Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Battle of Middleburg
The Battle of Middleburg took place from June 17 to June 19, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. Confederate Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, screening Robert E. Lee's invasion route, sparred with Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton's Union cavalry. On June 17, Col. Alfred N. Duffié's isolated 1st Rhode Island Cavalry Regiment was attacked by the brigades of Thomas T. Munford and Beverly Robertson; the 1st Rhode Island was routed. On June 19, J. Irvin Gregg's brigade advanced. Both sides were reinforced, mounted and dismounted skirmishing continued. Stuart was levered out of his position but fell back to a second ridge, still covering the approaches to the Blue Ridge gap. Stuart established his headquarters at Middleburg and scattered his brigades throughout the Loudoun Valley to watch for enemy activity. Early in the morning, Col. Duffié, a French-born officer, had taken the 280 men of the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry westward from the Army of the Potomac's camp near Centreville.
Pleasonton had ordered him to camp at Middleburg that evening and to proceed the next day toward Noland's Ferry, extending his march to the west as far as Snickersville. Duffié crossed the Bull Run Mountains at Thoroughfare Gap at 9:30 a.m. pushing aside pickets from John R. Chambliss's brigade. Confederate commanders could not believe that a small Union regiment would dare to travel so deep into enemy territory without an escort, so Chambliss did not aggressively attack, fearing that the column was the advance element of a much larger enemy force. Duffié continued on his isolated march, turning to the north by 11:00 a.m. and heading for Middleburg as ordered. Arriving there about 4:00 p.m. Duffié drove in the few Confederate pickets deployed there and disrupted Stuart's evening of socializing with local ladies. Stuart and his staff retreated to Rector's Crossroads, the location of his closest brigade, he ordered Beverly Robertson to move to Middleburg to crush the Union cavalry. Duffié barricaded the streets of Middleburg, dismounted half of his regiment behind stonewalls, sent for help from Judson Kilpatrick's brigade near Aldie.
At 7:00 p.m. Stuart's attack routed the vastly outnumbered Rhode Islanders. Many of Duffié's men were captured the next morning; the Parisian colonel returned to Centreville with only 4 officers and 27 men. A few stragglers rejoined the shattered remnants of the regiment. Duffié would never again serve with the Army of the Potomac, although he did command cavalry in other Union armies; the Union casualties on July 17 were reported as 250. After the Battle of Aldie, Stuart remained on the defensive, wanting to spoil any Federal attempts to force the passes in the Blue Ridge Mountains. Pleasonton tentatively sent Snicker's Gaps. On June 18, David McM. Gregg ran into Confederate pickets around Middleburg, Stuart fell back to a commanding ridge west of town. Fearing a trap, a cautious Pleasonton ordered Gregg to withdraw to Aldie; the next day, Gregg again moved against Middleburg, sending the brigade of his first cousin, Col. J. Irvin Gregg, at the Rebels while John Buford's division swung north towards Pot House.
After a flanking march, Buford occupied the ground around Pot House, pushing back two regiments of William "Grumble" Jones's brigade in a mild skirmish. After a hard fight to clear reinforced pickets from Middleburg, Colonel Gregg was so impressed by the Confederate position on the high ground beyond the town that he asked for support before attacking. Kilpatrick sent two regiments to help extend the Federal line, Gregg advanced; the temperature hovered around 98 °F throughout the afternoon, sapping horses of energy. A series of Union charges forced Stuart's horse artillery to withdraw, his cavalry. Several Confederate counterattacks failed to regain control of the ridge. Late in the day, Buford sent the U. S. Reserve Brigade back from Pot House, the 2nd and 6th U. S. Cavalry regiments seized a hotly contested hill south of the tiny village of Millville as darkness fell. Stuart was forced to abandon his position, falling back along the turnpike to stonewalls beyond a ravine along a stream known as Kirk's Branch.
A still cautious Pleasonton refused to follow up his success and ordered his men to rest and send out pickets. Union losses in the June 19 fight were reported as 16 killed, 46 wounded, 37 missing. Stuart lost 40 men, including his chief of staff and friend, Prussian cavalier Heros von Borcke, badly wounded by a bullet in his neck. Though von Borcke survived and returned to service the following spring, the bullet remained in his body for the rest of his life, the lingering wound would result in his death from sepsis in 1895; the Civil War Trust and its partners have preserved 5 acres of the battlefield. Middleburg is one of the most picturesque towns in northern Virginia and features many buildings that existed during the Civil War and were used as hospitals; the town is at the heart of the John Singleton Mosby Heritage Area and an interpretive center at the Rector House four miles west of town tells the story of the Mosby's Rangers of the Confederate Army. National Park Service battle description O'Neill, Robert F.
The Cavalry Battles of Aldie and Upperville: Small But Important Riots, June 10–27, 1863. Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard, 1993. ISBN 1-56190-052-4. Salmon, John S; the Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2001. ISBN 0-8117-2868-4
Prince William County, Virginia
Prince William County is a county on the Potomac River in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 402,002, on July 1, 2015, the population was estimated to be 451,721, making it Virginia's second-most populous county, its county seat is the independent city of Manassas. A part of Northern Virginia, Prince William County is part of the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2012 it had the seventh highest income of any county in the United States. At the time of European encounter, the main inhabitants of the area that would become Prince William County were the Doeg, an Algonquian-speaking sub-group of the Powhatan tribal confederation; when John Smith and other English explorers ventured to the upper Potomac River beginning in 1608, they recorded the name of a village the Doeg inhabited as Pemacocack. It was located on the west bank of the Potomac River about 30 miles south of present-day Alexandria.
Unable to deal with European diseases and firepower, the Doeg abandoned their villages in the area by 1700. As population increased in the area, Prince William County was created by an act of the General Assembly of the colony of Virginia in 1731; the area encompassed by the act creating Prince William County included all of what became the counties of Arlington, Fairfax and Loudoun. These became independent jurisdictions; the county was named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, the third son of King George II. In 1790 the population of the county was 58% white; the county had been an area of tobacco plantations, but planters were changing to cultivate mixed crops due to soil exhaustion and changes in the market. In the first two decades after the Revolution, the number and percentage of free blacks increased in Virginia as some whites freed their slaves, based on revolutionary ideals. On March 19, 1892, two men, Lee Heflin and Joseph Dye, were lynched in Haymarket, they had been convicted of the murder of a girl and sentenced to death, but the mob did not want to wait for the legal system.
The men were hanged from trees at the edge of woods. The Washington Post said. There is too much of it throughout the country, it spreads like a contagion so long as public sentiment tacitly approves it." It was unusual. The county was agricultural for decades. Into the early 20th century, the population was concentrated in two areas, one at Manassas, the other near Occoquan and Woodbridge along the Potomac River, an important transportation route. Beginning in the late 1930s, suburban residential development began and new housing was developed near the existing population centers in Manassas. In 1960 the population was 50,164. Continued suburbanization and growth of the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area caused that to increase in the following decades. There was expansion of federal and commercial activities in Northern Virginia in the late 20th century. By 2000, this was the third-most populous local jurisdiction in Virginia. From 2000 to 2010, the population increased by 43.2%. This was the first county in Virginia to be minority-majority: the new majority is composed of Hispanic, African American, Asian.
In 2012 it was the seventh-wealthiest county in the country. The estimated population of 2014 is more than 437,000. In 1994 The Walt Disney Company bought extensive amounts of land in Haymarket for a proposed Disney's America theme park. Local resistance to the resort, because of its perceived adverse effects on the historic Manassas Battlefield, led to its end as a viable idea. William B. Snyder, a local business man convinced Disney to sell the property to him. Snyder, in turn, sold off most of the land to developers, except for the 405 acres donated to the National Capital Area Council of the Boy Scouts, who used the land to create Camp Snyder for Cub Scouts; the Marine Corps Heritage Museum and the Hylton Performing Arts Center opened in the 21st century. The American Wartime Museum is to be located in this county. During the commemoration of the Sesquicentennial of the Civil War, re-enactment of the famous First and Second Battles of Manassas was planned. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 348 square miles, of which 336 square miles is land and 12 square miles is water.
It is bounded on the north by Fairfax Counties. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the independent cities of Manassas and Manassas Park with Prince William County for statistical purposes: Loudoun County – north Fairfax County – northeast Charles County, Maryland – southeast Stafford County – south Fauquier County – west Manassas – center Manassas Park – center Featherstone National Wildlife Refuge Manassas National Battlefield Park Occoquan Bay National Wildlife Refuge Prince William Forest Park The county is divided into seven magisterial districts: Brentsville, Coles
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Francis Fauquier was a lieutenant governor of Virginia Colony, served as acting governor from 1758 until his death in 1768. He was married to Catherine Dalston, he was a noted close friend of Thomas Jefferson. As royal governor of Virginia, Fauquier hosted lavish parties where Jefferson played his violin and drank imported wines. Fauquier County in Northern Virginia is named in his honor. Due to his connection to several prominent members of The College of William & Mary, a building and a secret society on the campus are named for him. Fauquier was born in England, his father, Dr. John Francis Fauquier, born in Clairac, Lot-&-Garonne France, relocated to Britain to work with Sir Isaac Newton. Dr. Fauquier became director of the Bank of England. Like his father, Fauquier was brought up to be a renaissance man with expertise in both science and industry, with interests in the arts and charity, he became director of the South Sea Company in 1751. In that same year he became one of the governors of the charitable Foundling Hospital for abandoned children.
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1753. He came to the colony of Virginia as lieutenant governor in 1758, succeeding Robert Dinwiddie, remained in that position until his death, he published several financial essays, among them the idea Raising Money for Support of the War, published in 1756, served as an audition for the replacement of his Virginian predecessor. In the absence of the governors—the Earl of Loudoun and Jeffery Amherst —he was the chief administrative officer. Instructions sent with him demanded that the office of treasurer of the colony be taken from the Speaker of the House of Burgesses, but he disobeyed these instructions and gained and maintained the friendship of the house, he commissioned in 1759 Andrew Burnaby to write a series of observations upon the state of the colonies. In 1760 he informed the government of the trend toward opposition to British policies in the colony and proposed that British tax policy be changed. In 1765, however, he dissolved the House of Burgesses when it passed a resolution against the Stamp Act.
Patrick Henry was a thorn in Fauquier's side for some time. Except in combating disloyalty, he sympathized with the colonists, was one of the ablest and most popular of the royal governors. Fauquier died in Virginia in 1768 at the age of 65. A residence hall at the College of William and Mary is named for Fauquier. Joseph Royle Age of Enlightenment George Wythe and William Small, close friends and contemporaries of Fauquier The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Richmond Times-Dispatch, July 7, 1935, article by Robert Douthat Meade. Biography of Francis Fauquier Biography at Encyclopedia Virginia
Culpeper County, Virginia
Culpeper County is a county located in the central region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,689, its county seat and only incorporated community is Culpeper. Home to some of Virginia's most famous plantation homes and thousands of acres of farmland, the rolling hills of the Piedmont region and the westernmost flats of the Northern Neck collide in rural Culpeper County. Culpeper County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Culpeper County were a Siouan-speaking sub-group of the Manahoac tribe called the Tegninateo. Culpeper County was established in 1749 from Orange County; the county is named for Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, colonial governor of Virginia from 1677 to 1683. During the Civil War the Battle of Cedar Mountain took place on August 9, 1862 and the Battle of Brandy Station on June 9, 1863, in Culpeper County.
In May 1749, the first Culpeper Court convened in the home of Robert Tureman, not far from where the Town of Culpeper is now located. In July 1749, Tureman commissioned 17-year-old George Washington as the first County surveyor. One of his first duties was to lay out the County's courthouse complex, which included the courthouse, stocks and accessory buildings. By 1752 the complex stood at what is now the northeast corner of Main Streets; the courthouse village was named the Town of Fairfax after Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. During the Virginia convention held in May 1775, the colony was divided into sixteen districts; each district had instructions to raise a battalion of men "to march at a minute's notice." Culpeper and Fauquier, forming one district, raised 350 men in "Clayton's old field" on the Catalpa estate, who came to be called the Culpeper Minute Men. In December, the Minute Men, marching under their flag depicting a rattlesnake and inscribed with the words "Liberty or Death" and "Don't Tread on Me", took part in the Battle of Great Bridge, the first Revolutionary battle on Virginia soil.
The Culpeper Minute Men reorganized in 1860 in response to the impending Civil War and became part of 13th Infantry's Company B. The Culpeper Minutemen were again organized for World War I, joined the 116th Infantry. In 1833, based on the county's growing population and those in the northwestern area needing to have better access to a county seat, Rappahannock County, Virginia was founded by an act of the Virginia General Assembly; the 267 square miles of that county's land was carved from Culpeper County. Culpeper was the site of the Battle of Brandy Station and the boyhood home to Civil War General A. P. Hill; the negative impact of the Massive Resistance campaign against school integration led to the statewide election of a pro-desegregation governor. By the middle of the 1970s, Culpeper was the last county in Virginia to desegregrate its public schools. In 2018 Culpeper County Public Schools has two middle schools and two high schools. In 1935 the Rotary Club of Culpeper began a college loan fund, which in 1966 became a four-year scholarship based on academic achievement.
The group provides a Technical School scholarship based on academic achievement. Culpeper County is home to site for many world-class equestrian events, it was here. The town of Culpeper was rated #10 by Norman Crampton, author of "The 100 Best Small Towns in America," in February, 1993. In April 2016, the county Board of Supervisors denied a routine request from the Islamic Center of Culpeper for a pump and haul permit to serve their envisioned mosque; this act resulted in a lawsuit by the U. S. Department of Justice in December. Culpeper County is in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which are accessed beginning with Old Rag Mountain and the Skyline Drive just up Route 522. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 383 square miles, of which 379 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. Stafford County, Virginia – East Orange County, Virginia – South Madison County, Virginia – Southwest Rappahannock County, Virginia – Northwest Spotsylvania County, Virginia – Southeast Fauquier County, Virginia – Northeast US 15 US 29 US 211 US 522 SR 3 SR 229 SR 299 Catalpa District: Sue D. Hansohn Ceder Mountain District: Jack Frazier, Chairman East Fairfax District: Steven L. Walker Jefferson District: Brad C.
Rosenberger Salem District: Alexa V. Fritz Stevensburg District: William C. Chase, Jr. Vice Chairman West Fairfax District: Gary M. Deal Clerk of the Circuit Court: Janice J. Corbin Commissioner of the Revenue: Terry L. Yowell Commonwealth's Attorney: Paul R. Walther Sheriff: Scott H. Jenkins Treasurer: David L. Dejarnette Culpeper County is represented by Republicans Bryce E. Reeves, Emmett W. Hanger, Jr. and Jill Holtzman Vogel in the Virginia Senate, Republicans Michael J. Webert and Edward T. Scott in the Virginia House of Delegates, Democrat Abigail Spanberger in the U. S. House of Representatives. Recent media investigations regarding law enforcement procurement of military equipment through the "1033" program offered by the Defense Logistics Agency identified Culpeper County as having received, as donations, a "Mine Resistant Vehicle" in 2013 worth $412,000 and twenty night vision optics worth an additional $136,000.00. This equipment, valued at more than half a million dollars, was obtained at no additional cost to Culpeper County residents.
As of the census of 2000, there were 34,262 people, 12,141 households, 9,045 families resi
Battle of Aldie
The Battle of Aldie took place on June 17, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart's cavalry screened Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate infantry as it marched north in the Shenandoah Valley behind the sheltering Blue Ridge Mountains; the pursuing Union cavalry of Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick's brigade, in the advance of Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg's division, encountered Col. Thomas T. Munford's troopers near the village of Aldie, resulting in four hours of stubborn fighting. Both sides made mounted assaults by squadrons. Kilpatrick was reinforced in the afternoon, Munford withdrew toward Middleburg. Late in the spring of 1863 tensions grew between Union commander Joseph Hooker and his cavalry commander Brig. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton because of the latter's inability to penetrate Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart's cavalry screen and gain access to the Shenandoah Valley to locate the Army of Northern Virginia, on the move since the Battle of Chancellorsville in early May.
On June 17, Pleasonton decided to push through Stuart's screen. To accomplish his goal he ordered Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg's division from Manassas Junction westward down the Little River Turnpike to Aldie. Aldie was tactically important in that near the village the Little River Turnpike intersected both the Ashby's Gap Turnpike and Snicker's Gap Turnpike, which led through Ashby's Gap and Snickers Gap of the Blue Ridge Mountain into the valley. Early that same morning, Colonel Munford led the 2nd and 3rd Virginia Cavalry eastward across the Loudoun Valley from Upperville through Middleburg to Aldie on the Bull Run Mountains on a reconnaissance and forage mission, he established a line of pickets in Aldie to watch for enemy activity and withdrew his two regiments northwest of town on the Snicker's Gap Turnpike to camp on the farm of Franklin Carter. About 4 pm, Gregg's advance column of the 2nd and 4th New York, 6th Ohio, 1st Maine, 1st Rhode Island, 1st Massachusetts, under the command of Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick arrived in Aldie.
Just west of the village the 1st Massachusetts drove them back. Around the same time, the rest of Munford's brigade arrived at Dover Mills, a small hamlet on the Little River west of Aldie. Wickham ordered Col. Thomas L. Rosser to take the 5th Virginia to locate a campsite closer to Aldie; as they moved east they ran into the Massachusetts men and drove them back through Aldie to the main Union body. After positioning his sharpshooters east of the William Adam farmhouse, Rosser deployed west along a ridge that covered the two roads leading out of Aldie and awaited the arrival of the Federals, as well as Munford and Wickham; as Rosser withdrew west, the 1st Massachusetts, with aid from the 4th New York, charged against what they believed to be a retreat. Rosser's line held and he mounted a countercharge in concert with a sharp volley from the sharpshooters he had placed on his left and drove the Federals back, securing his hold on the Ashby's Gap Turnpike. Kilpatrick turned his attention towards the Snicker's Gap Turnpike.
An artillery duel ensued and more cavalry on both sides soon arrived. A furious fight erupted, which at first went in favor of Munford as Federal charges were met and forced back by the withering volley of sharpshooters entrenched along a stone wall; the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry was trapped in a blind curve on the Snicker's Gap Turnpike and was destroyed, losing 198 of 294 men in the eight companies that were engaged. One detachment under Henry Lee Higginson was wiped out in hand-to-hand fighting; the tide turned as Union reinforcements charged into the fray in the fading light and the 6th Ohio overran Boston's detachment on the Ashby's Gap Turnpike, capturing or killing most of his men. The fighting died down around 8 pm. Munford did not consider Aldie as a defeat as his withdrawal coincided with an order from Stuart to retire, as more Federal cavalry had been sighted at Middleburg. Union casualties were 305 dead and wounded, with the Confederates losing between 110 and 119. Aldie was the first in a series of small battles along the Ashby's Gap Turnpike in which Stuart's forces delayed Pleasonton's thrust across the Loudoun Valley, depriving him of the opportunity to locate Lee's army.
Although not protected, the battlefield remains intact. Aldie and its mill look. Widening of U. S. Route 50 has compromised the portion of the battlefield along the Ashby's Gap Turnpike; the stone wall and farmsteads remain intact along the Snicker's Gap Turnpike. At the site of the stone wall along the blind curve where the 1st Massachusetts was decimated, a monument erected by the survivors stands to honor the service during the battle. On May 8, 2012, Gov. Bob McDonnell announced the preservation of a five-acre site to be purchased by the Civil War Trust and to be operated as a passive historic interpretative site by the park authority; the land is along the Loudoun/Fauquier county border and was key to the June 17–21, 1863, Battles of Aldie and Upperville. The Civil War Trust (a division of the American Battlefield Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 605 acres of the battlefield in four different acquisitions since 2001. National Park Service battle description Civil War Reference Battle Description Head, James W. History and Comprehensive Description of Loudoun County Virginia.
Washington, DC: Parkview Press, 1908. OCLC 1837578. O'Nei