Economy of El Salvador
Compared to other developing countries, El Salvador has experienced low rates of GDP growth. Rates have not risen above the low single digits in nearly two decades – part of broader environment of macroeconomic instability which the integration of the US dollar has done little to improve. One problem that the Salvadoran economy faces is the inequality in the distribution of income. In 2011, El Salvador had a Gini Coefficient of.485, which although similar to that of the United States, leaves 37.8% of the population below the poverty line, due to lower aggregate income. The richest 10% of the population receives 15 times the income of the poorest 40%; as of 3 November 2014, the IMF reports official reserve assets to be $3.192B. Foreign currency reserves are $2.675B. Securities are $2.577B with total currency and deposits at $94.9M. Securities with other national central banks are $81.10M. Securities with banks headquartered outside the reporting country $13.80M. SDRs are at $245.5M. Gold reserves reported at $271.4M with volume in millions of fine Troy ounces at $200k.
Other reserve assets are financial derivatives valued at $2.7M. Having this hard currency buffer to work with, the Salvadoran Government undertook a monetary integration plan beginning 1 January 2001, by which the U. S. dollar became legal tender alongside the colón, all formal accounting was undertaken in U. S. dollars. This way, the government has formally limited its possibility of implementing open market monetary policies to influence short term variables in the economy. Since 2004, the colón stopped circulating and is now never used in the country for any type of transaction. S. dollars. In general, people were unhappy with the shift from the colón to the U. S. dollar, because wages are still the same but the price of everything increased. Some economists claim this rise in prices would have been caused by inflation regardless had the shift not been made; some economists contend that now, according to Gresham's Law, a reversion to the colón would be disastrous to the economy. Some banks however claim that they still do some transactions en colones, keeping this change from being unconstitutional.
The change to the dollar precipitated a trend toward lower interest rates in El Salvador, helping many to secure credit in order to buy a house or a car. Fiscal policy has been one of the biggest challenges for the Salvadoran government; the 1992 peace accords committed the government to heavy expenditures for transition programs and social services. The stability adjustment programs initiated by President Cristiani's administration committed the government to the privatization of banks, the pension system and telephone companies; the total privatization of the pension system has implied a serious burden for the public finances, because the newly created private Pension Association Funds did not absorb coverage of retired pensioners covered in the old system. As a result, in July 2017, the Government of El Salvador wanted to take $500 millions from the privatized pension system to cover retired pensioners from the old not privatized system, but the Supreme Court of El Salvador declared this move unconstitutional.
The government lost the revenues from contributors and absorbed the costs of coverage of retired pensioners. This has been the main source of fiscal imbalance. ARENA governments have financed this deficit with the emission of bonds, something the leftist party FMLN has opposed. Debates surrounding the emission of bonds have stalled the approval of the national budget for many months on several occasions, reason for which in 2006 the government will finance the deficit by reducing expenditure in other posts; the emission of bonds and the approval of a loans need a qualified majority in the parliament. If the deficit is not financed through a loan it is enough with a simple majority to approve the budget; this would facilitate an otherwise long process in Salvadoran politics. Despite such challenges to keep public finances in balance, El Salvador still has one of the lowest tax burdens in the American continent. Many specialists claim that it is impossible to advance significant development programs with such a little public sector.
The government has focused on improving the collection of its current revenues with a focus on indirect taxes. Leftist politicians criticize such a structure since indirect taxes affect everyone alike, whereas direct taxes can be weighed according to levels of income and are therefore fairer taxes. However, some basic goods are exempt from the indirect taxes. A 10% value-added tax, implemented in September 1992, was raised to 13% in July 1995; the VAT is the biggest source of revenue, accounting for about 52.3% of total tax revenues in 2004. Remittances from Salvadorans working in the United States sent to family members are a major source of foreign income and offset the substantial trade deficit of around $2.9 billion. Remittances have increased in the last decade and reached an all-time high of $2.9 billion in 2005—approximately 17.1% of gross national product. As of April 2004, net international reserves stood at $1.9 billion. In recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, total exports have grown
Demographics of Honduras
This article is about the ethnic groups and population of Honduras. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 9,112,867 in 2016, compared to 1,487,000 in 1950; the proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 36.8%, 58.9% were aged between 15 and 65 years of age, 4.3% were aged 65 years or older. As of 2014, 60% of Hondurans live below the poverty line. More than 30% of the population is divided between the lower middle and upper middle class, less than 10% are wealthy or belong to the higher social class. Structure of the population: Structure of the population: Registration of vital events is in Honduras not complete; the Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Births and deaths Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Mestizos make up more than 90% of the population of Honduras. Amerindians are 6% of the population and AfroHondurans comprise 3%; as in other Latin American countries, the question of racial breakdown of a national population is contentious.
Since the beginning of the 20th century at least, Honduras has publicly framed itself as a mestizo nation, ignoring and at times disparaging both the African component of the population and also the surviving indigenous population, still regarded as pure blood. Because of social stigmas attached, many people denied having African ancestry, after African descended Caribbean workers arrived in Honduras, an active campaign to denigrate all people of African descent, made persons of mixed race anxious to deny any African ancestry. Hence official statistics quite uniformly under-represent those people who have ancestry in favor of a "two race" solution. According to the 2001 census the Amerindian population in Honduras included 381,495 people. With the exception of the Lenca and the Ch'orti' they still keep their language. Six different Amerindian groups were counted at the 2001 census: the Lenca living in the La Paz, Intibucá, Lempira departments; the Ch'orti', a Mayan group living in the northwest on the border with Guatemala.
The Garifuna are descendants of Carib and West African people. This ethnic group has its origins in a group from St. Vincent islands in the Caribbean, who came in 1797. At the 2001 census 46,448 people were registered as Garifuna, 0.8% of the total population of Honduras. The Garifuna speak an Arawakan language, they live along the entire Caribbean coastline of Honduras, in the Bay Islands. The number of Creoles was 12,370 in 2001. Honduras hosts a significant Palestinian community; these Arab-Hondurans are sometimes called "Turcos", because they arrived in Honduras using Turkish travel documents, as their homeland was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The Palestinians arrived in the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, establishing themselves in the city of San Pedro Sula; the Italians in Honduras were 389 in 2014, nearly all of them concentrated in the capital areaThere is a small Chinese community in Honduras. A lawyer of the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras stated that the Chinese community in Honduras is rather small.
Many of the Chinese are immigrants who arrived from China after the revolution and their descendants. Ethnic groups in Central America
Culture of Nicaragua
Music and religious icons in Iberian culture and Amerindian sounds and flavors. The west of Nicaragua was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking American countries; the eastern half of the country, on the other hand, was once a British protectorate, English spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages. Its culture is similar to that of former and present British colonies in the Caribbean, such as Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, etc. Recent immigration by Spanish speakers has influenced younger generations, an increasing number of people are either bilingual at home or speak Spanish only. There is a large population of people of mixed African descent, as well as a smaller Garifuna population. Due to the African influence in the East Coast, there exists a different kind of music, it is the popular dance music called'Palo de Mayo', or Maypole, celebrated during the Maypole Festival, during the month of May. The music is sensual with intense rhythms.
The celebration is derived from the British Maypole for May Day celebration, as adapted and transformed by the Afro-Nicaraguans on the Caribbean or Mosquito Coast. Of the many cultures that were present before European colonization, the Nahuatl-speaking peoples who populated the west of the country have been assimilated into the mainstream culture. In the east, several indigenous groups have maintained a distinct identity; the Miskito, Sumo and Rama people still use their original languages, usually speak Spanish and English. Spanish, or Nicañol as Nicaraguan Spanish is sometimes referred to, is spoken by 90% of the country's population. In the Caribbean coast many afro-Nicaraguans and creoles speak English and creole English as their first language. In the Caribbean coast, many Indigenous people speak their native languages, such as the Miskito, Sumo and Garifuna language. In addition, many ethnic groups in Nicaragua, such as the Chinese Nicaraguans and Palestinian Nicaraguans, have maintained their ancestral languages, which are minority languages, while speaking Spanish and/or English.
These minority languages include Chinese, Arabic and Italian, among others. Nicaragua was home to 3 extinct languages, one of, never classified. Nicaraguan Sign Language is of particular interest to linguists. Central American Spanish is spoken by about 90% of the country's population. In Nicaragua, the voseo form of Spanish is dominant in publications; the first nation to formally adopt the voseo dialect, Nicaragua is one two Central American nations that use voseo Spanish as its written and spoken form of the language. The usage is seen in Argentina, Uruguay and coastal Colombia. In the Caribbean coast, many Afro-Nicaraguans and creoles speak English and creole English as their first language, but they speak a fluent Spanish as a second language; the languages in the North and South Atlantic Regions are influenced by English, Portuguese and French. Many of the indigenous people on the Caribbean coast speak native languages such as the Miskito, Sumo and Garifuna language. In addition, many ethnic groups in Nicaragua have maintained their ancestral languages, while speaking Spanish or English.
Spanish is taught as the principal language. English is taught to students during their high school years and tends to be the national second language. Other languages Romance languages, can be found sporadically; some characteristics of Nicaraguan phonology include: /s/ at the end of a syllable or before a consonant is pronounced like. /j/ is aspirated. There is no confusion between /l/ and /r/, as in the Caribbean. /s/, /z/ and in some cases /c/ are pronounced as Religion is a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and forms part of the constitution. Religious freedom, guaranteed since 1939, religious tolerance is promoted by both the Nicaraguan government and the constitution. Bishops are expected to lend their authority to important state occasions, their pronouncements on national issues are followed, they can be called upon to mediate between contending parties at moments of political crisis. Although Nicaragua has no official religion it is nominally Roman Catholic. Practicing Roman Catholics are no longer the majority and are declining while evangelical Protestant groups and membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints are growing have been growing since the 1990s.
There are strong Anglican and Moravian communities on the Caribbean coast. Roman Catholicism came to Nicaragua in the sixteenth century with the Spanish conquest and remained until 1939 the established faith. Protestantism and other Christian sects came to Nicaragua during the nineteenth century, but only during the twentieth century have Protestant denominations gained large followings in the Caribbean Coast of the country. Popular religion revolves around the saints, who are perceived as intermediaries between human beings and God. Most localities, from the capital of Managua to small rural communities, honor patron saints selected from the Roman Catholic calendar, with annual fiestas. In many communities, a rich lore has grown up around the celebrations of patron saints, such as Managua's Saint Dominic, honored in August with two colorful riotous, day-long processions through the city; the high point of Nicaragua's religious calendar for the masses is neither Christmas nor Easter, but La Purísima, a week of festivities in early December dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, during whi
Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas
Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas encompasses the visual artistic traditions of the indigenous peoples of the Americas from ancient times to the present. These include works from South America, North America including Greenland, as well as Siberian Yup'ik peoples who have great cultural overlap with Native Alaskan Yup'iks. In North America, the Lithic stage or Paleo-Indian period is defined as 18,000–8000 BCE; the period from around 8000–800 BCE is referred to as the Archaic period. The production of bannerstones, Projectile point, Lithic reduction styles and pictographic cave paintings are some of the art that remains from this time period. Belonging in the Lithic stage, the oldest known art in the Americas is a carved megafauna bone from a mammoth, etched with a profile of walking mammoth or mastodon that dates back to 11,000 BCE; the bone was found early in the 21st century near Vero Beach, Florida, in an area where human bones had been found in association with extinct pleistocene animals early in the 20th century.
The bone is too mineralized to be dated, but the carving has been authenticated as having been made before the bone became mineralized. The anatomical correctness of the carving and the heavy mineralization of the bone indicate that the carving was made while mammoths and/or mastodons still lived in the area, more than 10,000 years ago; the oldest known painted object in North American is the Cooper Bison Skull from 10,900–10,200 BCE. Lithic age art in South America includes Monte Alegre culture rock paintings created at Caverna da Pedra Pintada dating back to 9250–8550 BCE. Guitarrero Cave in Peru has the earliest known textiles in South America, dating to 8000 BCE; the southwestern United States and certain regions of the Andes have the highest concentration of pictographs and Petroglyphs from this period. Both pictographs and petroglyphs are known as rock art; the Yup'ik of Alaska have a long tradition of carving masks for use in shamanic rituals. Indigenous peoples of the Canadian arctic have produced objects that could be classified as art since the time of the Dorset culture.
While the walrus ivory carvings of the Dorset were shamanic, the art of the Thule people who replaced them circa 1000 CE was more decorative in character. With European contact the historic period of Inuit art began. In this period, which reached its height in the late 19th century, Inuit artisans created souvenirs for the crews of whaling ships and explorers. Common examples include cribbage boards. Modern Inuit art began in the late 1940s, when with the encouragement of the Canadian government they began to produce prints and serpentine sculptures for sale in the south. Greenlandic Inuit have a unique textile tradition intregrating skin-sewing and appliqué of small pieces of brightly dyed marine mammal organs in mosaic designs, called avittat. Women create elaborate netted beadwork collars, they have strong mask-making tradition and are known for an art form called tupilaq or an "evil spirit object." Traditional art making practices thrive in the Ammassalik. Sperm whale ivory remains a valued medium for carving.
Inuit art from Alaska and Greenland Cultures of interior Alaska and Canada living south of the Arctic Circle are Subarctic peoples. While humans have lived in the region far longer, the oldest known surviving Subarctic art is a petroglyph site in northwest Ontario, dated to 5000 BCE. Caribou, to a lesser extent moose, are major resources, providing hides, antlers and other artistic materials. Porcupine quillwork embellishes hides and birchbark. After European contact with the influence of the Grey Nuns, moosehair tufting and floral glass beadwork became popular through the Subarctic; the art of the Haida, Heiltsuk and other smaller tribes living in the coastal areas of Washington State and British Columbia, is characterized by an complex stylistic vocabulary expressed in the medium of woodcarving. Famous examples include totem poles, transformation masks, canoes. In addition to woodwork, two dimensional painting and silver and copper engraved jewelry became important after contact with Europeans.
The Eastern Woodlands, or woodlands, cultures inhabited the regions of North America east of the Mississippi River at least since 2500 BCE. While there were many regionally distinct cultures, trade between them was common and they shared the practice of burying their dead in earthen mounds, which has preserved a large amount of their art; because of this trait the cultures are collectively known as the Mound builders. The Woodland period is divided into early and late periods, consisted of cultures that relied on hunting and gathering for their subsistence. Ceramics made by the Deptford culture are the earliest evidence of an artistic tradition in this region; the Adena culture are another well-known example of an early Woodland culture. They carved stone tablets with zoomorphic designs, created pottery, fashioned costumes from animal hides and antlers for ceremonial rituals. Shellfish was a mainstay of their diet, engraved shells have been found in their burial mounds; the Middle Woodland period was dominated by cultures of the Hopewell tradition.
Their artwork encompassed a wide variety of jewelry and sculpture in stone and human bone. The Late Woodland period saw a decline in trade and in the size of settlements, the creation of art declined. From the 12th century onward, the Iroquois and nearby coastal tribes fashioned wampum from shells and string. Iroquois people carve False Face masks for healing ritual
Guatemala the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; the territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841. From the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
A U. S.-backed military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military. Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, drug trade, instability; as of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot; the name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees" or more for the Cuate/Cuatli tree Eysenhardtia. This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC. There is archaeological proof. Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, the Postclassic period; until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts, few permanent buildings. However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; the Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization corresponds to the height of the Maya civilization, is represented by countless sites throughout Guatemala, although the largest concentration is in Petén.
This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states, contact with other Mesoamerican cultures. This lasted until 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed; the Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the drought theory is gaining currency, supported by evidence such as lakebeds, ancient pollen, others. A series of prolonged droughts, among other reasons such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya, who relied on regular rainfall; the Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj and Kejache in Petén, the Mam, Ki'che', Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands. Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture; the Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.
Advances such as writing and the calendar did not originate with the Maya. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Northern El Salvador to as far north as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to be the result of trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519. Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic. Hernán Cortés, who had led the Spanish conquest of Mexico, granted a permit to Captains Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado, to conquer this land. Alvarado at first allied himself with the Kaqchikel nation to fight against their traditional rivals the K'iche' nation
Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America. It extends from central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and northern Costa Rica, within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In the 16th century, European diseases like smallpox and measles caused the deaths of upwards of 90% of the indigenous people, it is one of five areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico in present-day Peru, in the northern coastal region. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. Beginning as early as 7000 BCE, the domestication of cacao, beans, avocado, vanilla and chili, as well as the turkey and dog, caused a transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer tribal grouping to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages. In the subsequent Formative period and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, a complex calendric system, a tradition of ball playing, a distinct architectural style, were diffused through the area.
In this period, villages began to become stratified and develop into chiefdoms with the development of large ceremonial centers, interconnected by a network of trade routes for the exchange of luxury goods, such as obsidian, cacao, Spondylus shells and ceramics. While Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf Coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica along the Pacific coast; this formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of centers such as El Mirador and Tikal, the Zapotec at Monte Albán.
During this period, the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures, the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya hieroglyphic script. Mesoamerica is one of only three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed. In Central Mexico, the height of the Classic period saw the ascendancy of the city of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area and northward. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 AD, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued. At this time during the Epi-Classic period, the Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages. During the early post-Classic period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán.
Towards the end of the post-Classic period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were subjected to Spanish colonial rule. Aspects of the Mesoamerican cultural heritage still survive among the indigenous peoples who inhabit Mesoamerica, many of whom continue to speak their ancestral languages, maintain many practices harking back to their Mesoamerican roots; the term Mesoamerica means "middle America" in Greek. Middle America refers to a larger area in the Americas, but it has previously been used more narrowly to refer to Mesoamerica. An example is the title of the 16 volumes of The Handbook of Middle American Indians. "Mesoamerica" is broadly defined as the area, home to the Mesoamerican civilization, which comprises a group of peoples with close cultural and historical ties. The exact geographic extent of Mesoamerica has varied through time, as the civilization extended North and South from its heartland in southern Mexico.
The term was first used by the German ethnologist Paul Kirchhoff, who noted that similarities existed among the various pre-Columbian cultures within the region that included southern Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, western Honduras, the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. In the tradition of cultural history, the prevalent archaeological theory of the early to middle 20th century, Kirchhoff defined this zone as a cultural area based on a suite of interrelated cultural similarities brought about by millennia of inter- and intra-regional interaction. Mesoamerica is recognized as a near-prototypical cultural area, the term is now integrated in the standard terminology of pre-Columbian anthropological studies. Conversely, the sister terms Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica, which refer to northern Mexico and the western United States have not entered into widespread usage; some of the significant cultural traits defining the Mesoamerican cultural tradition are: sedentism based on maize agricultu
Demographics of El Salvador
This article is about the demographic features of the population of El Salvador, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. El Salvador's population numbers 6.1 million. Ethnically, 86.3% of Salvadorans are mixed. Another 12.7% is of pure European descent, 1% are of pure indigenous descent, 0.16% are Black and others are 0.64%. El Salvador's population was 6,344,722 in 2016, compared to 2,200,000 in 1950. In 2010 the percentage of the population below the age of 15 was 32.1%, 61% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.9% were 65 years or older. The migration rate accelerated during the period of 1979 to 1981, this marked the beginning of the civil unrest and the spread of political killings; the total impact of civil wars and socioeconomics drove over a million Salvadorans into the United States. The 2010 U. S. Census counted 1,648,968 Salvadorans in the United States, up from 655,165 in 2000.
Out of the 6,408,111 people in El Salvador, 86.3% are Mestizo, 12.7% are of full European descent, 1% Indigenous, 0.8% Black, 0.64% other. 86.3 % of the population are mestizo, having European ancestry. In the mestizo population, Salvadorans who are racially European Mediterranean, as well as Afro-Salvadoran, the indigenous people in El Salvador who do not speak indigenous languages or have an indigenous culture, all identify themselves as being culturally mestizo. According to the Salvadoran Government, about 1% of the population are of full or partial indigenous origin; the largest most dominant Native American groups in El Salvador are the Lenca people, Maya peoples: and Pipil people followed by small enclaves of Cacaopera people, Xinca people, Alaguilac people, Mixe people, Mangue language people, as well as an Olmec past.. There are small populations of Cacaopera people in the Morazán Department and a few Ch'orti' people live in the department of Ahuachapán, near the border of Guatemala.
The number of indigenous people in El Salvador have been criticized by indigenous organizations and academics as too small and accuse the government of denying the existence of indigenous Salvadorans in the country. According to the National Salvadoran Indigenous Coordination Council and CONCULTURA 70,000 or 1 per cent of Salvadorian peoples are indigenous. Nonetheless few Amerindians have retained their customs and traditions, having over time assimilated into the dominant Mestizo/Spanish culture; the low numbers of indigenous people may be explained by high rates of old-world diseases, absorption into the mestizo population, as well as mass murder during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising which saw up to 30,000 peasants killed in a short period of time. Many authors note that since La Matanza the indigenous in El Salvador have been reluctant to describe themselves as such or to wear indigenous dress or be seen to be taking part in any cultural activities or customs that might be understood as indigenous.
Departments and cities in the country with notable indigenous populations include Sonsonate and Panchimalco, in the department of San Salvador. Some 12.7% of Salvadorans are white. This population is made up of ethnically Spanish people, while there are Salvadorans of French, Swiss, English and Italian descent. In northern departments like the Chalatenango Department, it is well known that residents in the area are of pure Spanish descent; the governor of San Salvador, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, ordered families from northern Spain to settle the area to compensate for the lack of indigenous people to work the land. There is a significant Arab population. Salvadorans of Palestinian descent numbered around 70,000 individuals, while Salvadorans of Lebanese descent is around 25,000. There is a small community of Jews who came to El Salvador from France, Morocco and Turkey. Pardo is the term, used in colonial El Salvador to describe a tri-racial Afro-Mestizo person of Indigenous and African descent.
Afro-Salvadorans are the descendants of the African population that were enslaved and shipped to El Salvador to work in mines in specific regions of El Salvador. They have mixed into and were bred out by the general Mestizo population, a combination of a Mestizo majority and the minority of Pardo people, both of whom are racially mixed populations. Thus, there remains no significant extremes of African physiognomy among Salvadorans like there is in the other countries of Central America. A total of only 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador over the span of 75 years, startin