Mamo or hoohoo is a common name for two species of extinct birds. Together with the extant ʻIʻiwi they make up the genus Drepanis; these nectarivorous finches are now extinct. The Hawaiian name may be related to the name of a bird with a similar appearance. Another name for the mamo was ʻōʻō-nuku-umu, meaning "ʻōʻō with the sucking beak". Two species are known; the Hawaiʻi mamo was about 9 in in length. Its plumage was glossy black with a small yellow shoulder patch; the tail was black and there was a white basal primary patch and white shafts along the primaries. The bill was long and black. Legs were dark gray or black This was a shy species that lived in the forest canopy and fed on the nectar of Lobelia species that possess curved, tubular flowers, its call was a plaintive whistle. The bright golden-yellow feathers of the Hawaiʻi mamo were prized for the featherwork worn by the aliʻi; the famous yellow cloak of Kamehameha I is estimated to have taken the reigns of eight monarchs and the golden feathers of 80,000 Hawaiʻi mamos before it was completed.
The Hawaiʻi mamo was last seen in 1899 near Kaūmana by a collector, H. W. Henshaw, who, as mentioned by Tim Flannery in his book, A Gap In Nature and wounded a bird he was stalking, before it escaped him with another bird; the black mamo was about 8 in in length and appeared similar to the Hawaiʻi mamo but was black except for the white primary shafts on the wings. The bill was more decurved than the former species and had a small yellowy spot near the base; when the bird fed the forehead would become covered in pollen, making the forehead appear pale. The species fed on nectar from the flowers of Lobelia species and ʻōhiʻa lehua at lower levels than the Hawaiʻi mamo; the bird was curious and would approach observers. Its call was a five or six note rollicking whistle; the black mamo was endemic to Molokaʻi and was last observed in 1907 by the collector Alanson Bryan, who had shot three birds. Tim Flannery quoted him as having written, "To my joy I found the mangled remains hanging in the tree in a thick bunch of leaves, six feet or more beyond where it had been sitting."
Catch and release
Catch and release is a practice within recreational fishing intended as a technique of conservation. After capture, the fish are returned to the water. A fast measurement and weighing of the fish is worthwhile. Using barbless hooks, it is possible to release the fish without removing it from the water. In the United Kingdom and release has been performed for more than a century by coarse fishermen in order to prevent target species from disappearing in fished waters. Since the latter part of the 20th century, many salmon and sea trout rivers have been converted to complete or partial catch and release. In the United States and release was first introduced as a management tool in the state of Michigan in 1952 as an effort to reduce the cost of stocking hatchery-raised trout. Anglers fishing for fun rather than for food accepted the idea of releasing the fish while fishing in so-called "no-kill" zones. Conservationists have advocated catch and release as a way to ensure sustainability and to avoid overfishing of fish stocks.
Lee Wulff, a New York-based fly angler and film maker, promoted catch and release as early as 1936 with the phrase "Game fish are too valuable to be caught only once." Don Martinez a West Yellowstone, Montana fly shop owner promoted catch and release in his 1930–40s newsletters sent to Eastern anglers. In Australia and release caught on with some pioneers practicing it in the 1960s, the practice became more widespread in the 1970s and 1980s. Catch and release is now used to conserve—and indeed is critical in conserving—vulnerable fish species like the large, long lived native freshwater Murray Cod and the prized growing fished Australian bass fished coastal species like Dusky Flathead and prized gamefish like striped marlin. In Ireland and release has been used as a conservation tool for Atlantic salmon and sea trout fisheries since 2003. A number of fisheries now have mandatory release regulations. Catch and release for coarse fish has been used by sport anglers for as long as these species have been fished for on this island.
However catch and release for Atlantic salmon has required a huge turn about in how many anglers viewed the salmon angling resource. To encourage anglers to practice catch and release in all fisheries a number of government led incentives have been implemented. In Canada and release is mandatory for some species. Canada requires, in some cases, the use of barbless hooks to facilitate release and minimize injury. In Switzerland and Germany and release fishing is considered inhumane and is now banned. In Germany, the Animal Welfare Act states that "no-one may cause an animal pain, suffering or harm without good reason"; this leaves no legal basis for catch and release due to its argued inherent lack of "good reason", thus personal fishing is allowed for immediate food consumption. Additionally, it is against the law to release fish back into the water if they are above minimum size requirements and aren't a protected species or in closed season. In 2011, the National Park Service in Yellowstone National Park began reversing decades of regulation that promoted catch and release and other techniques that protected fish populations.
In the name of native fish conservation, they began mandatory kill regulations on rainbow and brook trout in the Lamar River drainage and encouraged unlimited taking and disposal of non-native species, including brown trout in some park waters. Over the last few decades there has been an emphasis on the development and refinement of science-based practices to increase the likelihood that released fish will survive; that work led to the development of the UN FAO Technical Guidelines for Recreational Fisheries. Effective catch and release fishing techniques avoid excessive fish fighting and handling times, avoid damage to fish skin and slime layers by nets, dry hands and dry surfaces, avoid damage to throat ligaments and gills by poor handling techniques, it is important to use a type of net, not abrasive to the fish, because fish can damage themselves in a hard plastic-style net while thrashing. The use of barbless hooks is an important aspect of release. Fish caught on barbless hooks can be released without being removed from the water, the hook effortlessly slipped out with a single flick of the pliers or leader.
Barbless hooks can be purchased from several major manufacturers or can be created from a standard hook by crushing the barb flat with needle-nosed pliers. Some anglers avoid barbless hooks because of the erroneous belief. Concentrating on keeping the line tight at all times while fighting fish, equipping lures that do not have them with split rings, using recurved point or "Triple Grip" style hooks on lures, will keep catch rates with barbless hooks as high as those achieved with barbed hooks. One study looking at brook trout found that barbless hooks had no statistically significant effect on mortality rates when fish were hooked in the mouth, but observed that they did reduce mortalities compared to barbed hooks if fish were hooked deeper; the study suggested bait fishing does not have a higher mortality when utilized in an active style, rather than a passive manner that allows the fish to swallow the bait. The effects of catch and release vary from species to species. A study of fish caught in shallow water on the Great Barrier Reef showed high survival rates.
For released fi
Kīwalaʻō was the aliʻi nui of the Island of Hawaii in 1782 when he was defeated in battle and overthrown by Kamehameha I. Kīwalaʻō was born in 1760 to Kalaniʻōpuʻu and his queen consort Kalola Pupuka, he was the heir apparent. While he was alive at the time of Captain Cook's arrival, he was not present and there is no foreign account of him, he is said to have been of a weak character while his half brother Keōua Kuahuula was the exact opposite and more comparable to the knights of the middle ages. Aguilera-Black Bear, Voices of Resistance and Renewal: Indigenous Leadership in Education, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 9780806152431, OCLC 908374833 Congress, United States, United States Congressional serial set, United States Government Publishing Office, ISBN 978-1343800502 Kuykendall, Ralph Simpson, The Hawaiian Kingdom, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-87022-431-7 McGregor, Davianna, Na Kua'aina: Living Hawaiian Culture, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2946-9 Moore, Paradise of the Pacific: Approaching Hawaii, Farrar and Giroux, ISBN 0374298777, OCLC 909538017 Vinton Kirch, Patrick, A Shark Going Inland Is My Chief: The Island Civilization of Ancient Hawai'i, University of California Press, ISBN 9786613811660, OCLC 806040079 Teachers' Association, Oregon State.
"Oregon Teachers' Monthly". 9. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1271766482
A cloak is a type of loose garment, worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat. Cloaks have been used by a myriad historic societies. Over time cloak designs have been changed to match fashion and available textiles. Cloaks fasten at the neck or over the shoulder, vary in length, from hip all the way down to the ankle, mid-calf being the normal length, they may have an attached hood and may cover and fasten down the front, in which case they have holes or slits for the hands to pass through. However, cloaks are always sleeveless; the word cloak comes from Old North French cloque meaning "travelling cloak", from Medieval Latin clocca "travelers' cape," "a bell," so called from the garment's bell-like shape. Thus the word is related to the word clock. Ancient Greeks and Romans were known to wear cloaks. Greek men and women wore the himation, from the Archaic through the Hellenistic periods. Romans would wear the Greek-styled cloak, the pallium; the pallium was quadrangular, shaped like a square, sat on the shoulders, not unlike the himation.
Romans of the Republic would wear the toga as a formal display of their citizenship. It was worn by magistrates on all occasions as a badge of office; the toga was claimed to have originated with the second king of Rome. In full evening dress in the Western countries and gentlemen use the cloak as a fashion statement, or to protect the fine fabrics of evening wear from the elements where a coat would crush or hide the garment. Opera cloaks are made of quality materials such as wool or cashmere and satin. Ladies may wear a long cloak called a cape, or a full-length cloak. Gentlemen wear an full-length cloak. Formal cloaks have expensive, colored linings and trimmings such as silk, satin and fur. According to the King James Version of the Bible, Matthew recorded Jesus of Galilee saying in Matthew 5:40: "And if any man will sue thee at the law, take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also." The King James Version of the Bible has the words recorded a little differently in Luke 6:29: "...and him that taketh away thy cloke, forbid not to take thy coat also."
Cloaks are a staple garment in the fantasy genre due to the popularity of medieval settings, although fantasy cloak designs have more resemblance to 18th or 19th-century cloaks rather than medieval ones. They are usually associated with witches and vampires; when Lugosi reprised his role as Dracula for the 1931 Universal Studios motion picture version of the play, he retained the cloak as part of his outfit, which made such a strong impression that cloaks came to be equated with Count Dracula in nearly all non-historical media depictions of him. Fantasy cloaks are magical. For example, they may grant the person wearing it invisibility as in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling. A similar sort of garment is worn by the members of the Fellowship of the Ring in The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, although instead of granting complete invisibility, the Elf-made cloaks appear to shift between any natural color to help the wearer to blend in with his or her surroundings. Alternatively, they may nullify magical projectiles, as the "cloak of magic resistance" in NetHack.
In addition, the magical hide armor that Hercules made for himself from the skin of the Nemean Lion, at the end of Hercules' first labor, might be seen as an early idea of a magical cloak. This latter was notable because it was said to be impervious to all impact weapons. Figuratively, a cloak may be anything that conceals something. In many science fiction worlds, such as Star Trek, there are cloaking devices, which provide a way to avoid detection by making objects appear invisible; because they keep a person hidden and conceal a weapon, the phrase cloak and dagger has come to refer to espionage and secretive crimes: it suggests murder from hidden sources. "Cloak and dagger" stories are thus mystery and crime stories of this. The vigilante duo of Marvel comics Cloak and Dagger is a reference to this. Oxford English Dictionary Ashelford, Jane: The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500-1914, Abrams, 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5 Baumgarten, Linda: What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America, Yale University Press, 2016.
ISBN 0-300-09580-5 Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Stone Age to the Twentysecond Century, Harper & Row, 2965. No ISBN for this edition.
The Hawaiʻi mamo is an extinct species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It was endemic to Hawaii, it became extinct due to habitat loss, introduced predators such as mongoose, over collecting. This bird averaged 9 inches in length, it was black with bright yellow feathers on its rump, undertail coverts and legs. There was a white patch on the primaries, it was the centerpiece of portraits. It had a decurved blackish bill, some three inches long. Juveniles may have been brown; this shy species lived in the forest canopy and fed on lobelia nectar, from the plant's curved, tubular flowers. Its call was a plaintive whistle; the mamo was one of the most honored birds in pre-European Hawaiian society. Its yellow feathers were used to create hats for royalty. Feather collecting contributed to the bird's decline; the famous yellow cloak of Kamehameha I is estimated to have taken the reigns of eight monarchs and the golden feathers of 80,000 birds to complete. Hawaiians collected the birds by removing sap from sandalwood trees and breadfruit to create a sticky paste that they placed near the blossoms of lobelias.
A hungry mamo would drink the nectar, its feet would get stuck in the sap. Some scientists claim that after plucking, mamo were cooked. Others claimed that the birds were released, that there was a Kapu or restriction that required live release. If the birds were released, they would still be in a state of shock and risk injury. However, Hawaiian birds are tame and unafraid when captured, so might have survived handling better than most birds; the birds were popular with European collectors. European settlers changed the mamo's habitat to support agriculture and cattle ranching, which damaged the bird's food source; the cattle roamed loose in the forests. Though this was discovered early and was well known to the Hawaiians, the mamo disappeared. Avian pox may have killed any birds. There are many specimens of this bird in European museums; the bird seemed to disappear in 1899. The last confirmed sighting was in July 1898 near Kaumana on the island of Hawaiʻi by a collector, Henry W. Henshaw, who, as mentioned by Tim Flannery in his book, A Gap In Nature and wounded a bird he was stalking, before it escaped with another bird.
Naturalis.nl: 3D view of Drepanis pacifica specimen —
Pitt Rivers Museum
The Pitt Rivers Museum is a museum displaying the archaeological and anthropological collections of the University of Oxford in England. The museum is located to the east of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, can only be accessed through that building; the museum was founded in 1884 by Augustus Pitt Rivers who donated his private collection to the University of Oxford with the condition that a permanent lecturer in anthropology must be appointed. Museum staff are involved in teaching Archaeology and Anthropology at the University today; the first Curator of the museum was Henry Balfour. A second stipulation in the Deed of Gift was that a building should be provided to house the collection and used for no other purpose; the University therefore engaged Thomas Manly Deane, son of Thomas Newenham Deane who, together with Benjamin Woodward, had designed and built the original Oxford University Museum of Natural History building three decades earlier, to create an adjoining building at the rear of the main building to house the collection.
Construction started in 1885 and was completed in 1886. The original donation consisted of 22,000 items; the museum's collection is arranged typologically, according to how the objects were used, rather than according to their age or origin. This layout owes a lot to the theories of Pitt Rivers himself, who intended for his collection to show progression in design and evolution in human culture from the simple to the complex. Whilst this evolutionary approach to material culture is no longer fashionable in archaeology and anthropology, the museum has retained the original organisation of the displays; the display of many examples of a particular type of tool or artifact, showing historical and regional variations, is an unusual and distinct feature of this museum. The museum has a high density of objects on display, the displays are changed periodically. At 11.36m high the Haida totem pole is the largest object on display in the museum. From a Haida community, it stood outside Star House in the village of Old Massett, on Graham Island, in British Columbia, Canada.
The house was belonged to chief Anetlas. The pole came to the Pitt Rivers Museum in 1901. In 2004, the museum received £3,700,000 from the Higher Education Funding Council for England to build a research annex adjoining the museum. Building work was completed in 2007, bringing the academic staff of the museum back to the site, providing a laboratory for conservation of the specimens; the annex will not affect the Victorian displays of the museum. The second phase of development began on 7 July 2008 necessitating the closure of the museum and galleries; the museum reopened on 1 May 2009. In this work, the 1960s exhibition gallery was dismantled, restoring the original view through to the museum’s totem pole. Original display cases were returned to their original place at the front of the museum; the space upstairs vacated by these cases provides additional space for a Clore Duffield Education Centre. A new entrance platform allows visitors to enter on the same level as the Oxford University Museum of Natural History and improves access for wheelchair users and parents with pushchairs.
The entrance platform provides re-located reception areas. An environmental control system has been installed; the Pitt Rivers Museum, along with the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, won The Guardian newspaper's award for Family Friendly Museum of 2005. Augustus Pitt Rivers Anthropology Museums of the University of Oxford Oxford Oxford University, of which the museum is a department Ashmolean Museum Oxford University Museum of Natural History Museum of the History of Science, Oxford Baumgarten, Lothar. Unsettled Objects. Edition of Guggenheim Magazine published in conjunction with the exhibition AMERICA Invention. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1993. Chapman, William Ryan. "Arranging Ethnology: A. H. L. F. Pitt Rivers and the Typological Tradition." In Objects and Others: Essays on Museums and Material Culture. Edited by George W. Stocking, Jr. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. Cranstone, B. A. L. and Steven Seidenberg. The General’s Gift: A Celebration of the Pitt Rivers Museum Centenary, 1884–1984.
Oxford: JASO, 1984. Hicks and Alive Stevenson 2013. World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum: a characterization. Oxford: Archaeopress. World Archaeology at the Pitt Rivers Museum Pitt Rivers Museum website
Mary Kawena Pukui
Mary Abigail Kawenaʻulaokalaniahiʻiakaikapoliopelekawahineʻaihonuaināleilehuaapele Wiggin Pukui, known as Kawena, was a Hawaiian scholar, dancer and educator. She was born in the Kaʻū district of the Island of Hawaiʻi, to Mary Paʻahana Kanakaʻole and Henry Nathaniel Wiggin. In the traditional custom of hānai, she was reared by her mother's parents, her grandmother Naliipoʻaimoku, a traditional dancer in the court of Queen Emma, taught her chants and stories, while her grandfather Keli'ikanaka'ole-o-Haililani was a healer and kahuna pale keiki who used lomilomi massage, laʻau lapaʻau, hoʻoponopono, pule. Her great grandmother Keliʻipaʻahana was a kahuna pule in the Pele line. Keli'iPa ` ahana's parents were the High Chief Kauhi and High Chiefess Na'ai Hunali'i. Keli'iPa'ahana was interned in Halema'uma'u in 1869 in the Ka'u district, she married the High Chief Keli'iKanaka ` ole the son Princess Kekelaokalani. Family is known to inherit the sacred Ali'i Moe Kapu. Upon the death of her grandmother Nali'i Poai moku she returned to live with her parents and spoke both Hawaiian and English.
She was educated in the Hawaiian Mission Academy, taught Hawaiiana at Punahou School. Pukui was fluent in the Hawaiian language, from the age of 15 collected and translated folk tales and sayings, she worked at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum from 1938–1961 as an ethnological assistant and translator, she taught Hawaiian to several scholars and served as informant for numerous anthropologists. She published more than 50 scholarly works, she is the co-author of the definitive Hawaiian-English Dictionary, Place Names of Hawaii, The Echo of Our Song, a translation of old chants and songs. Her book, ʻŌlelo Noʻeau, contains nearly 3,000 examples of Hawaiian proverbs and poetical sayings and annotated; the two-volume set Nānā i ke Kumu, Look to the Source, is an invaluable resource on Hawaiian customs and traditions. She was a chanter and hula expert, wrote lyrics and music to more than 150 Hawaiian songs. In addition to her published works, Pukui's knowledge was preserved in her notes, oral histories, hundreds of audiotape recordings from the 1950s and 1960s, a few film clips, all collected in the Bishop Museum.
She is credited with making the Hawaiian Renaissance of the 1970s possible. She was named a "Living Treasure of Hawai'i" by the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaiʻi in 1977. In 1995 she was inducted into the Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame. In March 2017, Hawaiʻi Magazine ranked her among a list of the most influential women in Hawaiian history. In order of first publication: 1933: Hawaiian Folk Tales. Third series 1934: Outline of Hawaiian Physical Therapeutics. Place Names of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii. ISBN 978-0-8248-0524-1. OCLC 740956610.»Partial preview of Place Names of Hawaii. At WorldCat. Retrieved 2013-10-05.1972: Nānā i ke Kumu, Look to the Source, Vols. 1 and 2. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. ISBN 0-910240-11-6. Elbert, Samuel H. Hawaiian Grammar. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2489-1. OCLC 248939168.»eBook available: Hawaiian Grammar at Google Books1974: Place Names of Hawaii. Barère and Marion Kelly 1983: ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian proverbs & poetical sayings Honolulu, Hawai'i: Bishop Museum Press ISBN 0-910240-92-2 Nā Wahine: Hawaiian proverbs and inspirational quotes celebrating women in Hawai'i.
Honolulu: Mutual, 2002 ISBN 1-56647-596-1 Hula: Hawaiian proverbs and inspirational quotes celebrating hula in Hawai'i Honolulu: Mutual, 2003 ISBN 1-56647-638-0 Pukui, Mary Kawena. Pocket Place Names of Hawai'i. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1187-7. OCLC 18497487. Pukui, Mary Kawena. Hawaigo-Nihongo jiten ハワイ 語-日本語辞典. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9784805106150. OCLC 23039378. Pukui, Mary Kawena. New Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary with a Concise Grammars and Given Names in Hawaiian. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1392-5. OCLC 24064961.»Partial preview of New Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary with a Concise Grammars and Given Names in Hawaiian. At WorldCat. Retrieved 2013-10-05.1994: The Water of Kāne. Hawaiian Dictionary: Hawaiian-English. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0703-0. OCLC 247864894. Kanahele, George S..