Sanofi S. A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales. The company was formed as Sanofi-Aventis in 2004 by the merger of Aventis and Sanofi-Synthélabo, which were each the product of several previous mergers, it changed its name to Sanofi in May 2011. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Sanofi engages in the research and development and marketing of pharmaceutical drugs principally in the prescription market, but the firm develops over-the-counter medication; the company covers seven major therapeutic areas: cardiovascular, central nervous system, internal medicine, oncology and vaccines. In February 2019, Sanofi appointed Dr. Ameet Nathwani as its Chief Digital Officer. Sanofi was founded in 1973 as a subsidiary of Elf Aquitaine, when Elf Aquitaine took control of the Labaz group, a pharmaceutical company formed in 1947 by Societe Belge de l'Azote et des Produits Chimiques du Marly.
In 1993 Sanofi made a move into the Eastern Europe market by acquiring a controlling interest in Chinoin, a Hungarian drug company that had about US$104 million in sales in 1992. In that same year, Sanofi's made its first significant venture into the U. S. and strengthened its presence in Eastern Europe, by first partnering with Sterling Winthrop and acquiring the prescription pharmaceuticals business in 1994. Sanofi was incorporated under the laws of France in 1994 as a société anonyme, a form of limited liability company. Synthélabo was founded in 1970 through the merger of two French pharmaceutical laboratories, Laboratoires Dausse and Laboratoires Robert & Carrière. In 1973, the French cosmetics group L’Oréal acquired the majority of its share capital. In 1991, Synthelabo acquired Laboratories Delalande and Laboratoires Delagrange, through this deal picked up the product metoclopramide. Sanofi-Synthélabo was formed in 1999; the merged company was based in France. The merged companies focused on pharmaceuticals, divesting several businesses soon after the merger, including beauty, animal health and nutrition, custom chemicals, two medical equipment businesses.
Aventis was formed in 1999 when French company Rhône-Poulenc S. A. merged with the German corporation Hoechst Marion Roussel, which itself was formed from the 1995 merger of Hoechst AG with Cassella, Roussel Uclaf and Marion Merrell Dow. The merged company was based near Strasbourg, France. At the time of the merger, Rhône-Poulenc's business included the pharmaceutical businesses Rorer and Pasteur Merieux, the plant and animal health businesses Rhône-Poulenc Agro, Rhône-Poulenc Animal Nutrition, Merial, a 67 percent share in Rhodia, a speciality chemicals company. Hoechst, one of the companies resulting from the post-WWII split of IG Farben, had seven primary businesses: Hoechst Marion Roussel, AgrEvo, HR Vet, Dade Behring, Centeon and Messer. Merieux has been in the business of selling blood products, In the 1980s during the AIDS epidemic and other companies were involved in scandals related to HIV-contaminated haemophilia blood products that were sold to developing nations. In mid 2000 Aventis and Millennium Pharmaceuticals, a US biotechnology company formed to discover new drugs based on the then-new science of genomics, announced that Aventis would make a $250M investment in Millennium and would pay $200M to Millennium in research fees over five years, one of the largest such deals between a big pharmaceutical company and a biotech company at the time.
In late 2000, in the midst of the recall of Starlink, its genetically modified maize product, Aventis announced that it had determined to sell off Aventis Cropscience, the seed and pesticide business unit it had created from the agriculture businesses of its predecessors. In October 2001, Bayer and Aventis announced that Bayer would acquire the unit for about $6.6 billion, with the unit becoming Bayer CropScience and making Bayer the world's second-largest agrochemical company behind Syngenta. In 2003 Aventis entered into a collaboration with Regeneron, a New York biotechnology company, to develop Regeneron's VEGF-inhibiting drug, aflibercept, in the field of cancer, in Phase I clinical trials. Aventis made an upfront payment of $80 million in cash. Regeneron partnered the drug with Bayer Healthcare in the field of proliferative eye diseases, under the name Eylea it was approved by the FDA in 2011. Sanofi-Aventis was formed in 2004. In early 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo made. Aventis rejected the bid because it felt that the bid offered inferior value based on the company's share value, the board of Aventis went so far as to enact poison pill provisions and to invite Novartis to enter merger negotiations.
The three-month takeover battle concluded when Sanofi-Synthélabo launched a friendly bid of €54.5 billion in place of
Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles
Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles are small round sweets measuring about 1.5 cm in diameter. They contain fruit juice, have no artificial colours or flavours, come in five flavours: lemon, strawberry and orange. Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles originated in Fawdon, England in 1881. At Rowntree's factory in Fawdon, Tyneside in 1881, Rowntree introduced Fruit Pastilles, the product proved to be a great success, accounting for about 25 percent of the company's tonnage by 1887. Tubes of Fruit Pastilles are wrapped in foil-backed paper with a paper wrapper over the top; the paper wrapper is green in colour with "Fruit Pastilles" written along the front in large lettering. Along the bottom of the lettering there are pictures of different types of fruit all relating to the flavours within the packet, The top bears the "Rowntree's" brand name. Fruit Pastilles come in a small pack weighing 52.5 grams, containing 14 pastilles, but are available in larger bags weighing 180 grams. They are available in boxes and larger round cardboard tubes.
The 1972 television advertising campaign used the song Pistol Packin' Mama with the tag line "Pastille Pickin' Mama, pass those pastilles round". To drive awareness of the 25% fruit juice recipe in Fruit Pastilles, Rowntree conducted a 105-day experimental marketing campaign. At family events, top-end grocers and service stations they invited families to join in their'What Can You Do But Chew?' Talent shows. 427,240 product samples were distributed as brand ambassadors tried to engage parents with the'25% fruit juice' message. 93% of the consumers involved said they'd had a positive shift in brand perception, whilst more than half were'highly likely' to purchase post campaign. A more recent TV commercial shows a man about to chew on a Fruit Pastille when he is surrounded by medieval people who declare whether he'd chew the pastille or go out on a date with a fair maiden. In the end he has to chew; the commercial concludes with the message "Rowntree's Fruit Pastilles with real fruit flavour. You can't help but chew!"
A commercial from the 1980s has been revived, featuring a child daring a basketball player to not chew on a pastille. The slogan from the previous ad is still used. Joseph Rowntree Rowntree's Robert. Rowntree and the Marketing Revolution, 1862–1969. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02378-8. Official website Royal Marines chew for survival at BBC News
Caramac is the brand name for a caramel-flavoured bar, created by Mackintosh's, is now manufactured by Nestlé. It was first introduced in the United Kingdom in 1959; the name is derived from the syllabic abbreviation of Mackintosh. A similar confection is used in the covering of McVitie's Gold biscuit bar. A limited edition Caramac Kit Kat bar was released in the United Kingdom in 2005 and due to popular demand it was brought back in 2007. In 2015 a buttons version was launched; the name of the product was determined in a competition. The competition was held in what was the Norwich factory of Mackintosh's, won by Barbara Herne; the bar was made at the old Norwich factory until its closure in 1996, when production transferred to Fawdon on Tyneside, where it is still made. The bar is a pale yellow colour, is manufactured using sweetened condensed milk, various flavourings, sugar, it is packaged in an yellow wrapper. Nestlé Information about Caramac
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Fawdon Metro station
Fawdon Metro station serves the Fawdon area of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. It is on the Green line of the Tyne and Wear Metro, opened in 1981; the station is located where the Metro route crosses Fawdon Lane on an automatic open level crossing, the station platforms are located on opposite sides of the road. The inbound platform towards South Hylton is the site of the original Coxlodge station, in use between 1905 and 1929 on the Ponteland Railway. Behind it is the site of the former'Fawdon Park House' Housing Project; the Fawdon Park Centre, built in 1965 remains and is undergoing re-development. Train times and station information for Fawdon Metro station from Nexus
Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge; the town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's population in 2011 was 120,046. Part of County Durham, under the Local Government Act 1888 the town was made a county borough, meaning it was administered independently of the county council. Since 1974, the town has been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead within the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Gateshead is first mentioned in Latin translation in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People as ad caput caprae; this interpretation is consistent with the English attestations of the name, among them Gatesheued "goat's head" but in the context of a place-name meaning'headland or hill frequented by goats'.
Although other derivations have been mooted, it is this, given by the standard authorities. A Brittonic predecessor, named with the element *gabro-,'goat', may underlie the name. Gateshead might have been the Roman-British fort of Gabrosentum. There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge now stands, since Roman times; the first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable Bede who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623. In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm king of Scotland on Gateshead Fell. During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham. At this time the area was forest with some agricultural land; the forest was the subject of Gateshead's first charter, granted in the 12th century by Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham. An alternative spelling may be "Gatishevede", as seen in a legal record, dated 1430; the earliest recorded coal mining in the Gateshead area is dated to 1344.
As trade on the Tyne prospered there were several attempts by the burghers of Newcastle to annex Gateshead. In 1576 a small group of Newcastle merchants acquired the'Grand Lease' of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham. In the hundred years from 1574 coal shipments from Newcastle increased elevenfold while the population of Gateshead doubled to 5,500. However, the lease and the abundant coal supplies ended in 1680; the pits were shallow as problems of ventilation and flooding defeated attempts to mine coal from the deeper seams. William Hawks a blacksmith, started business in Gateshead in 1747, working with the iron brought to the Tyne as ballast by the Tyne colliers. Hawks and Co. became one of the biggest iron businesses in the North, producing anchors, chains and so on to meet a growing demand. There was keen contemporary rivalry between'Hawks' Blacks' and'Crowley's Crew'; the famous ` Hawks' men' including Ned White, went on to be celebrated in Geordie story. Throughout the Industrial Revolution the population of Gateshead expanded rapidly.
This expansion resulted in the spread southwards of the town. In 1854, a catastrophic explosion on the quayside destroyed most of Gateshead's medieval heritage, caused widespread damage on the Newcastle side of the river. Robert Stirling Newall took out a patent on the manufacture of wire ropes in 1840 and in partnership with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, set up his headquarters at Gateshead. A worldwide industry of wire-drawing resulted; the submarine telegraph cable received its definitive form through Newall's initiative, involving the use of gutta percha surrounded by strong wires. The first successful Dover-Calais cable on 25 September 1851, was made in Newall's works. In 1853, he invented the cone for laying cable in deep seas. Half of the first Atlantic cable was manufactured in Gateshead. Newall was interested in astronomy, his giant 25-inch telescope was set up in the garden at Ferndene, his Gateshead residence, in 1871. In 1831 a locomotive works was established by the Newcastle and Darlington Railway part of the York and Berwick Railway.
In 1854 the works moved to the Greenesfield site and became the manufacturing headquarters of North Eastern Railway. In 1909, locomotive construction was moved to Darlington and the rest of the works were closed in 1932. Sir Joseph Swan lived at Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead from 1869–83, where his experiments led to the invention of the electric light bulb; the house was the first in the world to be wired for domestic electric light. In 1870, the old town hall was built, designed by John Johnstone who designed the previously-built Newcastle town hall; the ornamental clock in front of the old town hall was presented to Gateshead in 1892 by the mayor, Walter de Lancey Willson, on the occasion of him being elected for a third time. He was one of the founders of Walter Willson's, a chain of grocers in the North East and Cumbria; the old town hall served as a magistrate's court and one of Gateshead's police stations. In 1835, Gateshead was established as a municipal borough and in 1889 it was made a county borough, independent from Durham County Council.
In the same year, one of the largest employers, Hawks and Company, closed down and unemployment has since been a burden. Up to the Second World War there were repeated newspaper reports of the unemployed sending deputations to the council to provide work; the depre
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport