Interstate 71 is a north-south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes/Midwestern and Southeastern region of the United States. Its southern terminus is at an interchange with I-64 and I-65 in Kentucky, its northern terminus is at an interchange with I-90 in Ohio. I-71 runs concurrently with I-75 from a point about 20 miles south of Cincinnati, into downtown Cincinnati. Three-quarters of the route lies east of I-75, thereby putting it out of its proper place in the Interstate grid. While I-71 is designated a north–south highway, it is a major east–west route for cross-country traffic, it links I-80 and I-90 to I-70, links to I-40. The highway goes through the states of Kentucky and Ohio and the metropolitan areas of Louisville, Cincinnati and Cleveland. In Kentucky, I-71 begins east of Downtown Louisville at the Kennedy Interchange, where it meets I-64 and I-65; this interchange is sometimes called the "Spaghetti Junction". From Louisville, it follows the Ohio River in a diagonal path toward Northern Kentucky.
Between Louisville and Cincinnati, I-71 is a four-lane highway, except for the approach to Kentucky Speedway in Sparta in which it runs three lanes each way for about 2 miles. Near the town of Carrollton, there are signs marking the location of a tragic accident that occurred on May 14, 1988, when a drunk driver crossed the median and struck a church bus full of children and teenagers, causing the bus' fuel tank to ignite into flames and killing 27 people on board, it is one of the worst bus accidents in state and national history. After having run 77 miles from Louisville, I-71 merges with Interstate 75 near Walton after which it intersects Interstate 275, the Cincinnati beltway. After passing through Covington, the freeway crosses the Ohio River via the lower level of the Brent Spence Bridge and continues into Cincinnati. In Cincinnati, I-71 splits from I-75 and heads due east onto Fort Washington Way, where it continues through downtown Cincinnati concurrently with US-50 for less than a mile.
Just east of downtown, US-50 continues east. I-71 heads in a general northeast direction through urban Cincinnati and into its surrounding suburbs. After another interchange with the Interstate 275 beltway, the freeway leaves the metropolitan area and heads towards Columbus, it continues northeast until it reaches South Lebanon, where it begins cutting east across the flat plains of southwest Ohio. The freeway crosses the Little Miami River on the Jeremiah Morrow Bridge, a continuous truss bridge and the tallest bridge in Ohio at 239 feet above the river. I-71 heads towards Columbus intersects with the bypass I-270 before heading north into urban Columbus, where it junctions I-70. About a mile north of the I-70 junction, it intersects with I-670. After another interchange with the I-270 bypass, the highway exits out of Columbus and continues north until near Delaware, where it again turns northeast. Beginning its path to Cleveland, I-71 enters the rolling farm country on the edges of the Allegheny Plateau.
It continues in this fashion to Lodi/Westfield Center and its junction with I-76, which provides access to Akron. Heading north to Medina, it meets the terminus of I-271; the highway continues north into urban Cuyahoga County and Cleveland's suburbs, intersecting the Ohio Turnpike/I-80. Passing Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, I-71 meets I-480 and enters Cleveland's west side, continuing on to downtown, it junctions with terminates at Interstate 90 on the Innerbelt. The first section of I-71 in Louisville opened in December 1966 between its terminus at Spaghetti Junction and Zorn Avenue, its first exit, its junction with I-264 opened in July 1968, the complete Kentucky portion of the interstate was opened to the public in July 1969. At that point, it replaced U. S. Route 42 as the primary link between Louisville. Much of Interstate 71 in Ohio was intended to be State Route 1. State Route 1 was planned in the 1950s as a second Ohio Turnpike extending southwest to northeast across the state.
It was planned to run from Cincinnati to Conneaut and connect with an extension built across the panhandle of Pennsylvania to the New York State Thruway. As the highway was being planned, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 was enacted, the project was converted from a toll road to a freeway, it was designated as State Route 1, since the Interstate Highway numbering system had not yet been implemented. Portions of the freeway began to be completed and opened in 1959 with the new Interstate Highway funding, they were marked as State Route 1 as well as with their new Interstate Highway number. Since large gaps existed along the corridor where no freeway had yet been completed, existing two-lane or four-lane highways were designated as State Route 1 in order to complete the route; the State Route 1 signage was removed in 1966 as the Interstate Highway numbers adequately marked the route by and the state highway numbering was superfluous. In Columbus, the portion of Interstate 71 that bounds Worthington's eastern edge was called the North Freeway.
Costing US$13.8 million, it was constructed south from Route 161, arriving at 11th Avenue by August 1961. It took another year to construct the portion between 11th Avenue and 5th Avenue due to the need to construct a massive underpass under the Pennsylvania Railroad's Grogan Yard. Today, only two tracks cross the viaduct, the rest of the structure supports a large, weedy field. By August 1962, the freeway
U.S. Route 22
U. S. Route 22 is a west–east route and is one of the original United States highways of 1926, running from Cincinnati, Ohio, at US 27, US 42, US 127, US 52 to Newark, New Jersey, at U. S. Route 1/9 in the Newark Airport Interchange. US 22 is named the "William Penn Highway" throughout most of Pennsylvania. In southwest Ohio, it overlaps with State Route 3 and is familiarly known as the 3C Highway, "22 and 3", Montgomery Road. A section of US 22 in Pennsylvania between New Alexandria at U. S. Route 119 and Harrisburg at Interstate 81 has been designated a part of Corridor M of the Appalachian Development Highway System. US 22 has its westernmost end-point in downtown Cincinnati—however, its eastbound and westbound end-points are not at the same intersection. US 22 Eastbound begins on Central Avenue at 5th Street proceeds north, turning east onto 7th Street. Meanwhile, US 22 Westbound follows 9th Street and ends at Central Avenue. From downtown Cincinnati to Washington Court House, US 22 follows the historic 3C Highway which connected Cincinnati and Cleveland.
This section is concurrent with State Route 3. At Washington Court House, SR 3 and US 22 diverge. US 22 continues to the east through Circleville to Lancaster. From Lancaster to Zanesville, US 22 follows the route of Zane's Trace, an early pioneer road blazed by Colonel Ebenezer Zane beginning in 1796. Starting just west of Cadiz, US 22 becomes a limited-access expressway for the remainder of its 30-some miles in Ohio as it approaches and enters the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, it junctions with State Route 7 for a mile along the Ohio River shoreline in Steubenville. Known as the Robert C. Byrd Expressway, the expressway route that began 30 miles to the west near Cadiz, Ohio continues for five miles within the state of West Virginia as it approaches more population density within the Pittsburgh metro area. US 22 travels through or borders the city of Weirton for its entire length in West Virginia, from the Ohio state line over the Ohio River, to the Pennsylvania state line. US 22 enters Pennsylvania as a limited-access highway connecting Weirton, West Virginia, Steubenville, with Pittsburgh.
Through much of the Pittsburgh area, it multiplexes with Interstate 376 and US 30. US 30 merges with US 22 near Imperial and Pittsburgh International Airport, both highways merge with Interstate 376 in Robinson Township. Together, these three highways form a limited-access multiplex through the city of Pittsburgh. US 30 splits from Interstate 376 and US 22 in Wilkinsburg, the I-376/US 22 concurrency continues to the Pennsylvania Turnpike in Monroeville, where I-376 ends. East of Interstate 376, US 22 continues east as a primary arterial highway between Pittsburgh and major population centers in central Pennsylvania, such as Johnstown, State College, Huntingdon and Lewistown; the entire length between Pittsburgh and US 220 and Interstate 99 just west of Altoona was widened to at least four lanes by summer 2011. US 22 in eastern Pennsylvania is a four lane limited-access expressway between Easton and Interstate 78 to the west; the original designation for this expressway was to be Interstate 78, but local opposition to a freeway in Phillipsburg, along with substandard conditions at Easton, forced federal highway officials to relocate Interstate 78 south of Allentown, Bethlehem and Phillipsburg.
U. S. 22 crosses the Delaware River on the Easton–Phillipsburg Toll Bridge. US 22 between eight miles east of Interstate 81 to Allentown is concurrent with Interstate 78. Former highway alignments of US 22 that parallel this section are collectively known as the "Hex Highway", so called because of the Berks County-based Pennsylvania Dutch families that hang hex signs on their barns. U. S. Route 22 in New Jersey predates, was replaced by, Interstate 78 as it was built between 1956 and 1989, shares designation with I-78 from exit 3 to exit 18. US 22 was an expressway in some segments, including the area around Clinton, it connects Phillipsburg with Newark in New Jersey. US 22 has one major interchange besides I-78, that being Interstate 287, although it is not a full interchange, with two missing movements: US 22 eastbound to I-287 northbound and I-287 southbound to US 22 westbound. One of two level crossing of the highway happens in Union County in the Union Township section of the highway, it once belonged to the Rahway Valley Railroad.
US 22 is one of the original U. S. Routes, though in the 1925 plan it was to terminate in Cleveland, entering Ohio on modern U. S. Route 422. In the finalized 1926 plan, it followed the current course to U. S. Route 40. In 1932, it had been extended to Cincinnati as it is replacing Ohio State Route 10 and following preexisting State Route 3. Before the Byrd Expressway, West Virginia's segment of U. S. 22 ran from Pennsylvania Avenue at the PA/WV state line to Main St. left on Main St. through downtown Weirton, right on Freedom Way to the Fort Steuben Bridge and Ohio River to Steubenville, Ohio. An "Alternate U. S. 22" route ran along Cove Road from Pennsylvania Avenue to the intersection of Harmon Creek Road and the continuation of Cove Road
Washington Court House, Ohio
Washington Court House is a city in Fayette County, United States. It is located between Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio; the population was 14,192 in 2010 at the 2010 census. Until 2002, the official name of the city was City of Washington, but there existed a municipality in Guernsey County, Ohio with the name Washington; the area was settled by Virginia war veterans who received the land from the government as payment for their service in the American Revolution. In 2002, a new charter was adopted changing the name to the "City of Washington Court House"; the name is abbreviated as "Washington C. H." The city has always been named the City of Washington Court House, but for local government, they went by the City of Washington for contracting and governmental purposes. When council decided to change to a charter form of government, which allowed more self-rule, they decided to change the name to match how it was named. Part of it was to alleviate any confusion with other entities in the Postal Service.
Washington C. H. has an unusual street grid layout. Street grids are arranged east-west and north-south in the Midwest. In this case, the streets in the downtown area, centering on the courthouse building, are arranged northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast; this was done so that all four sides of the courthouse building would receive some sunlight every day of the year. In the traditional grid system, the north side of a building never receives direct sunlight during the winter. Washington Court House's first settlers appear to have been Edward Smith, Sr. and his family, who emigrated from Pennsylvania in 1810. Smith and his family constructed a crude house in the thick woodlands near Paint Creek, but their efforts to clear the land were interrupted by his departure for military service in the War of 1812. Comparatively soon after returning from his martial pursuits, Smith drowned while attempting to cross a flooded creek, but his widow and 10 children survived and prospered despite the absence of their patriarch.
Smith's descendents remained prominent in Fayette County for more than a century after his arrival from Pennsylvania, although many had left Washington Court House for other parts of the county. A family residence still stands on U. S. Route 62 not far outside the city's eastern boundary. In 1833, Washington Court House contained a printing office, seven stores, two taverns, two groceries, a schoolhouse, a meeting house, about 70 residential houses. Numerous locations in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Downtown, the courthouse square has been named a historic district, a similar designation has been accorded the city cemetery. Nine individual buildings are separately listed on the register: Judy Chapel at the cemetery, the former Washington School, the Fayette County Courthouse, the former William Burnett House, the Barney Kelley, Jacob Light, Rawlings-Brownell, Robinson-Pavey, Morris Sharp houses. On October 16, 1894, a crowd gathered outside the Fayette County Courthouse with intent to lynch convicted rapist William "Jasper" Dolby.
Ohio Governor William McKinley called out the militia to subdue the crowd. On October 17, the crowd rushed the courthouse doors and was warned to "disperse or be fired upon." They continued to batter the doors. Colonel Alonzo B. Coit ordered his troops to fire through the courthouse doors. Colonel Coit was acquitted at trial. After the trial, Governor McKinley stated, "The law was upheld as it should have been... but in this case at fearful cost... Lynching cannot be tolerated in Ohio." The courthouse doors were not repaired or replaced and the bullet holes from the 1894 riot are still present in the southeast doors. Washington Court House is located at 39°32′11″N 83°26′8″W, along Paint Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.80 square miles, of which 8.74 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is covered by water. As of the census of 2010, there were 14,192 people, 5,762 households, 3,628 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,623.8 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 6,433 housing units at an average density of 736.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 2.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 5,762 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.0% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 25% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,524 people, 5,483 households, 3,536 families residing in the city; the population density was 810.8/km².
There were 5,961 housing units at an average density of 357.4/km². The racial makeup of the city was 94.52% White, 2.71% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.82% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from other races
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Ohio's 10th congressional district
Ohio's 10th congressional district is represented by Representative Mike Turner. The district is based in southwestern Ohio and consists of Montgomery and Fayette counties; the following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent. Ohio's 10th congressional district Democratic primary election 2008 Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census