click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Federal Housing Administration

The Federal Housing Administration is a United States government agency founded by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934. The FHA sets standards for construction and underwriting and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building; the goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and conditions, to provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, to stabilize the mortgage market. The FHA has faced criticism for practicing housing policies and red-lining at the expense of minority communities; the nature and impact of these policies is the subject of academic research. The Commissioner of the FHA is Brian Montgomery, it is different from the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which supervises government-sponsored enterprises. During the Great Depression many banks failed, causing a drastic decrease in home loans and ownership. At that time, most home mortgages were short-term, with no amortization, balloon instruments at loan-to-value ratios below sixty percent.

This prevented many middle class families from being able to afford home ownership. The banking crisis of the 1930s forced all lenders to retrieve due mortgages. Many homes were foreclosed, causing the housing market to plummet. Banks collected the loan collateral but the low property values resulted in a relative lack of assets. In 1934 the federal banking system was restructured; the National Housing Act of 1934 created the Federal Housing Administration. Its intention was to regulate the terms of mortgages that it insured; these new lending practices increased the number of white Americans who could afford a down payment on a house and monthly debt service payments on a mortgage, thereby increasing the size of the market for single-family homes. The FHA calculated appraisal value based on eight criteria and directed its agents to lend more for higher appraised projects, up to a maximum cap; the two most important were "Relative Economic Stability", which constituted 40% of appraisal value, "protection from adverse influences", which made up another 20%.

In 1935, the FHA provided its appraisers with an Underwriting Manual, which gave the following instruction: "If a neighborhood is to retain stability it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same social and racial classes. A change in social or racial occupancy leads to instability and a reduction of values." Appraisers were told to give higher property and zoning ratings where "protection against some adverse influences is obtained", defined adverse influences as "infiltration by inharmonious racial or nationality groups". Because the FHA's appraisal standards included a whites-only requirement, racial segregation became an official requirement of the federal mortgage insurance program, as the FHA judged any properties in racially mixed neighborhoods or in close proximity to black neighborhoods as being high-risk. While this practice is no longer official policy, its practices are still implemented in measures of de facto segregation. In 1935, Colonial Village in Arlington, was the first large-scale, rental housing project erected in the United States, Federal Housing Administration-insured.

During World War II, the FHA financed a number of worker's housing projects including the Kensington Gardens Apartment Complex in Buffalo, New York. In 1965 the Federal Housing Administration became part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Following the subprime mortgage crisis, FHA, along with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, became a large source of mortgage financing in the United States; the share of home purchases financed with FHA mortgages went from 2 percent to over one-third of mortgages in the United States, as conventional mortgage lending dried up in the credit crunch. Without the subprime market, many of the riskiest borrowers ended up borrowing from the Federal Housing Administration, the FHA could suffer substantial losses. Joshua Zumbrun and Maurna Desmond of Forbes have written that eventual government losses from the FHA could reach $100 billion; the troubled loans are now weighing on the agency's capital reserve fund, which by early 2012 had fallen below its congressionally mandated minimum of 2%, in contrast to more than 6% two years earlier.

By November 2012, the FHA was bankrupt. Since 1934, the FHA and HUD have insured over 34 million home mortgages and 47,205 multifamily project mortgages; the FHA has 4.8 million insured single family mortgages and 13,000 insured multifamily projects in its portfolio. Mortgage insurance protects lenders from mortgage defaulting. If a property purchaser borrows more than 80% of the property's value, the lender will require that the borrower purchase private mortgage insurance to cover the lender's risk. If the lender is FHA approved and the mortgage is within FHA limits, the FHA provides mortgage insurance that may be more affordable for higher-risk borrowers Lenders can obtain FHA mortgage insurance for 96.5% of the appraised value of the home or building. FHA loans are insured through a combination of an upfront mortgage insurance premium and annual mutual mortgage insurance premiums; the UFMIP is a lump sum ranging from 1 – 2.25% of loan value, paid by the borrower either in cash at closing or financed via the loan.

MMI, although annual, is included in monthly mortgage payments and ranges from 0 – 1.35% of

Jeffery Hale

Jeffery Hale was a philanthropist in Lower Canada. The son of Elizabeth Frances Amherst and John Hale, he was born in Quebec City and was educated in England. Hale served in the Royal Navy from the age of 14 until he was 24, when he returned to Lower Canada to assist his father, suffering from poor health, as receiver general for the province. Although Hale temporarily replaced his father, he did not secure the post of receiver general after his father died, he became involved in Anglican religious societies. In 1833, he established the first English Sunday school at Quebec City. Hale was a director of the British and Canadian School Society of the District of Quebec and he provided funds for the establishment and maintenance of other schools, he was a founder of the Quebec Provident and Savings Bank, aided in the founding of Mount Hermon Cemetery in Sillery. Hale died in England at Tunbridge Wells in Kent at the age of 61 and he is buried in Woodbury Park Cemetery. In his will, he provided funds for the establishment of a hospital, the Jeffrey Hale - St Brigid's Hospital

The Illustrated Man (film)

The Illustrated Man is a 1969 American science fiction film directed by Jack Smight and starring Rod Steiger as a man whose tattoos on his body represent visions of frightening futures. The film is based on three short stories from the 1951 collection The Illustrated Man by Ray Bradbury: "The Veldt," "The Long Rain," and "The Last Night of the World." Set in the backroads of America, the film enacts three of Bradbury's short stories set in the future, with Steiger as a man named Carl telling tales behind some of his tattoos, which he insists are not to be called tattoos, but only "skin illustrations", which come to life and tell the illustration's story when stared at directly. The stories are about a mysterious planet and the end of the world. Carl, accompanied by his dog, tells his tales to Willie, a traveler; the tie-in prologue tells of how Carl came to be tattooed after he encountered a mysterious woman named Felicia in a remote farmhouse. The plot comes to a terrifying conclusion when Willie looks at the only blank patch of skin on Carl's body and sees an image of his own murder at Carl's hands.

Willie attempts to kill Carl and flees into the night, pursued by a still-living Carl, with the audience left undetermined as to Willie's fate. "The Veldt" - Parents in a futuristic society worry about their children's mental health when their new virtual reality nursery, which can produce any environment the children imagine, continually projects an African veldt populated by lions feasting on carcasses. A child psychologist suggests that the automated house is not good for the children's development, insists they disable the automation and become more self-sufficient; the children are not pleased with this decision, but coolly agree to it. The children trap their parents in the nursery, they have lunch on the veldt with the child psychologist, who sees the lions feasting. Unlike the original story, the psychologist realises what is horrified. "The Long Rain" - A group of astronauts are stranded on Venus, where it rains continually and heavily. The travelers make their way across the Venusian landscape to find a "sun dome", a shelter with a large artificial light source.

The first sun dome they find has been destroyed by the native Venusians. Searching for another sun dome, the characters, one by one, are driven to madness and suicide by the unrelenting rhythm of the rain. At the end of the story, only one sane astronaut remains to find a functional sun dome. "The Last Night of the World" - Every adult on Earth has had the same vision of the Earth ending that night. A husband tells his wife that the ruling council has decided that there is nothing else to do except await the inevitable, not to tell any children of this; the couple and their children go through their normal routines and accepting the fact that there is no tomorrow. Unlike the original story, the ruling council has decided that all children will be put to death painlessly to spare them "the end" by taking a poison pill before going to bed, but the couple awaken the next morning to find the Earth did not end and are horrified that they have needlessly killed their children; the Illustrated Man comprises three science fiction short stories from Ray Bradbury's collection of short stories The Illustrated Man.

Howard B. Kreitsek wrote the screenplay that encompassed the stories "The Veldt," "The Long Rain," and "The Last Night of the World". Bradbury was not consulted for the adaptation. Since the collection included eighteen short stories, Smight chose three stories and used the carnival sideshow freak who appeared in the collection's prologue and epilogue as the film's primary narrative; as the tattooed man, the director cast Rod Steiger. The Illustrated Man was considered a financial failure. Time wrote, "Responsibility for the failure of The Illustrated Man must rest with Director Jack Smight, he has committed every possible error of style and taste, including the inexcusable fault of letting Steiger chew up every piece of scenery in sight."Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote, "Mr. Kreitsek's screenplay is unsharp, without focus, working into and out of the hallucinations with great awkwardness." Canby found the film to have "moments of eerie beauty" but believed that the director was limited by the screenplay.

The critic said, "Everything remains foetus-like and underdeveloped, although shrouded in misty pretensions of grandeur." Echoing Canby, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote, "Smight's confused, wandering film never does quite come to terms with what it wants to be." Ebert pointed out the film's weaknesses to be acting and character but did not find them to be fatal. He believed that the film's major flaw was "inadequate attention" to the audience's expectations, distracting it with logic and lack of logic in the film's three stories, he concluded, "And so the film doesn't work for the same reason that comic Westerns fail: Because it's risky to fool around with a genre unless you know what you're doing."Ray Bradbury said: "Rod was good in it, but it wasn't a good film... the script was terrible." According to John Stanley, "a major disappointment, for producer Howard B. Kreitsek's script fails to capture the imagination of Ray Bradbury's famous collection. Jack Smight is too conventional a director to give this the technique it screams out for."The film was nominated for the 1970 "Best Dramatic Presentation" Hugo Award, but did not win.

When The Illustrated Man was released on DVD in 2006, a retrospective review of the film wrote that the counterculture of the 1960s was evident in the film a

Diaphera

Diaphera is a genus of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Diapheridae. Diaphera is the type genus of the family Diapheridae; the genus Diaphera is poorly known. The distribution of Diaphera includes South-East Asia: Myanmar, Cambodia, the Philippines. There are 39 species in the genus Diaphera include: Diaphera brevicollis Diaphera canaliculata Diaphera cumingiana Pfeiffer, 1845 - type species of the genus Diaphera Diaphera cylindrelloidea Diaphera prima Panha, 2010 Diaphera saurini Benthem Jutting, 1962 Diaphera seatoni Bruggen A. C van. "New data on Cylindrella cumingiana Pfeiffer, 1845, type species of the genus Diaphera Albers, 1850". Proceedings of the Koninklÿke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam series C 78: 167-171. Vermeulen J. J.. "Notes on the non marine mollusks of the island of Borneo 1. The genus Diaphera". Basteria 54: 159-165

Amanita albocreata

Amanita albocreata called the ringless panther, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. It is found in northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and elsewhere in North America; this species, that grows about 5 to 15 centimeters in length, is doubted to be fatally toxic. It grows between the rainy months of June and August. First described in 1902 by George Francis Atkinson under the name Amanitopsis albocreata, the species was transferred to Amanita in 1941 by Jean-Edouard Gilbert. Cap: The lengths of the cap can vary from 2 centimeters to 5 or 8 centimeters, it can appear shield-shaped. The cap's disc has been seen colored white to pale yellow, with removed flaky patches or warts of whitish volva remnants; the center can be tan or creamy yellow in color. Akin to its relative Amanita frostiana, the cap feels sticky when moist. Gills: Gills can be free or adnate, they are about 3 - 10.5 millimeters broad, with a minutely flocculose edge. The short gills are truncate to excavate-truncate with or without an attenuate "tooth" at the juncture with the flesh of the cap.

They are cream to pale cream in color. Stem/ Stipe: The stem, or stipe, measures 80 - 120 x 6 - 8 millimeters, it consists of a volva. The notable bulb bears a distinct white collar as do some species with annulate stems, like other Amanita species Amanita multisquamosa, Amanita velatipes and Amanita pantherina. Spores and microscopic features: The spores measure 7.7 - 9.5 x 6.6 - 8.4 µm and are globose to subglobose or broadly ellipsoid and inamyloid. Clamps are rare at bases of basidia. Flesh: This mushroom has thin and sticky flesh under the cap; this fungus is found in the hardwood-hemlock forest of the northeastern U. S.. and southeastern Canada and of boreal forest at least as far north as the Island of Newfoundland. It is found in coniferous and deciduous forests or open lush green grasslands; the toxicity of this species is unknown. List of Amanita species Amanita albocreata in Index Fungorum

Zhou Xiang

Zhou Xiang was a chief strategist for Wang Jian, the founding emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Former Shu, during Wang Jian's years of warfare to establish himself as a warlord late in preceding Tang Dynasty. After the founding of Former Shu, Zhou served as a chancellor, it is not known when Zhou Xiang was born. The first historical reference to him was in 887, when he was referred to as a former storage officer for Long Prefecture. After leaving that post, he became a guest of the general Wang Jian, the prefect of Li Prefecture. In 887, then-reigning Emperor Xizong of Tang commissioned a new military governor of Shannan West Circuit, which Li Prefecture belonged to — Yang Shouliang, the adoptive nephew of the powerful eunuch Yang Fugong. Yang Shouliang was apprehensive about Wang's military abilities, made several attempts to summon him to Shannan West's capital Xingyuan Municipality. Wang, in fear of what Yang might do to him, refused to go, asked Zhou for advice.

Zhou stated to him: The lifespan of Tang is near its end. The circuits are consuming each other, but none of their governors have long-term strategies, they cannot pacify and help the people stricken by disasters. You, are brave and intelligent, you have the support of your soldiers. Of course it would be you, but Jiameng is a place that has seen four battles, it is not a place where you can find long-term safety. Lang Prefecture is remotely located, its population is wealthy. Yang Maoshi is a close associate of Chen Jingxuan and Tian Lingzi, therefore has not been properly submitting tributes. If you report his crimes to the imperial government and raise an army to attack him, you can capture him in a single battle. Wang agreed with Zhou, he subsequently gathered a group of 8,000 men from the tribes of the area, launched a surprise attack on Lang Prefecture via Jialing River, he took over Lang, claiming to be its defender. He further built up his troops, using Lang as a base. Yang Shouliang could not control him at all from that point on.

Wang became embroiled in a campaign against Chen to try to take over Xichuan Circuit, but was unable to prevail. By summer 888, believing that he could no longer pillage the surroundings of Xichuan's capital Chengdu and that Chengdu's defenses were so strong that he could not prevail considered withdrawing. Both Zhou and another strategist, Qiwu Jian, with Zhou proposing that he instead attack and capture one of Xichuan's prefectures, Qiong Prefecture to use as a base of operations, as the area around Qiong Prefecture was wealthy and capable of sustaining his army. Wang had another idea — that he should petition the imperial government to send a senior official to head the operations against Chen and serve as that official's assistant, so he had Zhou draft a petition on his behalf, to then-reigning Emperor Zhaozong, who had long hated Tian. Emperor Zhaozong, in response to Wang's petition and a similar petition from Wang's ally Gu Yanlang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit, commissioned the chancellor Wei Zhaodu to be the military governor of Xichuan, when Chen refused to allow Wei to take over, declared a general campaign against Chen, with Wei in command and Wang, Gu, Yang Shouliang serving as Wei's assistants.

By 891, the army sieging Chengdu, consisting of troops from Wang but with troops from Gu, had put Chengdu into a chokehold such that the population was starving. However, the imperial government had just suffered a major loss in campaign against another warlord, Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit, the costs of the Xichuan campaign gave Emperor Zhaozong second thoughts. In spring 891, Emperor Zhaozong issued an edict pardoning Chen and ordering Gu and Wang to return to their own circuits. Wang, believing that this was a prime chance to capture Xichuan, when he consulted Zhou, Zhou suggested that he urge Wei to return to the imperial court while he himself would maintain the campaign. Wang intimidated Wei by executing one of his close associates, Luo Bao, on purported offenses of embezzlement. Wei, transferred his command to Wang and left for the imperial capital Chang'an. Wang subsequently continued the siege, in fall 891, Chen and Tian surrendered. Wang took over Xichuan Circuit and was subsequently confirmed by Emperor Zhaozong as its military governor.

There were no further historical references to specific strategic suggestions that Zhou made to Wang, but it was said that much of Wang's subsequent pacification of the region, including his takeover of Dongchuan, could be credited to additional strategies that Zhou offered. In 907, another major warlord, Zhu Quanzhong the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in mode