Ethnic groups in Europe
The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities; the total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people and ethno-linguistic group, are used as synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe. There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe.
These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population: Russians, French, Italians, Spaniards, Poles. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups with more than 10 million people residing in Europe include: Romanians, Turks, Swedes, Czechs, Serbs. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin; the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations. Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million, close to 90% fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being.
Romance, including. Germanic, including. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations. Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not related to those larger language families. Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European: Uralic languages, including. Turkic languages, including. Semitic languages, including. Kartvelian languages, including Georgian, Zan and Laz. Northwest Caucasian languages. Northeast Caucasian languages. Language isolates. Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia; the Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe.
The Finnic peoples are assumed to be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago. Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basqu
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
Woolworths NZ is the second largest grocery company in New Zealand, with revenue of NZ$6.2 billion for the year to June 2018. Alongside Foodstuffs, Woolworths NZ forms part of the New Zealand supermarket duopoly. Progressive Enterprises Limited was once owned by the Western Australian Supermarket Group FAL - Foodland Associated Limited which operated Action Supermarkets, Supa Valu Supermarkets and Dewsons Supermarkets, it is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Australia's Woolworths Limited. 1948: Progressive Enterprises was established in 1949 by the Picot family. 1961: Progressive Enterprises became the parent company to Foodtown Supermarkets Limited. 1974: Albert Gubay opens the first 3Guys store. Progressive Enterprises purchased the chain in 1987, rebranded or closed them throughout the 1990s with the store in Hillcrest, Hamilton being one of the last when it closed in January 1998. 1988: Progressive Enterprises became part of Australian business Coles Myer 1992: Coles Myer relaunched Progressive Enterprises onto the New Zealand stock exchange as a public company.
On 25 May 2005, it was announced that Woolworths Limited, one of Australia's largest retailers, would be purchasing Progressive Enterprises along with 22 Action stores in Australia. The deal was worth NZ$2.5 billion and culminated in the official transfer of assets on 24 November 2005. In 2006, company workers at three distribution centres initiated industrial action in an attempt to win a collective employment agreement and pay rise; the company responded by suspending grocery distribution centre operations and allowing suppliers to send stock directly to supermarkets. In 2006, the company was awarded the Roger Award For The Worst Transnational Corporation Operating in New Zealand. On 15 August 2007, it was announced that all Progressive Enterprises employees on youth rates or under the age of 18 will now all get paid adult rates which in some cases can be up to an 80% pay increase; the average pay is around $13.50 from $9.00. In June 2018, Progressive Enterprise Limited renamed to Woolworths NZ Woolworths NZ runs the following grocery store chains: Countdown: 184 supermarket stores SuperValue: 40 stores - convenience supermarket stores, run as a franchise FreshChoice: 30 stores - Higher quality supermarket with a large range, run as a franchiseIt operates online grocery shopping in the name of Countdown.
Until it operated one Woolworths supermarket in Mount Maunganui, now closed. The Foodtown brand was phased out in early 2012. In August 2011, Progressive Enterprises won a prestigious NZ Marketing award. Gubays 3 Guys Big Fresh Price Chopper Georgie Pie Foodtown Woolworths Countdown Freefrom Macro Essentials The Odd Bunch Signature Range Naytura FreshZone Basics No Frills Woolworths Select Home Brand 2006 Progressive Enterprises dispute Progressive Enterprises Limited Press release - Woolworths acquisition
A greenhouse is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold frame; the interior of a greenhouse exposed to sunlight becomes warmer than the external ambient temperature, protecting its contents in cold weather. Many commercial glass greenhouses or hothouses are high tech production facilities for vegetables or flowers; the glass greenhouses are filled with equipment including screening installations, cooling and may be controlled by a computer to optimize conditions for plant growth. Different techniques are used to evaluate optimality-degrees and comfort ratio of greenhouse micro-climate in order to reduce production risk prior to cultivation of a specific crop; the idea of growing plants in environmentally controlled areas has existed since Roman times. The Roman emperor Tiberius ate a cucumber-like vegetable daily.
The Roman gardeners used artificial methods of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. Cucumbers were planted in wheeled carts which were put in the sun daily taken inside to keep them warm at night; the cucumbers were stored under frames or in cucumber houses glazed with either oiled cloth known as specularia or with sheets of selenite, according to the description by Pliny the Elder. The first description of a heated greenhouse is from the Sanga Yorok, a treatise on husbandry compiled by a royal physician of the Joseon dynasty of Korea during the 1450s, in its chapter on cultivating vegetables during winter; the treatise contains detailed instructions on constructing a greenhouse, capable of cultivating vegetables, forcing flowers, ripening fruit within an artificially heated environment, by utilizing ondol, the traditional Korean underfloor heating system, to maintain heat and humidity. The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty confirm that greenhouse-like structures incorporating ondol were constructed to provide heat for mandarin orange trees during the winter of 1438.
The concept of greenhouses appeared in the Netherlands and England in the 17th century, along with the plants. Some of these early attempts required enormous amounts of work to winterize. There were serious problems with providing balanced heat in these early greenhouses; the first'stove' greenhouse in the UK was completed at Chelsea Physic Garden by 1681. Today, the Netherlands has many of the largest greenhouses in the world, some of them so vast that they are able to produce millions of vegetables every year; the French botanist Charles Lucien Bonaparte is credited with building the first practical modern greenhouse in Leiden, during the 1800s to grow medicinal tropical plants. Only on the estates of the rich, the growth of the science of botany caused greenhouses to spread to the universities; the French called their first greenhouses orangeries, since they were used to protect orange trees from freezing. As pineapples became popular, pineries, or pineapple pits, were built. Experimentation with the design of greenhouses continued during the 17th century in Europe, as technology produced better glass and construction techniques improved.
The greenhouse at the Palace of Versailles was an example of their size and elaborateness. The golden era of the greenhouse was in England during the Victorian era, where the largest glasshouses yet conceived were constructed, as the wealthy upper class and aspiring botanists competed to build the most elaborate buildings. A good example of this trend is the pioneering Kew Gardens. Joseph Paxton, who had experimented with glass and iron in the creation of large greenhouses as the head gardener at Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, working for the Duke of Devonshire and built The Crystal Palace in London. Other large greenhouses built in the 19th century included the New York Crystal Palace, Munich’s Glaspalast and the Royal Greenhouses of Laeken for King Leopold II of Belgium. In Japan, the first greenhouse was built in 1880 by Samuel Cocking, a British merchant who exported herbs. In the 20th century, the geodesic dome was added to the many types of greenhouses. Notable examples are the Eden Project, in Cornwall, The Rodale Institute in Pennsylvania, the Climatron at the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky.
Greenhouse structures adapted in the 1960s when wider sheets of polyethylene film became available. Hoop houses were made by several companies and were frequently made by the growers themselves. Constructed of aluminum extrusions, special galvanized steel tubing, or just lengths of steel or PVC water pipe, construction costs were reduced; this resulted in many more greenhouses being constructed on garden centers. Polyethylene film durability increased when more effective UV-inhibitors were developed and added in the 1970s. Gutter-connected greenhouses became more prevalent in the 1990s; these greenhouses have
Otahuhu is a suburb of Auckland, New Zealand - 13 kilometres to the southeast of the CBD, on a narrow isthmus between an arm of the Manukau Harbour to the west and the Tamaki River estuary to the east. The isthmus is the narrowest connection between the North Auckland Peninsula and the rest of the North Island, being only some 1,200 metres wide at its narrowest point, between the Otahuhu Creek and the Mangere Inlet; as the southernmost suburb of the former Auckland City, it is considered part of South Auckland. The suburb's name is taken from the Māori-language name of a volcanic cone known as Mount Richmond; the name refers to "the place of Tāhuhu" -- Tāhuhu-nui-a-Rangi, who settled the area. In colloquial speech, locals sometimes shorten the name to "Otahu"; the suburb was established in 1847 as a fencible settlement, where soldiers were given land with the implied understanding that in wartime, they would be raised as units to defend it. Most early features from this time have disappeared, such as a stone bridge built by the fencibles that had to make way to a widening of Great South Road.
Otahuhu was home to the country's first supermarket, Otahuhu College, to which several famous personalities went, including heavyweight boxing champion David Tua, former prime minister David Lange, ex-Manukau City Mayor, Sir Barry Curtis. Otahuhu had a local government just like other suburbs of Auckland at that time; the local government was called Otahuhu Borough Council, which started in 1912 and merged into Auckland City Council in 1985 amalgamated into Auckland Council in November 2010. Alfred Sturges, 1912–1915 James Atkinson, 1915–1917 Alfred MacDonald, 1917–1921 Robert Black Todd, 1921–1929 Hubert Thomas Clements, 1929–1935 Charles Robert Petrie, 1935–1944 Albert Murdoch, 1944–1950 James Deas, 1950–1954 John "Jack" David Murdoch, 1954–1962 Robert G. Ashby, 1962–1965 Aubray Thayer Bedingfield, 1965–1970 Claude H. D. Handisides, 1970–1977 Niall Frederick Burgess, 1977–1985 Otahuhu, in its position on a narrow section of the Auckland isthmus, is an important part of Auckland's southern transportation approaches for both road and rail, containing a combined bus interchange and Otahuhu railway station.
The new bus-train interchange opened on 29 October 2016 as a joint Auckland Transport and New Zealand Transport Agency initiative costing NZ$28M."The station is at the heart of the Southern New Network", said Auckland Transport’s Chief AT Metro Officer, Mark Lambert. “Auckland is moving towards a more connected network of local feeder services connecting with frequent bus and train services. Bus and train transport hubs like Otahuhu are at the heart of this transformation." The old bus interchange, badly neglected, had received increased attention from early 2011 on for vandalism/graffiti prevention measures is now closed and a smaller bus stop has been installed on the main road near the town centre. The importance for transportation extended to pre-European times; the aptly named Portage Road runs across the isthmus in Otahuhu and was used by Māori to move their waka between the Manukau and Waitemata harbours for raids and trading. In fact, the area known as Te Tō Waka, was considered the most important portage of all of New Zealand.
Otahuhu nowadays is synonymous with industry and along with its neighbouring suburbs Favona, Mangere East, Mt Wellington and Westfield forms an industrial conglomerate zone that spans much of the Mangere Inlet. The community and town centre flourishes as the crossroad to Central and South Auckland and is home to a sizable Pacific Island populace. Otahuhu is home to the Otahuhu Leopards rugby league club. Photographs of Otahuhu held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Mangere Inlet is an arm of the Manukau Harbour, the southwestern of the two harbours of Auckland, New Zealand and itself an arm of the Tasman Sea. The inlet lies between the two cities of Auckland City and Manukau City and has a size of 6.6 km2 and a catchment of 34.5 km2, being considered to extend to just west of Onehunga. It is an environment modified by land reclamation and human uses, with the northern shoreline affected. However, the inlet acts as a natural sedimentation sink, thus being at risk of contamination, it is surrounded by the suburbs of Te Papapa, Westfield, Mangere East and Mangere Bridge. The narrowest point on the Auckland isthmus is at Otahuhu, where the coast of the Mangere Inlet is a mere 1200 m from the Otahuhu Creek, which feeds into the Hauraki Gulf; the Mangere Bridge crosses the western end of the inlet where it joins the main body of the Manukau Harbour. At this point the inlet is about 750 m wide; the Waikaraka Cycleway travels along the northern shoreline of the inlet.
Ngarango Otainui Island is situated in the inlet at the eastern end near Otahuhu. Portage Road is the location of one of the overland routes between the two harbours, where the Maori would beach their waka and drag them overland to the other coast, thus avoiding having to paddle around Cape Reinga; this made the area of immense strategic importance in both pre-European times and during the early years of European occupation. In the 1850s, after settlement by Europeans, the areas around the inlet had become the agricultural centre of Auckland. Industrial expansion westwards from the new railway line at Westfield led to increasing discharges of contaminants into the inlet; the inlet is man-modified, with three embayments at the inlets of historic streams having been lost along the northern shore, to a significant degree for use as landfills, a loss of tidal inundation to the Hopua volcanic crater forming the Onehunga Basin further west. Ann’s Creek in the north-east still has a short section of open stream remaining in the north-east.
Land reclamation in the 1960s for the Westfield Rail Yards reduced the inlet in the east, while the southern shore is less modified. The area is known for muddy, sedimented waters, which seem to predate human occupation of the area. Mangrove swamp fringes are present around most of the shoreline, becoming less common west of Mangere Bridge. For many years the many industries, from meatworks and abattoirs, to phosphate fertiliser works and other factories located here were discharging large amounts of untreated waste into the Manukau Harbour; this had a detrimential effect on the ecology of the harbour which at the turn of the 20th century had been a popular and attractive place to swim, sail and gather shellfish. During the 1950s, the decomposition of organic wastes (including from residential areas and facilities like Middlemore Hospital into the mud flats led to sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions - leading to complaints about hydrogen sulphide smells, blackening of lead paint in the areas around the inlet.
From 1962, the Mangere sewage works removed many of the household and industrial wastes that were discharged and led to significant improvements. As of 2008, a number of coastal protection zones had been established around the shores of the inlet. However, industrial sewage mixed with stormwater overflows, other contamination still leads to above-average traces of toxins like pesticides, insecticides, PCBs and copper in the mussels and oysters sampled by testing. In the discussions around Stadium New Zealand, constructing the new venue over the eastern shoreline of the inlet was mooted by several architects as a potential alternative to the Auckland CBD location, they considered that the site would be far enough away from residential areas to suit the need for a large and busy multi-use stadium, but would be able to be accessed by public transport and cars, more so than the CBD location. However, the idea failed to get public traction
An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus. Canals are built across isthmuses, where they may be a advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula, it connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus. Isthmus and land bridge are related terms with isthmus having a broader meaning. A land bridge is an isthmus connecting the Earth's major landmasses; the term land bridge is used in biogeology to describe land connections that used to exist between continents at various times and were important for migration of people, various species of animals and plants, e.g. Bering Land Bridge.
An isthmus is a land connection between two bigger landmasses, while a peninsula is rather a land protrusion, connected to a bigger landmass on one side only and surrounded by water on all other sides. Technically, an isthmus can have canals running from coast to coast, thus resemble two peninsulas. Major isthmuses include the Isthmus of Panama and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Americas, the Isthmus of Kra in South-East Asia, the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, the Karelian Isthmus in Europe. Of historic importance was the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Land bridge List of isthmuses List of straits