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Fathom

A fathom is a unit of length in the imperial and the U. S. customary systems equal to 6 feet, used for measuring the depth of water. Fathom is not an SI unit and is not accepted for use as a Non-SI units accepted for use with SI. There are two yards in an imperial fathom; the span of a man's outstretched arms, the size of a fathom has varied depending on whether it was defined as a thousandth of an nautical mile or as a multiple of the imperial yard. The term was used for any of several units of length varying around 5–5 1⁄2 feet; the name derives from the Old English word fæðm, cognate to the Danish word "favn" meaning embracing arms or a pair of outstretched arms. Cognate maybe via the Old High German word "fadum" of the same meaning. In Middle English it was fathme; the Ancient Greek measure known as the orguia is translated as "fathom". By the Byzantine period, this unit came in two forms: a "simple orguia" equivalent to the old Greek fathom and an "imperial" or "geometric orguia", one-eighth longer.

One fathom is equal to: either 1.8288 metres or 1.828804 m 2 yards 6 feet 18 hands 72 inchesIn the international yard and pound agreement of 1959 the United States, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom defined the length of the international yard to be 0.9144 metre. The British Admiralty defined a fathom to be a thousandth of 6.08 feet. In practice the "warship fathom" of 6 feet was used in Britain and the United States. No conflict in the real world existed as depths on Imperial nautical charts were indicated in feet if less than 30 feet and in fathoms for depths greater than that; until the 19th century in England, the length of the fathom was more variable: from ​5 1⁄2 feet on merchant vessels to either 5 or 7 feet on fishing vessels. At one time, a quarter meant one-quarter of a fathom. A cable length, based on the length of a ship's cable, has been variously reckoned as equal to 100 or 120 fathoms. Most modern nautical charts indicate depth in metres. However, the U. S. Hydrographic Office uses fathoms.

A nautical chart will always explicitly indicate the units of depth used. To measure the depth of shallow waters, boatmen used a sounding line containing fathom points, some marked and others in between, called deeps, unmarked but estimated by the user. Water near the coast and not too deep to be fathomed by a hand sounding line was referred to as in soundings or on soundings; the area offshore beyond the 100 fathom line, too deep to be fathomed by a hand sounding line, was referred to as out of soundings or off soundings. A deep-sea lead, the heaviest of sounding leads, was used in water exceeding 100 fathoms in depth; this technique has been superseded by sonic depth finders for measuring mechanically the depth of water beneath a ship, one version of, the Fathometer. The record made by such a device is a fathogram. A fathom line or fathom curve, a sinuous line on a nautical chart, joins all points having the same depth of water, thereby indicating the contour of the ocean floor; the components of a commercial fisherman's setline were measured in fathoms.

The rope called a groundline, used to form the main line of a setline, was provided in bundles of 300 fathoms. A single 50-fathom skein of this rope was referred to as a line. In Pacific coast fisheries the setline was composed of units called "skates", each consisting of several hundred fathoms of groundline, with gangions and hooks attached. A tuck seine or tuck net about 70 fathoms long, deep in the middle, was used to take fish from a larger seine. A line attached to a whaling harpoon was about 150 fathoms long. A forerunner — a piece of cloth tied on a ship's log line some fathoms from the outboard end — marked the limit of drift line. A kite was a drag, towed under water at any depth up to about 40 fathoms, which upon striking bottom, was upset and rose to the surface. A shot, one of the forged lengths of chain joined by shackles to form an anchor cable, was 15 fathoms long. A shackle, a length of cable or chain equal to 75 feet. In 1949, the British navy redefined the shackle to be 15 fathoms.

In Finland, fathom is sometimes, albeit used as a maritime unit, ​1⁄1000 of a nautical mile and ​1⁄100 of cable length. A burial at sea requires a minimum of six fathoms of water; this is the origin of the phrase "to deep six" as meaning to dispose of. The phrase is echoed in Shakespeare's The Tempest, where Ariel tells Ferdinand, "Full fathom five thy father lies"; until early in the 20th century, it was the unit used to measure the depth of mines in the United Kingdom. Miners use it as a unit of area equal to 6 square feet in the plane of a vein. In Britain, it can mean the quantity of wood in a pile of any length measuring 6 feet square in cross section. In Central Europe, the Klafter was the corresponding unit of comparable length, as was the Toise in France. In Hungary the square fathom is still in use as an unofficial measure of land area for small lots suitable for construction. Fenna, Donald. "fathom". A D

James Lee House (690 Adams Avenue, Memphis)

The James Lee House known as the Harsson-Goyer-Lee House, is a historic house at 690 Adams Avenue in Memphis, United States. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, together with the adjacent Woodruff-Fontaine House; the two houses are included in the Victorian Village historic district. The 8,100-square-foot home was constructed by William Harsson in 1848. Harsson's daughter, married Charles Wesley Goyer, who bought the house in 1852. Goyer had it expanded by the architecture firm of Edward Culliatt Jones and Matthias H. Baldwin in 1871, after seeing their work in designing the neighboring Woodruff-Fontaine House. James Lee, a riverboat captain, educated at Princeton University, bought the house in 1890. In 1925 it became a predecessor of the Memphis College of Art; the city of Memphis took ownership in 1929. After the art school moved to a new location in 1959, the house was vacant for many years, it was used by Canadian indie rock group Tokyo Police Club in a music video for their 2008 song "In a Cave."In 2012 the empty house was purchased by new private owners.

The following year, a $2 million construction and renovation project began, converting the house into a luxury bed and breakfast. The city of Memphis provided a property tax abatement to encourage its renovation; the bed and breakfast opened for business in April 2014. Official website

Philippe Robert

Philippe Robert is a French photographer. His work includes portraits and advertising photos. Philippe Robert graduated from the Institute for Advanced Cinematographic Studies in Paris where he had Henri Alekan as one of his teachers. During his studies he started to work for French television on the television show of Jean-Christophe Averty and on Giuseppe Verdi’s Simon Boccanegra, directed by Giorgio Strehler at Paris National Opera. After graduating from IDHEC, he enrolled at UCLA Film School and did an internship on Postman always rings twice directed by Bob Rafelson and starring Jack Nicholson. From 1981 to 1986, Philippe Robert worked between Europe and The United States on a French television show dedicated to the cinema – Etoiles et Toiles, produced by Frédéric Mitterrand. During this early stage of his career, he met French TV figures but American movie makers who would have an important influence on his photographic style. At that time he started to make his first pictures shooting people that he met.

He took advantage of his acquaintances with photographers close to the cinema to improve his skills, among them André Kertész. In 1984, he assisted the photographer during his last series "New Distortions", shot in Hotel Esmeralda in Paris where Kertész made the original "Distortions" series. During this session, the master of photography, André Kertész, aged 90, known for his sense of humor made several distorted photos of his female model and young assistant, Philippe Robert. Thanks to the journalist Philippe Garnier working for Libération and the future movie-maker Olivier Assayas working at this time for Cahiers du Cinéma, Philippe Robert met Tom Waits, about to release his album One from Heart, the original soundtrack of the Francis Ford Coppola movie of the same title and around that time he took a series of photographs of the musician. Waits introduced Robert to Bob Guccione Jr who would lunch Spin magazine and publish Philippe Robert’s Tom Waits series in the September 1987 issue; this first publication opened the door to Robert to publish his work in American magazines such as LA Weekly, Interview Magazine, Harper's Bazaar and New York Times Magazine.

From that time Philippe Robert dedicated himself to photography. In 1987, he set up The Murder Ink production company with his friends Jean-Maue Ooghe and Philippe Sikirdji. Thanks to Lionel Cros, a French fashion designer and image-maker, he discovered "la Haute Couture" and started to provide fashion images for French fashion magazines and their European editions; as he started to work as a fashion photographer, Philippe Robert met French major fashion photography figures. In 1990, while shooting his first series for the Italian Harper's Bazaar, he shared the magazine's studio with Guy Bourdin. In October 1990, Philippe Robert photographed. A Russian model, Ludmila Isaieva, was chosen for this historic cover of the first issue after German reunification. Top-models like Carla Bruni, French actresses such as Sophie Marceau, Mathilda May and singers and Sylvie Vartan posed for him in Lionel Cros outfits. Beatrice Dalle posed in Azzedine Alaia. For Thierry Mugler, he shot top-models and his muses such as Brandi Quiñones, Helena Christensen, Linda Evangelista, Naomi Campbell, first in the outfits from Mugler's show in Palais de Tokyo in what they would wear in George Michael's "Too Funky" video-clip directed by Thierry Mugler.

This began for Philippe Robert a intense period of artistic creativity. For over 10 years he was assisted by Laurent Caron who created his own production company IOROPE, in the early 2000s. True to his education and artistic background, Robert collaborated in multiplies multiple ways that mixed fashion and music, he contributed photographs for diverse publications. These included popular fashion magazines. Since the beginning of the 2000s, the photographer has experimented new photographic tools, including shooting with disposable cameras or mobile phones. Applying image treatment software to some of these photos that can be printed in postcard size, he has reconnected with his experiences while working with André Kertész. New and more intimate subjects have appeared in his work: Paris and Ile Saint-Louis where he lives, his son, nature.... From the mid-2000s, Philippe Robert has exhibited his work in galleries and photography festivals that promotes fashion photography in Europe and The United States.

Since 2005, he is exhibited at the Cannes International Fashion Photography Festival that show large size photos in the city sites such as La Croisette, Casino Palm Beach and l'Hôtel Martinez. Since 2008, he has worked with Art Photo Expo, a gallery known for its participation to Art Basel Miami Beach and who shows his works in New York and Miami and online; some of his photographs can be seen in this gallery catalog, among major fashion photographers works. Philippe Robert made his name in the beginning of 1990 with his photographs of self-confident women, women who are comfortable wearing outfits of fashion designers who undress them while dressing them. Although together with Jean-Baptiste Mondi

Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's decathlon

The men's decathlon competition at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The event was held at the Olympic Stadium between 17–18 August; the medals were presented by Dagmawit Girmay Berhane, IOC member and Bernard Amsalem, Council Member of the IAAF. The decathlon consists of ten track and field events, with a points system that awards higher scores for better results in each of the ten components; the athletes all compete in one competition with no elimination rounds. All times are Brasilia Time Prior to the competition, the existing World and Olympic records were as follows; the 100 metres was held on 17 August at 09:30. The long jump was held on 17 August at 10:35. Note: Eelco Sintnicolaas of the Netherlands did not compete; the shot put was held on 17 August at 12:15. The high jump was held on 17 August at 17:45. Note: Leonid Andreev of Uzbekistan, Rico Freimuth of Germany, Willem Coertzen of South Africa did not compete; the 400 metres was held on 17 August at 21:30. Note: Pieter Braun of the Netherlands did not compete.

The 110 metres hurdles was held on 18 August at 09:30. The discus throw was held on 18 August at 10:25; the pole vault was held on 18 August at 13:25. Note: Oleksiy Kasyanov of Ukraine did not compete; the javelin throw was held on 18 August at 18:35. Note: Mihail Dudaš of Serbia did not compete; the 1500 metres was held on 18 August at 21:45. Eaton secured his second Olympic title, with an Olympic record-tying score of 8893. Key

Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals

Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals, released in Japan as Final Fantasy, is an anime OVA based on the Final Fantasy series of role-playing video games. It was released in Japan in 1994 and distributed by Urban Vision in 1997 in North America on VHS. Urban Vision have since lost the distribution license and to date the series hasn't been released in any other format, such as DVD, following its initial video release. Legend of the Crystals takes place 200 years after the events of Final Fantasy V, it is divided into four thirty-minute OVA episodes spanning two VHS tapes. The story takes place in the same world as Final Fantasy V, named Planet R, set two hundred years in the future, where three of the four crystals have been stolen; the original heroes in Final Fantasy V are now legends of the past and a new evil, has risen on the Black Moon and must be dealt with. Mid, a recurring character from Final Fantasy V, contacts a new hero and heroine: Prettz and Linally, they meet the sky pirate Rouge and Valkus, commander of the Iron Wing.

The OVA introduces several original characters and a few characters who made an appearance in Final Fantasy V. The main protagonist Prettz is a headstrong and reckless young man with feelings for Linally who rides a motorcycle and uses a nodachi and spiked bombs as his weapons; the other protagonist Linally is a brave, blue-haired girl, the direct descendant of Bartz and a novice in the art of summoning, became a vessel for the Wind Crystal after the others were taken. Supporting characters include: Valkus is the bumbling general of the Tycoon air force, leading the flag-airship Iron Wing, despite his aggressiveness and large size, is fiercely loyal to Queen Lenna; the antagonist of Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals is Ra Devil, a powerful wizard intent on gaining the power of the Void for his own ambition. He steals Cid's brain away in hopes of using its knowledge of the four Crystals to his advantage, assuming his true form, once he succeeds; the OVA was released in Japan on March 21, 1994, in North America on November 17, 1998.

It was titled Final Fantasy in Japan, but it was renamed to Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals when released in English. It was the first direct sequel to a Final Fantasy game; the original score was composed by Masahiko Sato and contains numerous cues to Nobuo Uematsu's original soundtrack to Final Fantasy V including the opening and the Chocobo theme. Legend of the Crystals is separated into 4 episodes, it was released in VHS format with Episodes I and II contained on the first video, episodes III and IV on the second released as a boxed set. Several media based on the OVA was released on 1994. Two soundtracks were released for the OVA; the first volume contains tracks from the first two OVA episodes. The second contains tracks from the last two episodes and was released on July 21. A guidebook titled Final Fantasy Video Graffiti: Animation Perfect Guide was released on September 1. A two-volume manga adaptation was released on December 2; each volume adapts two episodes each. During its original release, the OVA received mixed reviews.

Ramsey Isler of IGN described it as notable for being the first sequel to a Final Fantasy title, but stated it "did not become a favourite addition to the Final Fantasy Legacy", citing its animation as "nothing special" and noting its reliance on comedy over dramatic story telling. Sam Yu of T. H. E. M. Anime Reviews called it "a cruel mockery of all Final Fantasy stands for", citing it as basing the storyline off the "weakest" title in the series, citing the finale as anti-climactic and the villain disappointing. Adam Arnold of Animefringe criticized it as one of several failed attempts to translate Final Fantasy to film, calling it a "lacklustre and drawn-out retelling of Final Fantasy V". Richard Eisenbeis of Kotaku called the film "a mess" for its un-Final Fantasy aesthetic and fan service. Other critics were more positive. GameSpot staff described it as a worthy adaptation of the series, noted while the animation was "somewhat simple", the story was immersive and praised it for not meandering to include all aspects of the game.

Charles McCarter of EX praised the title noting the similarity to Square's existing characters helped lend credence to the Final Fantasy title. They additionally noted with exception to the backgrounds the animation was good, the dubbed voices for the English version were believable, notably Linally's and Prettz's, added "Final Fantasy provides a good balance of action and just enough humour to make the characters personable." List of Square Enix video game franchises

Togo mouse

The Togo mouse known as Büttner's African forest mouse or the groove-toothed forest mouse, is a unique muroid rodent known from only two specimens taken from near the type locality of Bismarckburg, near Yege, Togo, in 1890. Its genus is monotypic; the entirety of known material for this species consists of a single, poor-quality dry skin, a fluid-preserved animal, a cranium and mandible. The cranium and mandible are from different animals; the material is deposited in the Zoologisches Museum of Humboldt University in Germany. The head and body length is 118 mm with a tail of 37 mm; this tail is unusually short relative to the body length and is considered an important diagnostic feature. The animal is dark to grey brown pale grey brown below. Ears are hairy. Feet are somewhat hairy; the tail may be naked or haired. The incisors are shallowly grooved; the snout is long and wide, the interorbital width is broad, the zygomatic plate is large). Based on skull morphology, the Togo mouse is presumed to be insectivorous.

Little is known about the habits of this unusual mouse. Leimacomys has been transferred back and forth between the Dendromurinae and the Murinae since its discovery, it most resembles Lophuromys, transferred to a newly erected Deomyinae on the basis of molecular data. The association with Lophuromys is thought to be due to convergent evolution due to similar diets. Tooth characters resemble Mystromys or basal gerbils. Denys et al. generated a phylogeny that suggested, with limited support, Leimacomys is a sister taxon to the Gerbillinae. Musser and Carleton chose to erect Leimacomyinae, to house this species, they placed it in the family Muridae due to its potential connection to either the Gerbillinae or Deomyinae, but emphasized that a broad phylogenetic study including Leimacomys, a host of nesomyids and murids, is needed to determine its appropriate position. The Togo mouse is considered to be either critically endangered or extinct depending on the authority. Schlitter classified it as extinct.

Grubb et al. noted these surveys inadequately sampled appropriate habitat in Togo and neighboring Ghana, they were reluctant to declare the species extinct. Musser and Carleton emphasized the insectivorous muroids as a group have proven difficult to capture, intense surveys of high-elevation forests in this region are required to determine if it still persists; the IUCN describes the Togo mouse as "data deficient". Grubb et al. 1998. Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 1993. Family Muridae. Pp. 501–755 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C. Nowak, Ronald M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1936 pp. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8