Christmas?... they would not let me in: I must come another time!

A good jeast, as if I could come more once a yeare. I am old Gregorie Christmas still, though I come out of Popes-head-alley as good a Protestant, as any i'my Parish."The stage directions to The Springs Glorie, a 1638 court masque by Thomas Nabbes, state, "Christmas is personated by an old reverend Gentleman in a furr'd gown and cappe &c." Shrovetide and Christmas dispute precedence, Shrovetide issues a challenge: "I say Christ


Peabutter is a food spread made from brown peas and functions as a substitute for peanut butter. The product was first prepared by Alberta farmer Joe St. Denis in July 2002 who noted that the brown pea had certain similarities to peanuts. Oils such as canola and cottonseed are combined with icing sugar and mixed with crushed Solido brown peas to form the spread. Besides the absence of peanut material, Peabutter is devoid of cholesterol. A small amount of hydrogenated oil, a trans fat, is present. NoNuts Golden Peabutter is produced by Mountain Meadows Food Processing at Legal, Alberta. Distribution has extended throughout Canada, reaching all national grocery chains; the Peabutter product was distributed to the United States Armed Forces which requested alternative products for those allergic to peanuts. The use of substitute spreads such as Peabutter has concerned some observers such as Jane Salter, a doctor representing allergy support group Anaphylaxis Canada, she cautioned that children who are susceptible to peanut-triggered anaphylaxis may not properly distinguish between Peabutter and peanut butter.

Some schools have banned Peabutter, fearing potential confusion with peanut butter

Tinarannosaurus Wrecks

"Tinarannosaurus Wrecks" is the seventh episode of the third season of the animated comedy series Bob's Burgers and the overall 29th episode, is written by Jon Schroeder and directed by Wes Archer. It aired on Fox in the United States on December 2, 2012; as they are leaving the grocery store, Bob decides to teach Tina. Tina accidentally hits another car which turns out to be Jimmy Pesto's, Bob's rival. Bob decides to lie about the accident, saying that it was him, driving the car at the time. Tina becomes uncomfortable about the lying, she starts to believe that she is a jinx. Mort the mortician offers to drive the family around; this proves inconvenient for him however, as the family goes to lots of places and is consuming a lot of gas. He tries to confront the Belchers about this, but always fails to do so. Mort finally finds the courage to tell the family how he feels, but finds out that the car will be back tomorrow and Linda has left a thank you package on his doorstep for his help; the family meets Chase, an insurance adjuster who at first seemed like he believes the story Bob and Tina invented in order to get their insurance claim.

He invites the family to cater a party at his house. Tina gets nightmares from the lies and Bob decides to come clean to Chase and the rest of the family; when they arrive at his office however, Chase reveals that he knew the story was just invented, but he figured that if he helped the Belchers get their insurance claim, they could help him earn money by committing insurance fraud. He admits that the fire was no accident: he used unscented gas to burn down the house. After refusing to go along with his crimes, Chase blackmails the two of them and he tells Tina that Bob could go to jail, he says that they should flood their basement in order to file another insurance claim. The family tries to trick Chase by making it look like the children drowned in the basement so he would leave them alone, but he sees through their lies and tells them that he wasn't letting go of them, since restaurants are magnets for accidents. Bob thinks they will never be able to escape Chase, until Tina reveals that she used Gene's Casio keyboard to record Chase implicating himself in all the crimes.

They send the keyboard to the FBI, Chase gets caught. Tina lets go of the idea that she is a jinx, after she saves the family from Chase. Rowan Kaiser of The A. V. Club gave the episode a A, saying "This all adds up to an episode that got everything right, when that’s combined with two hilarious scenes and some better-than-normal character work, you have one of the best episodes Bob’s Burgers has done… although it may have the worst title of the series." The episode was watched by a total of 3.97 million people. This made it the fourth most watched show on Animation Domination that night, beating The Cleveland Show but losing to The Simpsons with 4.38 million. "Tinarannosaurus Wrecks" on IMDb "Tinarannosaurus Wrecks" at