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Fats Waller

Thomas Wright "Fats" Waller was an American jazz pianist, composer, violinist and comedic entertainer. His innovations in the Harlem stride style laid the groundwork for modern jazz piano, his best-known compositions, "Ain't Misbehavin'" and "Honeysuckle Rose", were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1984 and 1999. Waller copyrighted over 400 songs, many of them co-written with his closest collaborator, Andy Razaf. Razaf described his partner as "the soul of melody... a man who made the piano sing... both big in body and in mind... known for his generosity... a bubbling bundle of joy". It's possible he composed many more popular songs and sold them to other performers when times were tough. Waller started playing the piano at the age of six, became a professional organist aged 15. By the age of 18 he was a recording artist. Waller's first recordings, "Muscle Shoals Blues" and "Birmingham Blues", were made in October 1922 for Okeh Records; that year, he made his first player piano roll, "Got to Cool My Doggies Now".

Waller's first published composition, "Squeeze Me", was published in 1924. He became one of the most popular performers of his era, touring internationally and achieving critical and commercial success in the United States and Europe, he died from pneumonia, aged 39. Waller was the seventh child of 11 born to Adeline Locket Waller, a musician, Reverend Edward Martin Waller, a trucker and pastor in New York City, he started playing the piano when he was six and graduated to playing the organ at his father's church four years later. His mother instructed him in his youth, he attended other music lessons, paying for them by working in a grocery store. Waller attended DeWitt Clinton High School for one semester, but left school at 15 to work as an organist at the Lincoln Theater in Harlem, where he earned $32 a week. Within 12 months he had composed his first rag, he was the prize pupil and the friend and colleague of the stride pianist James P. Johnson, his mother died on November 1920 from a stroke due to diabetes.

Waller's first recordings, "Muscle Shoals Blues" and "Birmingham Blues", were made in October 1922 for Okeh Records. That year, he made his first player piano roll, "Got to Cool My Doggies Now". Waller's first published composition, "Squeeze Me", was published in 1924. Waller became one of the most popular performers of his era, finding critical and commercial success in the United States and Europe, he was a prolific songwriter, many songs he wrote or co-wrote are still popular, such as "Honeysuckle Rose", "Ain't Misbehavin'" and "Squeeze Me". Fellow pianist and composer Oscar Levant dubbed Waller "the black Horowitz". Waller is believed to have composed many novelty tunes in the 1920s and 1930s and sold them for small sums, attributed to another composer and lyricist. Standards attributed to Waller, sometimes controversially, include "I Can't Give You Anything but Love, Baby"; the song was made famous by Adelaide Hall in the Broadway show Blackbirds of 1928. Biographer Barry Singer conjectured that this jazz classic was written by Waller and lyricist Andy Razaf and provided a description of the sale given by Waller to the New York Post in 1929—he sold the song for $500 to a white songwriter for use in a financially successful show.

He further supports the conjecture, noting that early handwritten manuscripts in the Dana Library Institute of Jazz Studies of "Spreadin' Rhythm Around" are in Waller's hand. Jazz historian Paul S. Machlin comments that the Singer conjecture has "considerable justification". Waller's son Maurice wrote in his 1977 biography of his father that Waller had once complained on hearing the song, came from upstairs to admonish him never to play it in his hearing because he had had to sell it when he needed money. Maurice Waller's biography notes his father's objections to hearing "On the Sunny Side of the Street" playing on the radio. Waller recorded "I Can't Give You..." in 1938, making fun of the lyrics. The anonymous sleeve notes on the 1960 RCA Victor album Handful of Keys state that Waller copyrighted over 400 songs, many of them co-written with his closest collaborator, Andy Razaf. Razaf described his partner as "the soul of melody... a man who made the piano sing... both big in body and in mind... known for his generosity... a bubbling bundle of joy".

Gene Sedric, a clarinetist who played with Waller on some of his 1930s recordings, is quoted in these sleeve notes recalling Waller's recording technique with considerable admiration: "Fats was the most relaxed man I saw in a studio, so he made everybody else relaxed. After a balance had been taken, we'd just need one take to make a side, unless it was a kind of difficult number." Waller played with many performers, from Nathaniel Shilkret and Gene Austin to Erskine Tate, Fletcher Henderson, McKinney's Cotton Pickers and Adelaide Hall, but his greatest success came with his own five- or six-piece combo, "Fats Waller and his Rhythm". On one occasion his playing seemed to have put him at risk of injury. Waller was kidnapped in Chicago leaving a performance in 1926. Four men bundled him into a car and took him to the Hawthorne Inn, owned by Al Capone. Waller was ordered inside the building, found a party in full swing. Gun to his back, he was pushed towards a piano, told to play. A terrified Waller realized he was the "surprise guest" at Capone's birthday party, took comfort that the gangsters did not intend to kill hi

Ohio State Route 2

State Route 2 known as Inter-county Highway 2 until 1921 and State Highway 2 in 1922, is an east–west highway crossing most of northern Ohio. Its western terminus is at the Indiana state line near Hicksville where the route becomes Indiana State Road 37 which continues to Fort Wayne, Indiana; the eastern terminus of the route is in Painesville Township in Lake County at U. S. Route 20, it passes through Bryan and enters greater Toledo west of its interchange with the Ohio Turnpike. It continues east from greater Toledo and soon parallels Lake Erie, becoming a freeway near Port Clinton. From Oregon to Sandusky SR 2 is part of 293 miles of the highway designated the "Lake Erie Coastal Ohio Trail". and on September 22, 2005 was designated a National Scenic Byway. From Toledo to Sandusky the highway is part of and designated the Lake Erie Circle Tour, part of the 6,500-mile "Great Lakes Circle", it passes Sandusky, where it meets U. S. Route 250 and U. S. Route 6, separates from the lakeshore as a freeway, traverses rural Erie County before entering Lorain County.

Near Elyria, it joins Interstate 90, whose route it shares to Rocky River, where it follows State Route 254 along Detroit Road into Lakewood. Here it again joins U. S. 6, as well as U. S. Route 20 on Clifton Blvd, it becomes part of the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway in Cleveland, joining I-90 again near Burke Lakefront Airport. These two highways split near Euclid, State Route 2 continues along the Lakeland Freeway to Painesville, feeding into U. S. 20 eastbound. State Route 2 serves as an access route to lakeshore attractions on Lake Erie from Toledo and Cleveland and as an alternative to the Ohio Turnpike; the stretch of SR 2 from Toledo to Sandusky passes several attractions. The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge is just east of SR 19 in Carroll Township, it sits on 733 acres along with the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. SR 2 is the lowest numbered state route in Ohio. Ohio State Route 1 was decommissioned in 1965; the section of State Route 2 that runs through Erie County is called the "Jackie Mayer Miss America Highway" and is named for Jackie Mayer, a former Miss America, born and raised in Sandusky.

The section of State Route 2 that runs through Willoughby is named "Brian Montgomery Memorial Highway" in honor of a Marine Lance Corporal, killed in the Iraq War in August 2005. 1912: Intercounty Highway 2 runs from Cleveland to the Pennsylvania state line. 1923: Route is extended to follow current US 6 alignment from the Indiana state line to Bryan, current SR 51 and US 20 from Toledo to the Pennsylvania state line. 1926–1927: Rerouted from Toledo to Cleveland along previous SR 23 alignment from Toledo to Port Clinton unnumbered route from Port Clinton to 2 miles west of Sandusky, previous SR 12 from 2 miles west of Sandusky to Cleveland. Cleveland-to-Pennsylvania alignment certified as US 20. 1931: Extended east to Willoughby along unnumbered route. 1931–1932: Western terminus shortened to Bryan, Bryan to Indiana state line certified as US 6 1936: Extended to Indiana state line via the former SR 108 alignment from Hicksville to Bryan, the former SR 18 alignment from the Indiana state line to Hicksville, with which it was dually certified along this route until 1940.

1939: SR 18 alignment removed from SR 2 alignment west of Hicksville. 1939: Route extended east to Lost Nation Road in Willoughby. 1941: SR 2 from West 6th to East 9th moved from Lakeside Avenue to the Lakefront Highway called the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway. Lakeside certified as SR 2 temporary. 1962: Extended east to SR 283 in Painesville. 1967: 9 miles west of Sandusky to 4 miles west of Sandusky upgraded to freeway, rerouted on the bypass around Sandusky on former US 6 alignment. 1967: Route extended to its current eastern terminus at US 20 in Painesville Township 1968: From SR 163 to 9 miles west of Sandusky upgraded to freeway. 1970: From 2 miles west of Amherst to SR 83 upgraded to freeway. 1973–1975: OH 2 Alt is deleted as discontinuous sections of Route 2 are moved from US 6 to I-90. 1976: From Ceylon to 2 miles west of Amherst upgraded to freeway. 1977: From SR 83 to Rocky River upgraded to freeway and dually certified with I-90. August 30, 1990: From Huron to Ceylon upgraded to freeway.

State Route 2 temporary was a designation that ran from West 6th to East 9th along Lakeside ave. in downtown Cleveland. The designation was added when the final alignments of SR 2 were moved to the new Lakeside Highway referred to as the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway; the route's eastern terminus was moved to Public Square via Ontario St. in 1957. State Route 2C is an unsigned connecting road that runs from State Route 163 to State Route 2 and State Route 53 near Port Clinton in Ottawa County, Ohio. State Route 2C was constructed as an access road for the SR 2–SR 163 interchange. State Route 2D is part of a couplet in Wauseon, Ohio, signed as State Route 2. SR 2D is signed as SR 2 westbound; the route ends at the corner of North Shoop Avenue. In the 2014 film Captain America: The Winter Soldier, the Cleveland Memorial Shoreway is used to depict a freeway in Washington, D. C. Media related to Ohio State Route 2 at Wikimedia Commons

Paul Van den Berghe

Paul Van den Berghe is a Belgium Bishop in the Roman Catholic Church. Van den Berghe obtained a degree in Thomist philosophy and was ordained a priest on June 15, 1957, he earned a doctorate in theology in 1961 and became professor of exegesis at a seminary in Ghent, where he was one of the founders was the Hoger Instituut voor Godsdienstwetenschappen. He served as the editorial secretary of Collationes, a Flemish magazine of pastoral theology, wrote numerous articles on the exegesis of the New Testament. On July 3, 1980 he was appointed the 21st Bishop of Antwerp by Pope John Paul II and consecrated on September 7, 1980, his motto, chosen from a verse in the book of Galatians is: "Libertati liberavit nos". In the Belgian bishops' conference he was responsible for the Interdiocesaan Pastoraal Beraad. In 2008, he had reached the mandatory retirement age of 75 and on October 28, 2008, he was succeeded by Bishop Johan Bonny

List of model organisms

This is a list of model organisms used in scientific research. Phage lambda Phi X 174 - its genome was the first to be sequenced; the genome is a circle of 5386 base pairs in length. SV40 T4 phage Tobacco mosaic virus Herpes simplex virus Escherichia coli - a common Gram-negative gut bacterium used in molecular genetics. Bacillus subtilis - an endospore forming Gram-positive bacterium. Caulobacter crescentus - a bacterium that divides into two distinct cells used to study cellular differentiation. Mycoplasma genitalium - a minimal organism. Aliivibrio fischeri - quorum sensing and animal-bacterial symbiosis with Hawaiian bobtail squid. Synechocystis, a photosynthetic cyanobacterium used in photosynthesis research. Pseudomonas fluorescens, a soil bacterium that diversifies into different strains in the lab. Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe diazotroph used in nitrogen fixation research. Streptomyces coelicolor, a soil-dwelling filamentous bacterium used to produce many clinically useful antibiotics.

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - a unicellular green alga used to study photosynthesis and motility, regulation of metabolism, cell–cell recognition and adhesion, response to nutrient deprivation and many other topics. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has well-studied genetics, with many known and mapped mutants and expressed sequence tags, there are advanced methods for genetic transformation and selection of genes. Sequencing of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome was reported in October 2007. A Chlamydomonas genetic stock center exists at Duke University, an international Chlamydomonas research interest group meets on a regular basis to discuss research results. Chlamydomonas is easy to grow on an inexpensive defined medium. Stentor coeruleus is used in molecular biology, is studied as a model of single-cell regeneration. Dictyostelium discoideum is used in molecular biology and genetics, is studied as an example of cell communication and programmed cell death. Tetrahymena thermophila - a free living freshwater ciliate protozoan.

Emiliania huxleyi - a unicellular marine coccolithophore alga, extensively studied as a model phytoplankton species. Thalassiosira pseudonana - a unicellular marine diatom alga, extensively studied as a model marine diatom since its genome was published in 2004 Ashbya gossypii, cotton pathogen, subject of genetics studies Aspergillus nidulans, mold subject of genetics studies Coprinus cinereus, mushroom Cryptococcus neoformans, opportunistic human pathogen Neurospora crassa - orange bread mold Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast or budding yeast Schizophyllum commune - model for mushroom formation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, fission yeast, Ustilago maydis, dimorphic yeast and plant pathogen of maize Arabidopsis thaliana the most popular model plant; this herbaceous dicot of the family Brassicaceae is related to the mustard plant. Its small stature and short generation time facilitates rapid genetic studies, many phenotypic and biochemical mutants have been mapped. Arabidopsis was the first plant to have its genome sequenced.

Its genome sequence, along with a wide range of information concerning Arabidopsis, is maintained by the TAIR database. The genus Boechera combines some of the experimental tractability and genetic tools developed for its close relative Arabidopsis with a undisturbed natural history, making it a promising model system for research at the intersection of genetics, genomics and evolution; the genus includes species with the rare trait of apomixis at the diploid level. Selaginella moellendorffii is a remnant of an ancient lineage of vascular plants, key to understanding the evolution of land plants, it has a small genome size and its sequence was released by the Joint Genome Institute in early 2008. Brachypodium distachyon is an emerging experimental model grass that has many attributes that make it an excellent model for temperate cereals. Setaria viridis is an emerging model grass for C4 photosynthesis and related bioenergy grasses. Lotus japonicus a model legume used to study the symbiosis responsible for nitrogen fixation.

Lemna gibba is a growing aquatic monocot, one of the smallest flowering plants. Lemna growth assays are used to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals to plants in ecotoxicology; because it can be grown in pure culture, microbial action can be excluded. Lemna is being used as a recombinant expression system for economical production of complex biopharmaceuticals, it is used in education to demonstrate population growth curves. Maize is a cereal grain, it is a diploid monocot with 10 large chromosome pairs studied with the microscope. Its genetic features, including many known and mapped phenotypic mutants and a large number of progeny per cross facilitated the discovery of transposons. Many DNA markers have been mapped and the genome has been sequenced. Medicago truncatula is a model legume related to the common alfalfa, its rather small g

Jacob Steinhardt

Jacob Steinhardt was a German-born Israeli painter and woodcut artist. Jacob Steinhardt was born in Germany, he attended the School of Art in Berlin in 1906 studied painting with Lovis Corinth and engraving with Hermann Struck in 1907. From 1908 to 1910 he lived in Paris, where he associated with Henri Matisse and Théophile Steinlen, in 1911 he was in Italy; when World War I broke out, he enlisted in the German Army, served on the Eastern Front in Poland and Lithuania, in Macedonia. After the war, he returned to Berlin, in 1922 married Minni Gumpert, they immigrated to Palestine in 1933, after he was harassed by the German police, dominated by the Nazis who came to power. Steinhardt died in 1968, he is buried in Nahariya. Jacob Steinhardt worked in woodcuts depicting biblical and Jewish subjects, he founded the Pathetiker Group. He was a member of the Bezalel school group. In 1934, Steinhardt opened an art school in Jerusalem. In 1948, he became Chairman of the Graphics Department at the Bezalel Academy of Design.

He served as director of the school in 1954-1957. The Jewish Museum Berlin houses the largest Steinhardt collection in the world, including numerous graphic artworks and unpublished documents donated by Josefa Bar-On Steinhardt, the artist's daughter; the museum owns paintings, several hundred print graphics, a collection of books illustrated by the artist. It is possible to discover some of his work at the Jewish Museum Frankfurt. Steinhardt art prints 2010 Steinhardt exhibition at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem Steinhardt in the online collection of the Jewish Museum Berlin

Creswell Levinz

Sir Creswell Levinz, was the second son of William Levinz, the elder, of Evenley, Northamptonshire, by Mary, second daughter of Richard Creswell of Purston in the same county. He was the brother of Baptist Levinz and William Levinz, nephew of the Royalist Robert Levinz, he took a sizarship in 1648 at Trinity College, but did not graduate, in November 1655 entered Gray's Inn, where he was called to the bar in November 1661, was elected a bencher in 1678, treasurer in 1679. He was knighted at Whitehall on 2 Oct. 1678, made a King's Counsel about the same time. He represented the crown in the trials of Ireland, Grove, Langhorn and other supposed Popish Plotters in 1678–9. In October 1679 he was made Attorney-General. In December the celebrated proclamation against "tumultuous petitioning" was under discussion in the council, Levinz was required to draft it, he refused at first, but consented on condition that Chief-Justice North would dictate the substance of it. Levinz was thus able, when examined by the House of Commons of England as to his part in the affair, to shift the entire responsibility on to North's shoulders.

On 12 Feb. 1680 Levinz was called to the degree of Serjeant-at-Law and raised to the bench of the common pleas. He went the Oxford circuit, was a member of the commission which tried Stephen College at the Oxford assizes in August 1681, he was a member of the special commission which sat at the Old Bailey in July 1683 to try Lord Russell for his supposed participation in the Rye House plot. Lord Russell having challenged one of the jury for not having a freehold estate within the city, the point was elaborately argued. All the judges, decided against the challenge. Levinz's judgment is reported at some length in Cobbett's State Trials. In 1684–85 Levinz was consulted by the king on the question whether a contract by the late king letting out part of the excise to farm was determined by his death, gave the more sound than courtly advice that it was so, his "quietus" was expected to follow as a matter of course. It was deferred, for a time, he was one of Jeffreys' colleagues in the Bloody Assizes, helped to try some of the rebels in London.

His supersedeas came on 10 Feb. 1685–86. No ground of dismissal was assigned, but Levinz was thought to be unsafe on the question of the dispensing power, he at once returned to the bar, was soon busily engaged in pleading. He was one of the counsel for the Seven Bishops in 1688, defended Major John Bernardi, securing the dismissal of the bill of indictment by the grand jury and, in the great habeas corpus case of Rex v. Kendall and Roe, before Lord Chief Justice Holt in 1695, he argued against the legality of a committal to prison under a general warrant by a secretary of state, he died at Serjeants' Inn on 29 Jan. 1700–1, was buried in Evenley parish church. Part of his monument there survives: a more than life-size marble statue of Levinz wearing his judge's robes and wig, he was succeeded by his son William, a Nottinghamshire MP. From manuscripts left by Levinz was published in 1702 a folio volume of reports in French. A third edition in English only, revised by Thomas Vickers, was published at Dublin in 1793–7, 3 vols.

8vo. Levinz compiled A Collection of Select and Modern Entries of Declarations, Issues, Judgments, &c. referring to the Cases in Sir Creswell Levinz's Reports, the judgment of the Court being added to each President, published in London in 1702, fol. There has been some division of opinion among English judges as to Levinz's merits as a reporter. Internet Archive: The Reports of Sir Creswell LevinzAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Levinz, Creswell". Dictionary of National Biography. 33. London: Smith, Elder & Co