Alma Redemptoris Mater
Alma Redemptoris Mater is a Marian hymn, written in Latin hexameter, one of four seasonal liturgical Marian antiphons sung at the end of the office of Compline. Hermannus Contractus is said to have authored the hymn based on the writings of Saints Fulgentius and Irenaeus of Lyon, it is mentioned in one of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. It was recited at the end of the canonical hours only from the first Sunday in Advent until the Feast of the Purification, it was translated into English by John Henry Newman in "Tracts for the Times", No. 75. Alma Redemptóris Mater, quæ pérvia cæli Porta manes, et stella maris, succúrre cadénti, Súrgere qui curat pópulo: tu quæ genuísti, Natúra miránte, tuum sanctum Genitórem Virgo prius ac postérius, Gabriélis ab ore Sumens illud Ave, peccatórum miserére. Depending on the period, the following combinations of a versicle and collect are added. From the first Sunday of Advent until Christmas Eve, the collect from the Fourth Sunday of Advent is used, thereafter until the Feast of the Presentation, the collect from Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God, is used.
The first collect is notably used in Masses during Advent, is the same prayer that concludes the Angelus. ℣. Ángelus Dómini nuntiávit Maríæ ℟. Et concépit de Spíritu Sancto. Oremus Grátiam tuam quáesumus, Dómine, méntibus nostris infúnde. Per eúmdem Christum Dóminum nostrum. ℟. Amen. ℣. Post Partum Virgo invioláta permansísti. ℟. Dei Génitrix, intercéde pro nobis. Orémus Deus, qui salútis ætérnæ beátæ Maríæ virginitáte fecúnda humáno géneri práemia præstitísti: tríbue, quáesumus, ut ipsam pro nobis intercédere sentiámus, per quam merúimus, Auctórem vitæ suscípere Dóminum nostrum Jesum Christum Fílium tuum. ℟. Amen. Mother of Christ! Hear thou thy people's cry, Star of the deep, portal of the sky! Mother of Him Who thee from nothing made, Sinking we call to thee for aid. ℣. The Angel of the LORD brought tidings unto Mary ℟, and she conceived by the Holy Ghost. Let us pray. Pour forth we beseech Thee, O LORD, Thy grace into our hearts, that we to whom the Incarnation of Christ, Thy Son, was made known by the message of an Angel, may, by His Passion and Cross, be brought to the glory of His Resurrection.
Through the same Christ, our Lord. ℟. Amen. ℣. After childbirth, O Virgin, thou didst remain inviolate. ℟. Intercede for us, O Mother of God. Let us pray. O God, Who by the fruitful virginity of blessed Mary, hast given to mankind the rewards of eternal salvation: grant, we beseech Thee, that we may experience her intercession for us, through whom we deserved to receive the Author of life, our Lord Jesus Christ, thy Son. ℟. Amen. Loving mother of the Redeemer, gate of heaven, star of the sea, assist your people who have fallen yet strive to rise again, To the wonderment of nature you bore your Creator, yet remained a virgin after as before, You who received Gabriel's joyful greeting, have pity on us poor sinners; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Alma Redemptoris Mater". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Our Lady of Sorrows
Our Lady of Sorrows, Our Lady of Dolours, the Sorrowful Mother or Mother of Sorrows, Our Lady of Piety, Our Lady of the Seven Sorrows or Our Lady of the Seven Dolours are names by which the Virgin Mary is referred to in relation to sorrows in her life. As Mater Dolorosa, it is a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church; the Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion. In common religious Catholic imagery, the Virgin Mary is portrayed in a sorrowful and lacrimating affect, with seven long knives or daggers piercing her heart bleeding. Devotional prayers that consist of meditation began to elaborate on her Seven Sorrows based on the prophecy of Simeon. Common examples of piety under this title are Servite rosary, or the Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady and the Seven Joys of Mary and more "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary"; the feast of Our Lady of Sorrows is liturgically celebrated every 15 September, while a feast of Friday of Sorrows is observed in some Catholic countries.
The Seven Sorrows are events in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary that are a popular devotion and are depicted in art. These Seven Sorrows should not be confused with the five Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary; the Prophecy of Simeon. The escape and Flight into Egypt; the Loss of the Child Jesus in the Temple of Jerusalem. The Meeting of Mary and Jesus on the Via Dolorosa; the Crucifixion of Jesus on Mount Calvary. The Piercing of the Side of Jesus with a spear, His Descent from the Cross; the Burial of Jesus by Joseph of Arimathea. It is a common practice for Catholics to say daily one Our Father and seven Hail Marys for each. Earlier, in 1232, seven youths in Tuscany founded the Servite Order. Five years they took up the sorrows of Mary, standing under the Cross, as the principal devotion of their order. Over the centuries several devotions, orders, arose around meditation on Mary's Sorrows in particular; the Servites developed the three most common devotions to Our Lady's Sorrows, namely the Rosary of the Seven Sorrows, the Black Scapular of the Seven Dolours of Mary and the Novena to Our Sorrowful Mother.
The Black Scapular is a symbol of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Sorrows, associated with the Servite Order. Most devotional scapulars have requirements regarding design; the devotion of the Black Scapular requires. From the National Shrine of Saint Peregrine spread the Sorrowful Mother Novena, the core of, the Via Matris. On February 2, the same day as the Great Feast of the Meeting of the Lord, Orthodox Christians and Eastern Catholics commemorate a wonder-working icon of the Theotokos known as "the Softening of Evil Hearts" or "Simeon's Prophecy", it depicts the Virgin Mary at the moment that Simeon the Righteous says, "Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also....". She stands with her hands upraised in prayer, seven swords pierce her heart, indicative of the seven sorrows; this is one of the few Orthodox icons of the Theotokos. The refrain "Rejoice, much-sorrowing Mother of God, turn our sorrows into joy and soften the hearts of evil men!" is used. The Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows grew in popularity in the 12th century, although under various titles.
Some writings would place its roots in the eleventh century among the Benedictine monks. The first altar to the Mater Dolorosa was set up in 1221 at the Cistercian monastery of Schönau; the formal feast of the Our Lady of Sorrows was originated by a provincial synod of Cologne in 1423. It was designated for the Friday after the third Sunday after Easter and had the title: Commemoratio angustiae et doloris B. Mariae V, its object was the sorrow of Mary during the Death of Christ. Before the sixteenth century this feast was limited to the dioceses of North Germany and Scotland. According to Fr. William Saunders, "... in 1482, the feast was placed in the Roman Missal under the title of Our Lady of Compassion, highlighting the great love our Blessed Mother displayed in suffering with her Son. The word compassion derives from the Latin roots cum and patior which means "to suffer with". After 1600 it was set for the Friday before Palm Sunday. By a Decree of 22 April 1727, Pope Benedict XIII extended it to the entire Latin Church, under the title "Septem dolorum B.
M. V.". In 1954, it still held the rank of major double in the General Roman Calendar. Pope John XXIII's 1960 Code of Rubrics reduced it to the level of a commemoration. In 1668 a second, separate feast was granted for the third Sunday in September, its object of the seven dolours of Mary. By inserting the feast into the General Roman Calendar in 1814, Pope Pius VII extended the celebration to the whole of the Latin Church, it was assigned to the third Sunday in September. In 1913, Pope Pius X moved the feast to the day after the Feast of the Cross, it is still observed on that date. In 1969 the Passion Week celebration was removed from the General Roman Calendar as a duplicate of the feast on 15 September; each of the two celebrations had been called a feast of "The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary" and included recitation of the Stabat Mater as a sequence. Since the 15 September feast that combines and continues both is known as the Feast of "Our Lady of Sorrows" (Latin: Beatae Mariae Virginis
The Salve Regina known as the Hail Holy Queen, is a Marian hymn and one of four Marian antiphons sung at different seasons within the Christian liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church. The Salve Regina is traditionally sung at Compline in the time from the Saturday before Trinity Sunday until the Friday before the first Sunday of Advent; the Hail Holy Queen is the final prayer of the Rosary. The work was composed during the Middle Ages and appeared in Latin, the prevalent language of Western Christianity until modern times. Though traditionally ascribed to the eleventh-century German monk Hermann of Reichenau, it is regarded as anonymous by most musicologists. Traditionally it has been sung in Latin; these are used as spoken prayers. Marian antiphons have been sung, since the thirteenth century, at the close of Compline, the last Office of the day. Peter Canisius noted. Liturgically, the Salve Regina is the best known of four prescribed Marian Anthems recited after Compline, and, in some uses, after Lauds or other Hours.
Its use after Compline is traceable to the monastic practice of intoning it in chapel and chanting it on the way to sleeping quarters. It was set down in its current form at the Abbey of Cluny in the 12th century, where it was used as a processional hymn on Marian feasts; the Cistercians chanted the Salve Regina daily from 1218. It was popular at medieval universities as evening song, according to Fr. Juniper Carol, it came to be part of the ritual for the blessing of a ship. While the anthem figured in liturgical and in general popular Catholic devotion, it was dear to sailors. In the 18th century, the Salve Regina served as the outline for the classic Roman Catholic Mariology book The Glories of Mary by Alphonsus Liguori. In the first part of the book Alphonsus, a Doctor of the Church, discusses the Salve Regina and explains how God gave Mary to mankind as the "Gate of Heaven", it was added to the series of prayers said at the end of Low Mass by Pope Leo XIII. The Salve Regina is traditionally sung at the end of a priest's funeral Mass by the decedent's fellow priests in attendance.
As a prayer, it is said at the end of the rosary. Salve, Mater misericordiæ, dulcedo, et spes nostra, salve. Ad te clamamus exsules Ad te suspiramus, gementes et flentes in hac lacrimarum valle. Eia, advocata nostra, illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos converte. O clemens, O pia, O dulcis Virgo Maria. In some cases, the following versicle and collect are added: ℣ Ora pro nobis, sancta Dei Genitrix. ℟ Ut digni efficiamur promissionibus Christi. Oremus. Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, qui gloriosæ Virginis Matris Mariæ corpus et animam, ut dignum Filii tui habitaculum effici mereretur, Spiritu Sancto cooperante præparasti: da, ut cuius commemoratione lætamur. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum.℟ Amen. Variations exist among most translations. Traditional English Translation: Hail, holy Queen, Mother of Mercy, Hail our life, our sweetness and our hope. To thee do we cry, Poor banished children of Eve. Turn most gracious advocate, Thine eyes of mercy toward us. O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.℣ Pray for us, O holy Mother of God, ℟ that we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.
Let us pray: Almighty, everlasting God, who by the co-operation of the Holy Spirit didst prepare the body and soul of the glorious Virgin-Mother Mary to become a dwelling-place meet for thy Son: grant that as we rejoice in her commemoration. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen; the Salve Regina was one of the Leonine Prayers, in which context the collect at the end was replaced by different text:Let us pray: O God, our refuge and our strength, look down with mercy upon the people who cry to Thee. Through the same Christ Our Lord. Amen; the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has a more modern translation: Hail, holy Queen, mother of mercy, Hail our life, our sweetness, our hope. To you we cry, poor banished children of Eve. Turn most gracious advocate, your eyes of mercy toward us. O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary. V. Pray for us, O holy Mother of God. R; that we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ. Let us pray: O God, whose Only Begotten Son, by his life and Resurrection, has purchased for us the rewards of eternal life, grant, we beseech thee, that while meditating on these mysteries of the most holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we may imitate what they contain and obtain what they promise, through the same Christ our Lord.
Amen. The Divine Office offers the following hymn as an alternative to the Latin: Hail, our Queen and Mother blest! Joy
Catholic Marian movements and societies
Catholic Marian movements and societies have developed from the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary by members of the Catholic Church. These societies form part of the fabric of Mariology in the Catholic Church. Popular membership in Marian organizations grew in the 20th century, as apparitions such as Our Lady of Fátima gave rise to societies with millions of members, today many Marian societies exist around the world; this article reviews organizations. The Sodality of Our Lady was formed in 1563 in Rome by members of the Society of Jesus and has remained the official Marian society of the Holy See for centuries. In 1584, Pope Gregory XIII issued a Papal Bull commending this Sodality, granting it indulgences and establishing it as the mother Sodality; the Bull Gloriosae Dominae of Pope Benedict XIV increased the privileges of the sodality and the 1948 Apostolic Constitution Bis Saeculari of Pope Pius XII summarized the historical and contemporary relevance of the sodality. Over several centuries the organization listed many saints, several popes and various royal figures as members.
Until the Second Vatican Council in 1965, the Sodality of Our Lady or the Children of Mary as it was known, was a well-known part of the life of Catholic Communities worldwide. After the Second Vatican Council, many sodalities were transformed by the Jesuits, who redirected their policies towards social concern. Since the number of active sodalities has dwindled, as other Marian organizations have grown. Known as the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, this is a community of more than 500 Roman Catholic priests and brothers in 19 countries on 6 continents, they are a religious pledge support to the Pope. Their aim is to spread devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary as the Immaculate Conception, pray for the souls in purgatory and undertake a variety of apostolic work. Marians were the first Catholic men’s religious institute dedicated to the honor of Mary’s Immaculate Conception; the organization was formed in 1673 by Saint Stanislaus Papczyński.
Pope Innocent XII granted his approval for the institute in 1699 with solemn vows under the French Rule of the Ten Virtues of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Over the next 200 years, the institute was caught up in the wars and turmoil in Europe and was saved in 1909 by Blessed George Matulaitis-Matulewicz who as a youth had been brought up in a village where Marians staffed the local parish; the experience had left him with a lifelong admiration for the Marian Fathers. The new Constitutions for the institute were approved by Pope Pius X in 1910, it grew thereafter. Although it is now an international organization, the Marians still have strong roots in Poland, place a great deal of emphasis on spreading the messages of Divine Mercy of Saint Faustina Kowalska, their role in spreading the Divine Mercy message was acknowledged by Pope John Paul II in a Papal Blessing in 2001, the 70th anniversary of the revelation of the Divine Mercy Message and Devotion. Marian Fathers are well known as Official promoters of the authentic Divine Mercy message since 1941.
The Company of Mary called the Montfort Missionaries is the earliest Marian society based on the influence of Saint Louis de Montfort. The organization was formed in 1705 by Saint Louis himself with just one missionary disciple, Mathurin Rangeard. Five months after his ordination, in November 1700, St Louis wrote: "I am continually asking in my prayers for a poor and small company of good priests to preach missions and retreats under the standard and protection of the Blessed Virgin". During the intervals between his missions Montfort wrote the Rule of the Company of Mary. After he died in 1716, two young priests and sometime collaborators, Father Adrien Vatel and Father Rene Mulot continued his mission. From 1718 till 1781 the "Mulotins", although few in number, gave over 430 missions throughout western France, most of which lasted a month. After the French Revolution Montfort's community was reorganized by Father Gabriel Deshayes, elected superior general in 1821, he received from Pope Leo XII a brief of praise for the Company of Mary and for the Daughters of Wisdom, formed by de Montfort with the help of Blessed Marie Louise Trichet.
The company has since grown to an international congregation of missionary priests and brothers serving in nearly 30 countries and numbering near 1,000 men. The Marianists called the Society of Mary was founded in 1801 by Blessed William Joseph Chaminade, a priest who survived the persecutions of Catholics during the French Revolution. There are 500 priests and over 1,500 religious in the organization; the Society is one of the four branches of the Marianist Family. Along with the other branches, the Marianist Brothers and Priests look to Mary as a model for faith and spirituality, they feel that the best ways to live a spiritual life are to share their faith with others, work with the poor, educate and nourish the mind, the body, the soul. Marianists can be classified as priests, teaching brothers, or working brothers, regardless of classification, most members of the institute work in schools or programs for young people. In all of their educational institutions, the Characteristics of Marianist Education guide the curriculum.
The society has many affiliated organizations, such as: the Daughters of Mary Immaculate and the Marian Alliance. The society has branches on every continent; the Marists were founded by Father Jean-Claude Colin and a group of other seminarians in France in 1816. Jean-Claude Courveille had the original insight for the congregation but it was broug
Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima
The Blue Army of Our Lady of Fátima, now known as the World Apostolate of Fátima, is a public international association of the Christian faithful that has as its general purpose "the promotion of the authentic teaching of the Roman Catholic Church and the strict adherence to the tenets of the Gospel. The Blue Army was founded in 1946 by Rev. Fr. Harold V. Colgan, parish priest of St. Mary of Plainfield, New Jersey. Father Colgan had fallen ill and was hospitalized. During his illness he prayed to Our Lady of Fátima that if she should cure him he would spend the rest of his life spreading devotion to her, he attributed his recovery to his prayers and began preaching to his congregation on a regular basis about the Virgin Mary. He summed up the message of Our Lady's apparition as this: Devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Daily recitation of the Rosary and Righteous observance of the duties of one's state of life, his message was successful. The first was a signed promise that one would try to uphold these values and the second was to wear a blue ribbon or blue medal in order to remember the promise.
This was a success and the congregation all enrolled. It was that Fr. Colgan began to think about extending this to other nations, thus was born the Blue Army, from Colgan's own words: "We will be the Blue army of Mary and Christ, against the red of the world and of Satan." Fr. Colgan began preaching his message and gained success with the assistance of writer John Haffert who began delivering conferences on the message of Fátima and the Blue Army. Colgan went to the Vatican in May 1947 to meet Pius XII in order to present his project for approval from the Pontiff; the foundation of the International Blue Army took place at the House of Pontevedra, where Mary is said to have appeared to request Communion of Reparation every First Saturday. There are over 20 million members; the World Apostolate of Fátima has its world headquarters in the Domus Pacis, a pilgrim guest house in Fátima, Portugal. While the Blue Army was founded in 1947, because of its rapid spread around the world, it became necessary to erect a new society.
The Decree of Erection of the World Apostolate of Fatima was signed on 7 October, 2005. On 3 February 2006, the World Apostolate of Fátima held an official ceremony for the consignment of the decree and the approval of its statutes at the Pontifical Council for the Laity in Rome; the Apostolate is broken up into prayer cells. These cells fall under state and national Apostolate centers which in turn are subordinate to the International Secretariat based at Fátima in the Domus Pacis; the International Secretariat exists in order to coordinate the activities of the organization throughout the world and to carry out the policy decisions of the Board of Trustees, an elected group of nine members of the Apostolate who represent various regional centers of the Apostolate. They meet. Membership in its most basic sense is through making a Pledge promising the following: To offer up every day the sacrifices demanded by one's daily duty to the faithful observance of God's law To say five decades of the Rosary daily while meditating on the mysteries To wear the brown scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel as a sign and reminder of personal consecration to Our Lady and On the first Saturday of five consecutive months, with the intention of making reparation to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and receive Holy Communion, recite five decades of the Rosary, keep company with Our Lady for fifteen minutes while meditating on the mysteries of the Rosary.
The official pledge of membership is: I pledge myself to Our Lady and wish, thereby, to join the World Apostolate of Fátima. Dear Queen and Mother, who promised at Fátima to convert Russia and bring peace to all mankind, in reparation for my sins and the sins of the whole world, I solemnly promise to Your Immaculate Heart: To offer up every day the sacrifices demanded by my daily duty To pray at least five decades of the Rosary daily while meditating on the Mysteries To wear the Scapular of Mount Carmel as profession of this promise and as an act of consecration to You, To accomplish the devotion of the Five First Saturdays of the month, including the fifteen-minute meditation on the Mysteries of the Rosary. I shall renew this promise especially in moments of temptation; the daily offering mentioned, is traditionally the following: O my God in union with the Immaculate Heart of Mary. I offer Thee the Precious Blood of Jesus from all the altars throughout the world, joining with it the offering of my every thought and action of this day.
O my Jesus, I desire today to gain every indulgence and merit I can and I offer them, together with myself, to Mary Immaculate – that She may best apply them to the interests of Thy Most Sacred Heart. Precious Blood of Jesus, save us! Immaculate Heart of Mary, pray for us! Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on us! Thus are delineated the primary devotions of the World Apostolate; these are the devotions mandated by the Blessed Virgin Mary during the Apparitions at Fátima. Traditionally this pledge is printed, signed by the person who desires membership, it is traditional that this signed pledge is sent to the international headquarters in Fátima where it is taken and b
Es ist ein Ros entsprungen
"Es ist ein Ros entsprungen", is a Christmas carol and Marian Hymn of German origin. It is most translated in English as "Lo, how a rose e'er blooming", is sometimes known as "A Spotless Rose"; the rose in the text is a symbolic reference to the Virgin Mary, the hymn makes reference to the Old Testament prophecies of Isaiah which in Christian interpretation foretell the Incarnation of Christ, to the Tree of Jesse, a traditional symbol of the lineage of Jesus. Because of its prophetic theme, the song is popular during the Christian season of Advent; the hymn has its roots in an unknown author prior to the 17th century. It first appeared in print in 1599 and has since been published with a varying number of verses and in several different translations, it is most sung to a melody, harmonized by the German composer Michael Praetorius in 1609. The song's popularity endures today; the hymn was written with two verses, which express the fulfilment of the prophecy of Isaiah, foretelling the birth of Jesus.
It emphasises the royal genealogy of Christian messianic prophecies. The first verse describes a rose sprouting from the stem of the Tree of Jesse, a symbolic device that depicts the descent of Jesus from Jesse of Bethlehem, the father of King David; the image was popular in medieval times and it features in many works of religious art from the period. It has its origin in the Book of Isaiah: And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, a Branch shall grow out of his roots The second verse of the hymns, written in the first person explains to the listener the meaning of this symbolism: that Mary, the mother of Jesus, is the rose that has sprung up to bring forth a child, represented as a small flower; the text affirms that Mary is a "pure maiden", emphasising the doctrine of the Virgin birth of Jesus. Since the 19th century other verses have been added, in translation; the poetry of Isaiah's prophecy has featured in Christian hymns since at least the 8th century, when Cosmas the Melodist wrote a hymn about the Virgin Mary flowering from the Root of Jesse, "Ραβδος εκ της ριζης", translated in 1862 by John Mason Neale as "Rod of the Root of Jesse".
The text of the German hymn "Es ist ein Ros entsprungen" dates from the 15th century and is by an anonymous author. Its earliest source is in a manuscript from the Carthusian Monastery of St Alban at Trier, Germany — now preserved in the Trier City Library — and it is thought to have been in use at the time of Martin Luther; the hymn first appeared in print in the late 16th century in the Speyer Hymnbook. The hymn has been used by both Catholics and Protestants, with the focus of the song being Mary or Jesus, respectively. In addition, there have been numerous versions of the hymn, with lengths. In 1844, the German hymnologist Friedrich Layriz added three more stanzas, the first of which, "Das Blümelein so kleine", remained popular and has been included in Catholic and Protestant hymnals. During the Nazi era, many German Christmas carols were rewritten to promote National Socialist ideology and to excise references to the Jewish origins of Jesus. During Christmas in Nazi Germany, "Es ist ein Ros entsprungen" was rewritten as "Uns ist ein Licht erstanden/in einer dunklen Winternacht", with a secularised text evoking sunlight falling on the Fatherland and extolling the virtues of motherhood.
The tune most familiar today appeared in the Speyer Hymnal, the familiar harmonization was written by German composer Michael Praetorius in 1609. A canon version for four voices exists, based on Praetorius's harmony and sometimes attributed to his contemporary, Melchior Vulpius; the metre of the hymn is 76.76.676. In 1896, Johannes Brahms used the tune as the base for a chorale prelude for organ, one of his 11 Chorale Preludes Op.122 transcribed for orchestra by Erich Leinsdorf. In the modern era, the melody has been used by a number of composers, including Hugo Distler who used it as the base for his 1933 oratorio Die Weihnachtsgeschichte. Arnold Schoenberg's Weihnachtsmusik for two violins, cello and harmonium is a short fantasy on Es ist ein Ros entsprungen with Stille Nacht as a contrapuntal melody. In 1990, Jan Sandström wrote Es ist ein Ros entsprungen for two a cappella choirs, which incorporates the setting of Praetorius in choir one. Well-known versions of the hymn have been published in various English translations.
Theodore Baker's "Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming" was written in 1894 and appears in the Psalter Hymnal and The United Methodist Hymnal. The British hymn translator Catherine Winkworth translated the first two verses of the hymn as "A Spotless Rose", in 1919 the British composer Herbert Howells set this text as an SATB anthem. Considered to be one of Howells’s most well-known works, A Spotless Rose is noted for its skillful use of harmony. Winkworth's translation was again set to music in 2002 by the British composer and academic Sir Philip Ledger. Another Christmas hymn, "A Great and Mighty Wonder", is set to the same tune as this carol and may sometimes be confused with it, it is, however, a hymn by St. Germanus, translated from Greek to English by John M. Neale in 1862. Versions of the German lyrics have been mixed with Neale's translation of a Greek hymn in subsequent versions such as Per
Sub tuum praesidium
"Beneath Thy Protection" is a Christian hymn. It is the oldest preserved extant hymn to the Blessed Virgin Mary as Theotokos; the hymn is well known in many Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox countries, is a favourite song used along with Salve Regina. The earliest text of this hymn was found in a Coptic Orthodox Christmas liturgy; the papyrus records the hymn in Greek, dated to the 3rd century by papyrologist E. Lobel and by scholar C. H. Roberts to the 4th century. According to scholar Serafim Seppälä "there are no determinate theological or philological reasons to reject the 3rd century dating."The hymn is used in the Coptic liturgy to this day, as well as in the Armenian, Byzantine and Roman Rite liturgies. It was part of Sulpician custom. Besides the Greek text, ancient versions can be found in Coptic, Syriac and Latin. Henri de Villiers finds in the term "blessed" a reference to the salutation by Elizabeth in Luke 1:42. "Praesidium" is translated as "an assistance given in time of war by fresh troops in a strong manner."The former medieval and post-medieval practice in several dioceses in France, was to use the Sub tuum as the final antiphon at Compline instead of the Salve Regina and in the Rite of Braga where it is sung at the end of Mass.
In the Byzantine Rite used by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, the hymn occurs as the last dismissal hymn of daily Vespers in Great Lent. In Greek practice it is sung in Neo-Byzantine chant. In the Armenian Rite, the hymn is sung on the Eve of Theophany and is used as an acclamation in the daily compline service known as the Rest Hour. A different version of the hymn is appended to the Trisagion when the latter is chanted in the daily Morning and Evening Hours of the Daily Office; the Slavonic version of the hymn is often used outside of Great Lent, with the triple invocation «Пресвѧтаѧ Богородице спаси насъ» appended. Other than the traditional and modern chant settings, which are the most used, the most well-known musical setting is that of Dmytro Bortniansky. In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church it is used as the antiphon for the Nunc Dimittis at Compline in the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in the Liturgy of the Hours may be used as the Marian antiphon after Compline outside of Eastertide.
The Latin version has been set to music in the West many times, notably by Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Antionio Salieri, Ludwig van Beethoven and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The prayer has a special significance for Marists, it is heard in Marist schools and groups around the world, it is commonly used by the Salesians in honor of Mary Help of Christians. Pope Francis asked to pray this Hymn along with the Rosary and the Prayer to Saint Michael asking for the unity of the Church during October in the face of diverse scandals and accusations. In the official comuniqué he added that "Russian mystics and the great saints of all the traditions advised, in moments of spiritual turbulence, to shelter beneath the mantle of the Holy Mother of God pronouncing the invocation'Sub Tuum Praesidium'”; the earliest Church Slavonic manuscripts have the prayer in the following form: This version continues to be used by the Old Believers today. In the 17th century, under the liturgical reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, the Russian Orthodox Church adopted a new translation: This second version continues in use today.
The Latin translation derived from the Greek, dates from the 11th century: Some of the Latin versions have incorporated the following verses attributed to Saint Bernard of Clairvaux to the above translation: Domina nostra, Mediatrix nostra, Advocata nostra tuo Filio nos reconcilia tuo Filio nos recommenda tuo Filio nos representa "Under thy compassion we take refuge..." Photograph of papyrus, dated to the earliest example of this hymn. "Sub Tuum Praesidium", the Benedictine Monks of Santo Domingo de Silos