The Federal Emergency Management Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security created by Presidential Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978 and implemented by two Executive Orders on April 1, 1979. The agency's primary purpose is to coordinate the response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States and that overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities; the governor of the state in which the disaster occurs must declare a state of emergency and formally request from the president that FEMA and the federal government respond to the disaster. The only exception to the state's gubernatorial declaration requirement occurs when an emergency or disaster takes place on federal property or to a federal asset—for example, the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, or the Space Shuttle Columbia in the 2003 return-flight disaster. While on-the-ground support of disaster recovery efforts is a major part of FEMA's charter, the agency provides state and local governments with experts in specialized fields and funding for rebuilding efforts and relief funds for infrastructure by directing individuals to access low-interest loans, in conjunction with the Small Business Administration.
In addition to this, FEMA provides funds for training of response personnel throughout the United States and its territories as part of the agency's preparedness effort. Federal emergency management in the U. S. has existed in another for over 200 years. A series of devastating fires struck the port city of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, early in the 19th century; the 7th U. S. Congress passed a measure in 1803 that provided relief for Portsmouth merchants by extending the time they had for remitting tariffs on imported goods; this is considered the first piece of legislation passed by the federal government that provided relief after a disaster. Between 1803 and 1930, ad hoc legislation was passed more than 100 times for relief or compensation after a disaster. Examples include the waiving of duties and tariffs to the merchants of New York City after the Great Fire of New York. After the collapse of the John T. Ford's Theater in June 1893, the 54th Congress passed legislation compensating those who were injured in the building.
After the start of the Great Depression in 1929, President Herbert Hoover had commissioned the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in 1932. The purpose of the RFC was to lend money to institutions to stimulate economic activity. RFC was responsible for dispensing federal dollars in the wake of a disaster. RFC can be considered the first organized federal disaster response agency; the Bureau of Public Roads in 1934 was given authority to finance the reconstruction of highways and roads after a disaster. The Flood Control Act of 1944 gave the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers authority over flood control and irrigation projects and thus played a major role in disaster recovery from flooding. Federal disaster relief and recovery was brought under the umbrella of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, in 1973 by Presidential Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration was created as an organizational unit within the department. This agency would oversee disasters until its incorporation into FEMA in 1978.
Prior to implementation of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978 by E. O. 12127 and E. O. 12148, many government agencies were still involved in disaster relief. Over the years, Congress extended the range of covered categories for assistance, several presidential executive orders did the same. By enacting these various forms of legislative direction, Congress established a category for annual budgetary amounts of assistance to victims of various types of hazards or disasters, it specified the qualifications, it established or delegated the responsibilities to various federal and non-federal agencies. In time, this expanded array of agencies themselves underwent reorganization. One of the first such federal agencies was the Federal Civil Defense Administration, which operated within the Executive Office of the President. Functions to administer disaster relief were given to the President himself, who delegated to the Housing and Home Finance Administration. Subsequently, a new office of the Office of Defense Mobilization was created.
The new Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, managed by the EOP. These actions demonstrated that, during those years, the nation's domestic preparedness was addressed by several disparate legislative actions, motivated by policy and budgetary earmarking, not by a single, comprehensive strategy to meet the nation's needs over time. In 1978 an effort was made to consolidate the several singular functions; this was a controversial decision. FEMA was established under the 1978 Reorganization Plan No. 3 and was activated by President Jimmy Carter in an Executive Order on April 1, 1979. In July, Carter signed Executive Order 12148 shifting disaster relief efforts to the new federal-level agency. FEMA absorbed the Federal Insurance Administration, the Nat
Test Drive Unlimited is an open world racing video game developed by Eden Games published by Atari for Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows. Atari Melbourne House developed PlayStation Portable versions; the game features over 125 licensed sports cars and motorcycles and a terrain is modeled after the Hawaiian island of Oʻahu that features some 1,000 miles of roads and highways. In the world of Test Drive Unlimited, the player is able to drive both on-road and off-road in free-roam mode, challenging any real life racers they encounter; the roads are modeled after satellite images of the island of Oʻahu. The terrain differs from rainforest and mountains to sandy beaches and Hawaiʻi's capital city, Honolulu, it is worth noting however. It is possible to drive on small islands outside of the main island; the Xbox 360 version has supported steering wheel controllers since launch. Following the third free update, Test Drive Unlimited supports force feedback wheel controllers such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 Wireless Racing Wheel.
Although advertising material for the game suggests it to be an exact depiction of the Hawaiian island, numerous government buildings, commercial buildings, notable landmarks are not present in the game. Many roads and highways are missing or placed far from their real-life counterparts; the ships docked in Pearl Harbor are in low detail and do not represent any active or retired USN vessel at all. The game begins by purchasing a house; the player is free to explore the island. These include car and bike dealerships, car rental agencies, tuning shops, paint shops, time challenges, vehicle transportation and more. Success in challenges is rewarded with in-game money, or in the Hitchhiker and Top Model challenges, coupons. Using these coupons, the player can buy clothing for their character at the many branded clothes shops on the island. Money earned may be spent on renting cars, upgrading cars and buying houses. Players can acquire sports cars from various manufacturers, including a Ferrari 575M Maranello, the AC Cobra 289, the Maserati 3500 GT and the Pontiac Firebird.
The megapack adds more than 45 more cars, including the Efijy Concept, the Ferrari 512 TR and the Nissan Skyline GT-R, an extra motorcycle. The PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions of Test Drive Unlimited are missing the following features: Manual transmission Avatar customization Certain vehicles such as Ferrari, Lexus, all motorcycles, some models of different makers Certain mission types Cockpit view NPCs in buildings Rear-view and side mirrors are not functional Some shops, like custom car paint USB steering wheel support Online Cruising Secret Island Eden "E" Teleporter Content and audio components were reduced due to hardware limitations. Master Points, a system where the player is awarded points for drifting, slipstreaming and driving around the island. Auto GPS, which automatically directs the player to the closest available race challenge. Car selection, as some cars that are only available in download packs for Xbox 360 and Windows are available from the start in the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions.
Radio stations in the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions feature several exclusive instrumental tracks in addition to the licensed music. Quick Race, a mode that allows players to create a limitless number of races to compete in, with a random car; some of the exclusive features of the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable versions were implemented in Test Drive Unlimited 2. The multiplayer component works as an extra layer on top of the single-player game: all activities available in single-player are available in multiplayer; the following challenges are available in multiplayer only: Race against other players Challenge players to complete tasks Attempt other player challengesRacing against other players works in freeride by using a custom geolocalized matchmaking system, added using Xbox Live Server Platform. Multiplayer races spots are handled by using the player match/ranked match system employed by Xbox Live; the Microsoft Windows version uses the GameSpy network for authentication.
It is possible to create an immediate, ad hoc race against another player by flashing headlights at their vehicle. Players may join "clubs" which help organize player events. Vehicles may be traded between players through a central "clearing house"-style interface that lists the vehicles for sale along with class, mileage and price information, it is possible to play online with the addition of a network adapter to a PlayStation 2 and via Infrastructure Mode on the PlayStation Portable. The server structure consisted of 11 individual machines working in a distributed, scalable way; the X
"Don't Marry Her" is a song by The Beautiful South and the opening track on their album Blue is the Colour. Vocalist Jacqui Abbott begs a man to run away with her from the woman he is going to marry, attempts to sway him by describing what she thinks married life with the other woman will be like, painting a uninviting picture; the song's lyrics were altered for the release as a single – changing from "Don't marry her, fuck me" to "Don't marry her, have me", with "sweaty bollocks" becoming "Sandra Bullocks". The song spent ten weeks on the UK Singles Chart, peaking at number 8, charted within the lower reaches of several European charts; the single version appears on the best of album Solid Bronze: Great Hits, while Soup features the original album version. UK CD single "Don't Marry Her" – 3:23 "God Bless the Child" – 4:54 "Without Her" – 3:04UK CD single "Don't Marry Her" – 3:24 "Dream a Little Dream" – 3:40 "Les yeux ouverts" – 3:34 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics