In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Jefferson Starship is an American rock band from San Francisco, California that evolved out of the group Jefferson Airplane following the departure of bassist Jack Casady and guitarist Jorma Kaukonen. The band went through several major changes in personnel and genres through the years while retaining the same Jefferson Starship name; the band name was retired in 1985, but it was picked up again in the early 1990s by a revival of the group led by Paul Kantner. In 1970, while Jefferson Airplane was on break from touring, singer-guitarist Paul Kantner recorded Blows Against the Empire; this was a concept album featuring an ad hoc group of musicians credited on the LP as "Paul Kantner & Jefferson Starship", marking the first use of that name. This agglomeration was informally known as the Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra, a moniker used on a Kantner album in the early 1980s. On Blows Against the Empire and Slick sang about a group of people escaping Earth in a hijacked starship. In 1971, the album was nominated for the prestigious science fiction prize, the Hugo Award, a rare honor for a musical recording.
Kantner and Slick were a couple during this period. Slick was pregnant during the recording of the album, their daughter, was born shortly thereafter. Kantner and Slick with the Planet Earth Rock and Roll Orchestra released two follow-up albums: Sunfighter, an environmentalism-tinged album released in 1971 to celebrate China's birth, 1973's Baron von Tollbooth & the Chrome Nun, titled after the nicknames David Crosby had given to the couple. Bassist/keyboardist/vocalist David Freiberg was given equal billing alongside Kantner and Slick on the latter album. A founding member of Quicksilver Messenger Service, Freiberg had known and played with Kantner on the folk circuit in the early 1960s and sang background vocals on Blows Against the Empire. Following a marijuana arrest that resulted in his departure from Quicksilver in 1971, he joined Jefferson Airplane as a vocalist for their 1972 tour, documented on the live Thirty Seconds Over Winterland. Early in 1974, Slick released her first solo album.
It was on that album that Slick next worked with Pete Sears. Pete was co-producing a Kathi McDonald album in the same studio. Sears wrote the music to Grace's raunchy lyrics "Better Lying Down," recorded the song, played bass on the song "Epic #38", it was during this session at Wally Heider studios in San Francisco that Kantner and Slick first approached Sears about playing in what would become Jefferson Starship. Sears had worked on three of Rod Stewart's early British recordings, had to go back to England to play on Smiler, Stewart's last album made in London, so Jorma Kaukonen's brother Peter Kaukonen first played with the band early in 1974 before Sears returned to the States and replaced him in Jefferson Starship in June 1974. Kantner is credited with discovering the teenage guitarist Craig Chaquico during this time. Chaquico first appeared on Sunfighter and played with Kantner and their bands and with Starship until 1990. In early 1974, with guitarist Jorma Kaukonen and bass player Jack Casady having moved on to Hot Tuna full-time, Kantner decided to put together a touring band without them.
The musicians on Baron von Tollbooth & the Chrome Nun formed the core of a new lineup, formally reborn as Jefferson Starship. They appropriated the name from Kantner's Blows Against the Empire, with manager Bill Thompson convincing the group that keeping the connection to Jefferson Airplane made sense from a business standpoint, it included the other five remaining members of Jefferson Airplane, including Kantner on rhythm guitar and vocals. Jorma Kaukonen's brother, was on bass. On lead guitar was Craig Chaquico who had played on three of Kantner and Slick's solo albums, as well as in the band Steelwind; the band began rehearsals in January 1974 and opened its first tour in Chicago on March 19. By April, it was decided. British veteran Pete Sears, who had worked on Slick's solo album and played with Rod Stewart and John Cipollina, was selected to replace Peter Kaukonen as the band's bass player. In 1974, after touring as "Jefferson Starship," Kantner, Freiberg, Pete Sears, Papa John Creach, John Barbata recorded the album Dragon Fly.
Jorma Kaukonen's brother Peter, had played bass during the group's spring tour in 1974, but was replaced by Pete Sears who, like Freiberg, played bass and keyboards. Kantner collaborated with Marty Balin on the song "Caroline" during the recording sessions, which Balin sang vocals for on the album. Dragon Fly was certified gold, included the single "Ride the Tiger" and its b-side "Hyperdrive". Balin appeared on-stage with the band to perform the song "Caroline" for a show at the Winterland ballroom on November 24, 1974, their follow up album, 1975's Red Octopus had greater success. Marty Balin, who had contributed and sung the ballad "Caroline" on the previous album returned to the Jefferson fold as a full-time member in January 1975 and stayed with the group for nearly the remainder of the decade; the Balin penned single "Miracles” peaked at #3 on the chart, along with the single “Play on Love”, helped
Ghostbusters is a 1984 American fantasy comedy film produced and directed by Ivan Reitman and written by Dan Aykroyd and Harold Ramis. It stars Bill Murray and Ramis as Peter Venkman, Ray Stantz and Egon Spengler, eccentric parapsychologists who start a ghost-catching business in New York City. Sigourney Weaver and Rick Moranis co-star as her neighbor Louis Tully. Aykroyd conceived Ghostbusters as a project for himself and fellow Saturday Night Live alumnus John Belushi, with the protagonists traveling through time and space. Aykroyd and Ramis rewrote the script following Belushi's death and after Reitman deemed Aykroyd's initial vision financially impractical. Filming took place from October 1983 to January 1984. Ghostbusters was released in the United States on June 8, 1984, it received positive reviews and grossed $242 million in the United States and more than $295 million worldwide, making it the highest-grossing comedy film of its time. At the 57th Academy Awards, it was nominated for Best Original Song.
The American Film Institute ranked Ghostbusters 28th on its 100 Years...100 Laughs list of film comedies. In 2015, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally or aesthetically significant". Ghostbusters launched a media franchise, which includes a 1989 sequel, two animated television series, video games, a 2016 reboot. Peter Venkman, Raymond Stantz, Egon Spengler are scientists investigating the paranormal at Columbia University. After they lose their jobs following a botched ghost investigation at the New York Public Library, they establish Ghostbusters, a paranormal investigation and elimination service, they develop high-tech equipment to capture ghosts. On their first call, at a hotel, Egon warns the group never to cross the energy streams of their proton pack weapons, as this could cause a catastrophic explosion, they capture their first ghost and deposit it in a special containment unit in the firehouse. As paranormal activity increases in New York City, they hire a fourth member, Winston Zeddemore, to cope with demand.
The Ghostbusters are retained by cellist Dana Barrett, whose apartment is haunted by a demonic spirit, Zuul, a demigod worshiped as a servant to Gozer the Gozerian, a shape-shifting god of destruction. Venkman competes with accountant Louis Tully, for her affections; as the Ghostbusters investigate, Dana is possessed by Zuul the Gatekeeper, while Louis is possessed by her counterpart, Vinz Clortho the Keymaster. Both demons speak of the coming of "Gozer the Destructor" and the release of the imprisoned ghosts; the Ghostbusters take steps to keep the two apart. Walter Peck, an Environmental Protection Agency lawyer, has the Ghostbusters arrested for operating as unlicensed waste handlers, he orders their ghost containment system deactivated, causing an explosion that releases all the ghosts. The ghosts wreak havoc throughout New York City. Consulting blueprints of Dana's apartment building, the Ghostbusters learn that mad doctor and cult leader Ivo Shandor, declaring humanity too sick to exist after World War I, designed the building as a gateway to summon Gozer and bring about the end of the world.
The Ghostbusters are released from custody to combat the supernatural crisis. On the apartment building roof and Vinz open the gate between dimensions and transform into supernatural hellhounds. Gozer, in the form of a woman, is attacked by the team. Gozer vanishes, but demands that the Ghostbusters "choose the form of the destructor". Ray inadvertently recalls a beloved corporate mascot from his childhood and Gozer appears as the giant Stay Puft Marshmallow Man that attacks the city; the Ghostbusters cross their proton pack energy fire them at Gozer's portal. The explosion closes the gate, destroys the Marshmallow Man, banishes Gozer back to its dimension; the Ghostbusters are welcomed on the street as heroes. The Ghostbusters concept was inspired by Dan Aykroyd's fascination with the paranormal, his father wrote the book A History of Ghosts. Aykroyd conceived Ghostbusters as a vehicle for himself and his friend and fellow Saturday Night Live alumnus John Belushi. Aykroyd saw Ghostbusters as an opportunity to modernize the ghost films The Ghost Breakers and Ghost Chasers.
Around 1982, Ivan Reitman, along with Joe Medjuck and Michael C. Gross, had been working with Douglas Adams on an option for a film adaptation of Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy; as part of casting considerations for that film, Reitman suggested that Ford Prefect be played by an American actor to help connect the British work to overseas audiences, recommended Aykroyd or Bill Murray. During this process, Aykroyd presented Reitman with his script, which he felt was a better film, Medjuck and himself postponed development of Hitchhiker's Guide to develop this script. According to Reitman, Aykroyd's first treatment was 70 or 80 pages long, set in the future in space, with numerous creatures. Reitman liked the basic idea but saw the budgetary impracticality of Aykroyd's draft. Reitman wanted to show how the Ghostbusters started their business. In May 1983, Reitman went to the office of Columbia Pictures president Frank Price to pitch the project. Price green-lit the project for $30 million, with the stipulation that the film had to be released by June 1984.
At Reitman's suggestion, Harold Ramis was brought in to improve the script. Aykroyd and Ramis rewrote the screenplay in a Martha's Vineyard basement in the following weeks. To provide storybo
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member
Joseph Fidler Walsh is an American singer and songwriter. In a career spanning more than 40 years, he has been a member of five successful rock bands: James Gang, Eagles, the Party Boys, Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band. Walsh was part of the New Zealand band Herbs. In the 1990s, he was a member of the short-lived supergroup the Best. Walsh has experienced success both as a solo artist and prolific session musician, being featured on a wide array of other artists' recordings. In 2011, Rolling Stone placed him at the No. 54 spot on its list of "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". In the mid-1960s, after attending Kent State University, Walsh played with several local Ohio-based bands before reaching a national audience as a member of the James Gang, whose hit song "Funk #49" highlighted his skill as both a guitarist and singer. Roger Abramson, legendary concert producer and artist manager signed the James Gang to a management agreement with BPI in Cleveland. After the James Gang broke up in 1972, he formed Barnstorm with Joe Vitale, a college friend from Ohio, Kenny Passarelli, a bassist from Colorado, where Walsh had moved after leaving Ohio.
While the band stayed together for three albums over three years, its works were marketed as Walsh solo projects. The last Barnstorm album, 1974's So What contained significant guest contributions from several members of the Eagles, a group that had hired Walsh's producer, Bill Szymczyk. At Szymczyk's suggestion, Walsh joined the Eagles in 1975 as the band's guitarist and keyboardist following the departure of their founding member Bernie Leadon, with Hotel California being his first album with the band. In 1998 a reader's poll conducted by Guitarist magazine selected the guitar solos on the track "Hotel California" by Walsh and Don Felder as the best guitar solos of all time. Guitar World magazine listed it at eighth of the Top 100 Guitar Solos. Besides his work with his several bands, he has released twelve solo studio albums, six compilation albums and two live albums, his solo hits include "Rocky Mountain Way", "Life's Been Good", "All Night Long", "A Life of Illusion" and "Ordinary Average Guy".
As a member of the Eagles, Walsh was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998, into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2001. The Eagles are considered to be one of the most influential bands of the 1970s, they remain one of the best-selling American bands in the history of popular music, his creative contribution to music has received praise from many of the best rock guitarists, including Led Zeppelin's Jimmy Page, who said, "He has a tremendous feel for the instrument. I've loved his style since the early James Gang." Eric Clapton said. I don't listen to many records, but I listen to his." The Who's guitarist, Pete Townshend, said "Joe Walsh is a intelligent player. There're not many like that around." Joseph Fidler Walsh was born on November 1947 in Wichita, Kansas. Walsh's mother was a classically trained pianist of Scottish and German ancestry, Walsh was adopted by his stepfather at the age of five after his biological father was killed in a plane crash. In the 1950s, it was common practice for Social Security, school registration, health records for children to take the name of their stepfather, but Walsh's birth father's last name was Fidler, so he took that as his middle name.
Walsh and his family lived in Columbus, for a number of years during his youth. When Walsh was twelve years old, his family moved to New York City. Walsh moved to Montclair, New Jersey, he attended Montclair High School, where he played oboe in the school band. Walsh got his first guitar at the age of 10, upon learning The Ventures' "Walk Don't Run", decided that he wanted to pursue a career as a guitarist. Inspired by the success of the Beatles, he replaced Bruce Hoffman as the bass player in the locally popular group the Nomads in Montclair, beginning his career as a rock musician. After high school, Walsh attended Kent State University, where he spent time in various bands playing around the Cleveland area, including the Measles; the Measles recorded for Super K Productions' Ohio Express the songs "I Find I Think of You", "And It's True", "Maybe". Walsh minored in music. Walsh commented in 2012: "Being at the shootings affected me profoundly. I decided that maybe I don’t need a degree that bad."
After one term, he dropped out of university to pursue his musical career. The Measles, an Ohio garage bar band, were formed in 1965 by four Kent State University students, one of whom was Joe Walsh. Two tracks on the Ohio Express' Beg Borrow and Steal album, "I Find I Think Of You" and "And It's True" were recorded by the Measles, led by Walsh. Additionally, an instrumental version of "And It's True" was recorded by the Measles, re-titled "Maybe" and released as the B-side of the "Beg Borrow and Steal" single. Around Christmas 1967, James Gang guitarist Glenn Schwartz, who turned out to be AWOL from the army and was breaking up with his wife, decided to leave the band to move to California, where he ended up forming the band Pacific Gas & Electric. Just days shortly after the new year of 1968 had dawned, a friend of Schwartz's, Joe Walsh, knocked on Jim Fox's door and asked to be given a tryout as Schwartz's replacement. Walsh was accepted and the band continued as a five piece for a short time until Phil Giallombardo, still in high school at the time, left.
Jeric and Walsh worked together on guitar parts but Jeric ended up leaving as well in the spring of
Richard Stephen Dreyfuss is an American actor best known for starring in popular films between the 1970s and 1990s, including American Graffiti, Stand by Me, Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Out in Beverly Hills, The Goodbye Girl, Always, What About Bob? and Mr. Holland's Opus. Dreyfuss won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1978 for The Goodbye Girl, was nominated in 1995 for Mr. Holland's Opus, he has won a Golden Globe Award, a BAFTA Award, was nominated in 2002 for Screen Actors Guild Awards in the Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series and Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries categories. Dreyfuss was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Geraldine Dreyfus, a peace activist, Norman Dreyfus, an attorney and restaurateur, was raised in the Bayside area of Queens, New York, his family is Jewish. He has commented that he "grew up thinking that Alfred Dreyfus and are from the same family." His father disliked New York, moved the family first to Europe, to Los Angeles, when Dreyfuss was nine.
Dreyfuss attended Beverly Hills High School. Dreyfuss began acting in his youth, at Temple Emanuel of Beverly Hills Arts Center and Westside Jewish Community Center, under drama teacher Bill Miller, he debuted in the TV production In Mama's House. He attended San Fernando Valley State College, now California State University, for a year, was a conscientious objector during the Vietnam War, working in alternate service for two years, as a clerk in a Los Angeles hospital. During this time, he acted in a few small TV roles on shows such as Peyton Place, That Girl, Bewitched, The Ghost & Mrs. Muir, The Big Valley. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he performed on stage on Broadway, Off-Broadway and improvisational theater. Dreyfuss appeared in the play The Time of Your Life, revived on March 17, 1972 at the Huntington Hartford Theater in Los Angeles, directed by Edwin Sherin. Dreyfuss's first film role was a uncredited appearance in The Graduate, he had one line, "Shall I get the cops? I'll get the cops".
He was briefly seen as a stage hand in Valley of the Dolls, in which he had a few lines. In 1973 he starred in the CBS pilot Catch-22, he appeared in the subsequent Dillinger, landed a role in the 1973 hit American Graffiti, acting with other future stars such as Harrison Ford and Ron Howard. Dreyfuss played his first lead role in the Canadian film The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, receiving positive reviews, including praise from Pauline Kael. Dreyfuss went on to star in the box office blockbusters Jaws and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, both directed by Steven Spielberg, he won the 1978 Academy Award for Best Actor at the 50th Academy Awards ceremony for his portrayal of a struggling actor in The Goodbye Girl, becoming the youngest actor to do so, besting Marlon Brando, who had won his first Oscar in 1955 at the age of 30 years 360 days old. This record stood for 25 years until it was broken in 2003 by Adrien Brody, three weeks shy of age 30 at the time of the 75th Academy Awards ceremony.
Around 1978, Dreyfuss began using cocaine frequently. He entered rehabilitation and made a Hollywood comeback with the films Down And Out In Beverly Hills in 1986 and Stakeout the following year. Dreyfuss starred in the Rob Reiner movie Stand by Me, a 1986 coming-of-age drama/comedy film adapted from Stephen King's novella The Body. Dreyfuss plays the elder Gordie Lachance. In 1988, he reunited with director Paul Mazursky to star in the political farce Moon Over Parador. In 1989, Dreyfuss reunited with Spielberg on Always, a remake of A Guy Named Joe in which he co-starred with Holly Hunter, he had a starring role opposite Bill Murray in the 1991 comedy What About Bob?, as a psychiatrist who goes crazy while trying to cope with a obsessive new patient. That same year, Dreyfuss produced and starred as Georges Picquart in Prisoner of Honor, an HBO movie about the historical Dreyfus Affair. In 1994, he participated in the historic Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah at the Vatican in the presence of Pope John Paul II, Rav Elio Toaff, chief rabbi of Rome, Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, President of the Italian Republic.
He recited Kaddish as part of a performance of Leonard Bernstein's Third Symphony with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under the baton of Gilbert Levine. The event was broadcast worldwide. Dreyfuss was nominated for an Oscar and a Golden Globe for his performance as Glenn Holland in Mr. Holland's Opus. Since he has continued working in the movies and the stage. In 2001/2002, he played Max Bickford in the television drama The Education of Max Bickford. In April 2004, he appeared in the revival of Sly Fox on Broadway. Dreyfuss recorded the voiceover for the Apple Computer "Think Different" ad campaign in 1997. In November 2004, he was scheduled to appear in The Producers in London, but withdrew from the production a week before opening night; the media noted that Dreyfuss was still suffering from problems relating to an operation for a herniated disc in January, that the part of Max Bialystock in the play is a physically demanding one. Both he and his assistant for the production stated that Dreyfuss was accumulating injuries that required him to wear physical the
Robert Downey Jr.
Robert John Downey Jr. is an American actor and singer. His career has included critical and popular success in his youth, followed by a period of substance abuse and legal difficulties, a resurgence of commercial success in middle age. For three consecutive years from 2012 to 2015, Downey topped the Forbes list of Hollywood's highest-paid actors, making an estimated $80 million in earnings between June 2014 and June 2015. Making his acting debut at the age of five, appearing in his father's film Pound, Downey appeared in roles associated with the Brat Pack, such as the teen sci-fi comedy Weird Science and the drama Less Than Zero, he starred as the title character in the 1992 film Chaplin, for which he earned a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor and he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role. After being released in 2000 from the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison where he was incarcerated on drug charges, Downey joined the cast of the TV series Ally McBeal playing Calista Flockhart's love interest.
For that he earned a Golden Globe Award. His character was terminated when Downey was fired after two drug arrests in late 2000 and early 2001. After his last stay in a court-ordered drug treatment program, Downey achieved sobriety. Downey's career prospects improved when he featured in the black comedy crime Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, the mystery thriller Zodiac, the satirical action comedy Tropic Thunder. Beginning in 2008, Downey began portraying the role of Marvel Comics superhero Iron Man in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, appearing in several films as either the lead role, member of an ensemble cast, or in a cameo; each of these films, with the exception of The Incredible Hulk, has grossed over $500 million at the box office worldwide. Downey has played the title character in Guy Ritchie's Sherlock Holmes, which earned him his second Golden Globe win, its sequel, both of which have earned over $500 million at the box office worldwide; as of 2018, the U. S. domestic box-office grosses of Downey's films total over US $4.9 billion, with worldwide grosses surpassing $11.6 billion, making Downey the third highest-grossing U.
S. domestic box-office star of all time. Downey was born in New York on April 4, 1965, the younger of two children, his father, Robert Downey Sr. is an actor and filmmaker, while his mother, Elsie Ann, was an actress who appeared in Downey Sr.'s films. Downey's father is of half Lithuanian Jewish, one-quarter Hungarian Jewish, one-quarter Irish descent, while Downey's mother had Scottish and Swiss ancestry. Robert's original family name was Elias, changed by his father to enlist in the Army. Downey and his older sister Allyson grew up in Greenwich Village; as a child, Downey was "surrounded by drugs." His father, a drug addict, allowed Downey to use marijuana at age six, an incident which his father said he now regrets. Downey stated that drug use became an emotional bond between him and his father: "When my dad and I would do drugs together, it was like him trying to express his love for me in the only way he knew how." Downey began spending every night abusing alcohol and "making a thousand phone calls in pursuit of drugs."During his childhood, Downey had minor roles in his father's films.
He made his acting debut at the age of five, playing a sick puppy in the absurdist comedy Pound, at seven appeared in the surrealist Greaser's Palace. At the age of 10, he was living in England and studied classical ballet as part of a larger curriculum, he attended the Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Training Center in upstate New York as a teenager. When his parents divorced in 1978, Downey moved to California with his father, but in 1982, he dropped out of Santa Monica High School, moved back to New York to pursue an acting career full-time. Downey and Kiefer Sutherland, who shared the screen in the 1988 drama 1969, were roommates for three years when he first moved to Hollywood to pursue his career in acting. Downey began building upon theater roles, including in the short-lived off-Broadway musical American Passion at the Joyce Theater in 1983, produced by Norman Lear. In 1985, he was part of the new, younger cast hired for Saturday Night Live, but following a year of poor ratings and criticism of the new cast's comedic talents, he and most of the new crew were dropped and replaced.
Rolling Stone magazine named Downey the worst SNL cast member in its entire run, stating that the "Downey Fail sums up everything that makes SNL great." That same year, Downey had a dramatic acting breakthrough when he played James Spader's sidekick in Tuff Turf and a bully in John Hughes's Weird Science. He was considered for the role of Duckie in John Hughes's film Pretty in Pink, but his first lead role was with Molly Ringwald in The Pick-up Artist; because of these and other coming-of-age films Downey did during the 1980s, he is sometimes named as a member of the Brat Pack. In 1987, Downey played Julian Wells, a drug-addicted rich boy whose life spirals out of his control, in the film version of the Bret Easton Ellis novel Less Than Zero, his performance, described by Janet Maslin in The New York Times as "desperately moving", was praised, though Downey has said that for him "the role was like the ghost of Christmas Future" since his drug habit resulted in his becoming an "exaggeration of the character" in real life.
Zero drove Downey into films with bigger budgets and names, such as Chances Ar