Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region, it was founded on April 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's 3rd most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita. Brasília was planned and developed by Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and Joaquim Cardozo in 1956 to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location; the landscape architect was Roberto Burle Marx. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector and the Embassy Sector. Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning, it has been named "City of Design" by UNESCO in October 2017 and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. All three branches of Brazil's federal government are centered in the city: executive and judiciary.
Brasília hosts 124 foreign embassies. The city's international airport connects it to all other major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, is the third busiest airport in Brazil. Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city, it was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and hosted some of the football matches during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. Although Brasília is used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of, the area of the planned city called Plano Piloto; the rest of the Federal District is considered by IBGE to make up Brasília's metro area. From 1763 until 1960, Rio de Janeiro was Brazil's capital. At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast region near Rio de Janeiro and most of its population was concentrated near to the Atlantic Coast.
Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally neutral federal capital. An article of the country's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stated the capital should be moved from Rio de Janeiro to a place close to the country's center; the plan was conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazil for a new city called Brasília, with the idea of moving the capital westward from the populated southeastern corridor; the bill was not enacted because Pedro I dissolved the Assembly. According to legend, Italian saint Don Bosco in 1883 had a dream in which he described a futuristic city that fitted Brasília's location. In Brasília today, many references of Bosco, who founded the Salesian order, are found throughout the city and one church parish in the city bears his name. In 1955 Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president of Brazil. Upon taking office in January, 1956, in response to his campaign pledge, he initiated the planning and construction of the new capital.
In 1957 an international jury selected Lúcio Costa's plan to guide the construction of Brazil’s new capital, Brasília. Costa's plan was not as detailed as some of the plans presented by other architects and city planners, it did not include land use schedules, population charts or mechanical drawings, however, it was chosen by five out of six jurors because it had the features required to align the growth of a capital city Even though the initial plan was transformed over time, his plan oriented much of the construction and most of its features survived. Brasília's accession as the new capital and its designation for the development of an extensive interior region inspired the symbolism of the plan. Costa used a cross-axial design indicating the possession and conquest of this new place with a cross described by some as a dragonfly, an airplane or a bird. Costa's plan included the Monumental Axis and the Residential Axis; the Monumental Axis was assigned political and administrative activities and is considered the body of the city with the style and simplicity of its buildings, oversized scales, broad vistas and heights, producing the idea of Monumentality.
This axis includes the various ministries, national congress, presidential palace, supreme court building and the television and radio tower. The Residential Axis was intended to contain areas with intimate character and is considered the most important achievement of the plan; the urban design of the communal apartment blocks was based on Le Corbusier's Ville Radieuse of 1935 and the superblocks on the North American Radburn layout from 1929. Visually, the blocks were intended to appear absorbed by the landscape because they were isolated by a belt of tall trees and lower vegetation. Costa attempted to introduce a Brazil, more equitable, he designed housing for the working classes, separated from the upper and middle-class housing and was visually different, with the intention of avoiding slums (f
Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu is a union territory in western India. With an area of 112 km2, it is the smallest federal division of India on the mainland; the territory comprises two distinct regions—Daman and Diu—that are geographically separated by the Gulf of Khambhat. The state of Gujarat and the Arabian Sea border the territory. A Portuguese colony since the 1500s, the territories were annexed by India in 1961. For over 450 years, the coastal enclaves of Daman and Diu on the Arabian Sea coast were part of Portuguese India, along with Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Goa and Diu were incorporated into the Republic of India on December 19, 1961, by military conquest. Portugal did not recognise the Indian annexation of these territories until the Carnation Revolution of 1974; the territory of Goa and Diu was administered as a single union territory until 1987, when Goa was granted statehood, leaving Daman and Diu as a separate union territory. Each enclave constitutes one of the union territory's two districts.
Daman and Diu are 650 kilometres away from each other by road. According to the 2011 census and Diu has a literacy rate of 87.1%, higher than the national average of 74.04%. Male and female literacy rates are 79.5 percent respectively. According to the 2011 census, the lowest female-to-male ratio in India was recorded in Daman and Diu; the Daman district, with a female-to-male ratio of.533, is among the lowest of all the districts. Hinduism is by far the most common religion in Diu. Muslims are the second-largest religious group in the territory, followed by Christians; the Catholic Christians of Daman and Diu are pastorally served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman, which has its see in Goa, the primatial see of India. Gujarati is the mother tongue of most of the territory’s population, as they belong to the Gujarati-speaking Damaniya sub-caste. Along with Gujarati and English are widely used. Daman and Diu were once part of a combined union territory along with Goa, before Goa became a state in 1987.
The use of Portuguese, the territory’s official language during the colonial period, is in decline and relegated to home use. It is used as a liturgical language by the territory’s Catholics. Standard Portuguese exists in a post-creole continuum while Daman and Diu Portuguese is spoken by about 10,000–12,000 people in Daman; the languages taught in schools in Daman and Diu under the three-language formula are:First language: Gujarati Second language: Hindi Third language: English According to the Constitution of India, Administration of Daman and Diu is carried out by an Administrator, appointed by the President of India as an agent of the President, not a head of state/government or a governor. This post was held by Shri B. S. Bhalla, IAS officer, he was assisted by a number of other officers in carrying out his duty. This post is held by Praful Khoda Patel. Diu District, an area of 40 km2; the main settlement is the town of Diu. Daman District, an area of 28 sq mi or 72 km2; the main settlement is the city of Daman.
The state's domestic product for Daman and Diu in 2005 was estimated at 156 million US dollars at current prices. In Daman, the most popular schools are Institute of Our Lady of Fátima located in Moti Daman, Coast Guard Public School in Nani Daman, Sarvajanik Vidyalaya in Nani Daman, Shri Macchi Mahajan High School in Nani Daman, other government institutions. There is a college named Government College, Daman which has most of the educational facilities. Diu College is another degree college in Diu. Daman and Diu are connected by roads, are 12 km from Vapi, 125 km from Surat, 195 km from Mumbai. Vapi railway station on the Western Railway is the station nearest to Daman, connects to all major cities. Diu Airport has commercial air services. An island located near Una, Diu is quite close to Delwada Railway Station. If you want to visit Diu, direct trains from Ahmedabad commute to Veraval, at a distance of 90 km from Diu. Gujarati: DamanGanga Times Vartaman Pravah Gujarat Mitra Gujarat Samachar Janadesh Praja SamacharEnglish: The Business Line Deccan Chronicle The Economic Times Free Press Journal The Hans India The Hindu Hindustan Times The New Indian Express The Times of IndiaMarathi: Lokmat Loksatta Pudhari SakalHindi: Dainik Jagran Jansatta Nai Dunia Nava Bharat Sanmarg Savera India The Territory Times Airtel, Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular, JIO, Reliance Mobile, Tata Docomo, Vodafone Satellite television: Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, TATA Sky Radio: All India Radio, FM Daman and Diu house various buildings and monuments with Portuguese-styled architecture.
The nearest railway junction is Veraval, 90 km from Diu. Major cities like Mumbai, Pune, Jabalpur and Thiruvananthapuram are directly connected to Veraval Railway Station. Delwada is 8 km from Diu. Jain Temple: This 18th-century temple is situated in northern region of Nani Daman Fort and is dedicated to Mahavir Swami; the temple has beautiful carvings. The walls have an elegant glass cover with 18th-century murals that represents the life of Mahavir Swami. Nani Daman Fort Diu Fort Fort of Moti Daman St. Thomas Church Nadia Caves St. Paul's Church Tower of Silence Daman Freedom Memorial Fortim do Mar Portuguese Fort Se CathedralBeachesNagoa Beach is in Diu. Ghoghla Beach is the largest beach on the island of Diu. Chakratirth Beach is in Diu. Gomtimata Beach is in Diu. Jallandhar Beach has a shrine; the beach is named after Jallandhar
Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory. It is a planned city and was built in the 1980s, replacing the country's most populous city of Lagos as the capital on 12 December 1991. Abuja's geography is defined by a 400-metre monolith left by water erosion; the Presidential Complex, National Assembly, Supreme Court and much of the city extend to the south of the rock. Zuma Rock, a 792-metre monolith, lies just north of the city on the expressway to Kaduna. At the 2006 census, the city of Abuja had a population of 776,298, making it one of the ten most populous cities in Nigeria. According to the United Nations, Abuja grew by 139.7% between 2000 and 2010, making it the fastest growing city in the world. As of 2015, the city is experiencing an annual growth of at least 35%, retaining its position as the fastest-growing city on the African continent and one of the fastest-growing in the world; as at 2016, the metropolitan area of Abuja is estimated at six million persons, placing it behind only Lagos, as the most populous metro area in Nigeria.
Major religious sites include the Nigerian National Mosque and the Nigerian National Christian Centre. The city is served by the Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport. Abuja is known for being one of the few purpose-built capital cities in Africa, as well as being one of the wealthiest. Abuja is Nigeria's political centre, it is a key capital on the African continent due to Nigeria's geo-political influence in regional affairs. Abuja is a conference centre and hosts various meetings annually, such as the 2003 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting and the 2014 World Economic Forum meetings. "Abuja" was in the earlier 20th century the name of the nearby town now called Suleja. The indigenous inhabitants of Abuja are the Gbagyi, with the Gbagyi language the major of the region language, others in the area being Bassa, Gade and Koro. In light of the ethnic and religious divisions of Nigeria, plans had been devised since Nigeria's independence to have its capital in a place deemed neutral to all major ethnic parties, in close proximity to all the regions of Nigeria.
The location was designated in the centre of the country in the early 1970s as it signified neutrality and national unity. Another impetus for Abuja came because of Lagos' population boom that made that city overcrowded and conditions squalid; as Lagos was undergoing rapid economic development, the Nigerian regime felt the need to expand the economy towards the inner part of the country, hence decided to move its capital to Abuja. The logic used was similar to the way Brazil planned Brasília; the decision to move to Abuja was made by General Murtala Mohammed in 1976. Construction started in the late 1970s but, due to economic and political instability, the initial stages of the city were not complete until the late 1980s; the master plan for Abuja and the Federal Capital Territory was developed by International Planning Associates, a consortium of three American firms: Planning Research Corporation. The master plan for Abuja defined the general structure and major design elements of the city that are visible in its current form.
More detailed design of the central areas of the capital its monumental core, was accomplished by Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, with his team of city planners at Kenzo Tange and Urtec company. Most countries relocated their embassies to Abuja, many maintain their former embassies as consulates in Lagos, the commercial capital of Nigeria. Abuja is the headquarters of the Economic Community of West African States and the regional headquarters of OPEC. Abuja and the FCT have experienced huge population growth. Squatter settlements and towns have spread in and outside the city limits. Tens of thousands of people have been evicted since former FCT minister Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai started a demolition campaign in 2003. Abuja under Köppen climate classification features a tropical dry climate; the FCT experiences three weather conditions annually. This includes a blistering dry season. In between the two, there is a brief interlude of harmattan occasioned by the northeast trade wind, with the main feature of dust haze and dryness.
The rainy season begins from April and ends in October, when daytime temperatures reach 28 °C to 30 °C and nighttime lows hover around 22 °C to 23 °C. In the dry season, daytime temperatures can soar as high as 40 °C and nighttime temperatures can dip to 12 °C; the chilliest nights can be followed by daytime temperatures well above 30 °C. The high altitudes and undulating terrain of the FCT act as a moderating influence on the weather of the territory; the city's inland location causes the diurnal temperature variation to be much larger than coastal cities with similar climates such as Lagos. Rainfall in the FCT reflects the territory's location on the windward side of the Jos Plateau and the zone of rising air masses with the city receiving frequent rainfall during the rainy season from April to October every year; the FCT falls within the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic zone of the West African sub-region. Patches of rain forest, occur in the Gwagwa plains in the rugged terrain to the southeastern parts of the territory, where a landscape of gullies and rough terrain is found.
These areas of the Federal Capital Territory form one of the few
Nasarawa is a state in north central zone of Nigeria. Its capital is Lafia. Nasarawa was created on 1 October 1996 by the Abacha government from the Plateau State. Nasarawa State is bounded in the north by Kaduna State, in the west by the Abuja Federal Capital Territory, in the south by Kogi and Benue States and in the east by Taraba and Plateau States. A network of roads exist within the state, linking all major towns; the Nigerian Railway Corporation operates train services from Kuru and Maiduguri. The State has three National Senatorial Districts. Nasarawa State consists of thirteen Local Government Areas: List of current Local Government Area Chairmen. Nasarawa State has agriculture as the mainstay of its economy with the production of varieties of cash crops throughout the year, it contains various minerals such as salt and bauxite, which are mined by artisanal miners. The state has a College of Education in Akwanga, Federal polytechnic Nasarawa, College of Agriculture in Lafia, Nasarawa State Polytechnic in Lafia, Nasarawa State University in Keffi, a newly established Federal University of Lafia, other vocational training schools.
Nasarawa State is home to the Farin Ruwa Falls in Wamba Local Government area of the state. Farin Ruwa falls. There is the Salt Village in Keana Local Government Area of the State, it produces iodized salt from the lake located near it. The town is one of the cradles of Alago civilization, one of the major ethnic groups in the state. Nasarawa State website
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D. C; the court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals; the court occupies the Howard T. Markey National Courts Building, the adjacent Benjamin Ogle Tayloe House, the former Cosmos Club, the Cutts-Madison House in Washington, D. C; the court sits from time to time in locations other than Washington, its judges can and do sit by designation on the benches of other courts of appeals and federal district courts. The Federal Circuit is unique among the courts of appeals as it is the only court that has its jurisdiction based wholly upon subject matter rather than geographic location.
The Federal Circuit is an appellate court with jurisdiction given in 28 U. S. C. § 1295. The court hears certain appeals from all of the United States District Courts, appeals from certain administrative agencies, appeals arising under certain statutes. Among other things, the Federal Circuit has exclusive jurisdiction over appeals from: Article I tribunals: United States Court of Federal Claims United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims United States Trademark Trial and Appeal Board United States Patent Trial and Appeal Board Boards of contract appeals: Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals Civilian Board of Contract Appeals Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals United States Merit Systems Protection Board United States International Trade Commission Article III tribunals: United States Court of International Trade United States district courts relating to: Patents, including appeals arising from an action against the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks under 35 U. S. C. § 145 The Little Tucker Act, 28 U.
S. C. § 1346 Section 211 of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970. Congress, overruled the Supreme Court in the America Invents Act of 2011; as a result, the Federal Circuit hears all appeals where the original action included a complaint or compulsory counterclaim arising under the patent laws. The decisions of the Federal Circuit in regard to patent cases, are unique in that they are binding precedent throughout the U. S. within the bounds of the court's subject-matter jurisdiction. This is unlike the other courts of appeals as the authority of their decisions is restricted by geographic location and thus there may be differing judicial standards depending on location. Decisions of the Federal Circuit are only superseded by decisions of the Supreme Court or by applicable changes in the law. Review by the Supreme Court is discretionary, so Federal Circuit decisions are the final word since there are no circuit splits given the Federal Circuit's exclusive subject-matter jurisdiction. In its first decision, the Federal Circuit incorporated as binding precedent the decisions of its predecessor courts, the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims.
Because the Court is one of national jurisdiction, panels from the court may sit anywhere in the country. Once or twice a year, the court will hold oral arguments in a city outside of its native Washington D. C; the panels may sit in Federal courthouses, state courthouses, or at law schools. The Federal Circuit may have a total of 12 active circuit judges sitting at any given time, who are required to reside within 50 miles of the District of Columbia, as set by 28 U. S. C. § 44. Judges on senior status are not subject to this restriction; as with other federal judges, they are nominated by the President and must be confirmed by the Senate. Their terms last during the "good behavior" of the judges, which results in life tenure; when eligible, judges may elect to take senior status. This allows a senior judge to continue to serve on the court while handling fewer cases than an active service judge; each judge in active service employs a judicial assistant and up to four law clerks, while each judge in senior status employs a judicial assistant and one law clerk.
As of July 8, 2015, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority am
Putrajaya the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, is a planned city and the federal administrative centre of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya because of overcrowding and congestion in the former. Kuala Lumpur remains Malaysia's national capital and is the seat of the King, the Parliament, all the foreign embassies, the country's commercial and financial centre. Putrajaya was the idea of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, it became Malaysia's third Federal Territory, after Kuala Lumpur and Labuan, in 2001. Named after the first Malaysian Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, the territory is enclaved within the Sepang District of the state of Selangor. Putrajaya is a part of MSC Malaysia, a special economic zone that covers Klang Valley. In Sanskrit, "putra" means "prince" or "male child", "jaya" means "success" or "victory"; the development of Putrajaya started in the early 1990s. Putrajaya used to be Prang Besar, was founded in 1921 by British veterans of the Great War, hence the name.
Its land area of 800 acres expanded to 8,000 acres, it was merged with surrounding estates, including Estet Raja Alang, Estet Galloway and Estet Bukit Prang. Until 1975, what is today Putrajaya, along with adjacent Cyberjaya, were under the administration of Hulu Langat district; the vision of a new Federal Government Administrative Centre to replace Kuala Lumpur as the administrative capital emerged in the late 1980s, during the tenure of Malaysia's fourth prime minister, Mahathir bin Mohamad. The new city was proposed to be located between Kuala Lumpur and the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Two areas were proposed: Prang Besar and Janda Baik of Pahang; the Federal government negotiated with the state of Selangor on the prospect of another Federal Territory. In the mid-1990s the Federal government paid a substantial amount of money to Selangor for 11,320 acres of land in Prang Besar, Selangor; as a result of this land purchase, the state of Selangor now surrounds two Federal territories within its borders, namely Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.
Planned as a garden city and intelligent city, 38% of the area is reserved for green spaces in which the natural landscape is enhanced. The plan incorporated a network of wide boulevards. Construction began in August 1995; the entire project was designed and constructed by Malaysian companies with only 10% of the materials imported. The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997/1998 somewhat slowed the development of Putrajaya. 300 members of the Prime Minister's office staff moved there in 1999, the remaining government servants moved in 2005. On 1 February 2001 Prime Minister Mahathir declared Putrajaya as a Federal Territory in a ceremony by which the Putrajaya township was handed over to the Federal Government from the Selangor state authorities. In 2002 a rail line called KLIA Transit was opened; the construction of the Putrajaya Monorail, intended to be the city's metro system, was suspended owing to high costs. One of the monorail suspension bridges in Putrajaya remains unused. In April 2013 the Putrajaya government signed a letter of intent with the government of Sejong City in South Korea to mark co-operation between the two cities.
As of 2012 all of Malaysia's governmental ministries had relocated to Putrajaya. The only ministries remaining in Kuala Lumpur were the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Works. Alamanda Putrajaya Shopping Centre, located near the governmental ministries in Precinct 1, was opened to serve people who work and live in Putrajaya. In 2007 the population of Putrajaya was estimated to be over 30,000, which comprised government servants. Government servants have been encouraged to relocate to the city through a variety of government subsidy and loan programs; the population had increased to 88,300 by 2015. As of 2010, the population of Putrajaya is 97.4% Muslim, 1.0% Hindu, 0.9% Christian, 0.4% Buddhist, 0.2% unknown and 0.1% other religions. The Malaysian constitution defines what makes a "Malay", considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay practise Malay customs, lived in or have ancestors from Indonesia, Brunei and Singapore. Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 45.9% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities identifying as Muslims and Chinese folk religions.
The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus, with significant minorities identifying as Christians and Buddhists. The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Muslims and Christians, with significant minorities identifying as Atheists and Buddhists. Perdana Putra – office of the Prime Minister Seri Perdana – official residence of the Prime Minister Seri Satria – official residence of the Deputy Prime Minister Palace of Justice Ministry of Finance Wisma Putra – Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Melawati National Palace Istana Darul Ehsan Putrajaya International Convention Centre Perdana Leadership Foundation Heritage Square Putrajaya Corporation Square Selera Putra Souq Putrajaya Pusat Kejiranan Presint 9 Pusat Kejiranan Presint 16 Putra Mosque Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Mosque PUSPANITAPURI (PERSATUAN KESEJAHTERAAN RAKYAT MALAY