Tribal sovereignty in the United States
Tribal sovereignty in the United States is the concept of the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States. The U. S. federal government recognizes tribal nations as "domestic dependent nations" and has established a number of laws attempting to clarify the relationship between the federal and tribal governments. The United States Constitution mentions Native American tribes three times: Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 states that "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... excluding Indians not taxed." According to Story's Commentaries on the U. S. Constitution, "There were Indians in several, in most, of the states at that period, who were not treated as citizens, yet, who did not form a part of independent communities or tribes, exercising general sovereignty and powers of government within the boundaries of the states." Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution states that "Congress shall have the power to regulate Commerce with foreign nations and among the several states, with the Indian tribes", determining that Indian tribes were separate from the federal government, the states, foreign nations.
These basic provisions have been changed or clarified by various federal laws over the history of the United States. Regulate meant facilitate, rather than control or direct in the more modern sense. Therefore, the Congress of these United States was to be the facilitator of commerce between the states and the tribes; these Constitutional provisions, subsequent interpretations by the Supreme Court, are today summarized in three principles of U. S. Indian law: Territorial sovereignty: Tribal authority on Indian land is organic and is not granted by the states in which Indian lands are located. Plenary power doctrine: Congress, not the Executive Branch or Judicial Branch, has ultimate authority with regard to matters affecting the Indian tribes. Federal courts give greater deference to Congress on Indian matters than on other subjects. Trust relationship: The federal government has a "duty to protect" the tribes, implying the necessary legislative and executive authorities to effect that duty; the Marshall Trilogy is a set of three Supreme Court decisions in the early nineteenth century affirming the legal and political standing of Indian nations.
Johnson v. M'Intosh, holding that private citizens could not purchase lands from Native Americans. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, holding the Cherokee nation dependent, with a relationship to the United States like that of a "ward to its guardian". Worcester v. Georgia, which laid out the relationship between tribes and the state and federal governments, stating that the federal government was the sole authority to deal with Indian nations; the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 had two significant sections. First, the Act ended United States recognition of additional Native American tribes or independent nations, prohibited additional treaties, thus it required the federal government no longer interact with the various tribes through treaties, but rather through statutes: That hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe.
Before 1871, the United States had recognized the Indian Tribes as semi-independent. The 1871 Act made it a federal crime to commit murder, rape, assault with intent to kill, arson and larceny within any Territory of the United States; the 1871 Act was affirmed in 1886 by the US Supreme Court, in United States v. Kagama, which affirmed that the Congress has plenary power over all Native American tribes within its borders by rationalization that "The power of the general government over these remnants of a race once powerful... is necessary to their protection as well as to the safety of those among whom they dwell". The Supreme Court affirmed that the US Government "has the right and authority, instead of controlling them by treaties, to govern them by acts of Congress, they being within the geographical limit of the United States.... The Indians owe no allegiance to a State within which their reservation may be established, the State gives them no protection." On April 10, 1883, five years after establishing Indian police powers throughout the various reservations, the Indian Commissioner approved rules for a "court of Indian offenses".
The court provided a venue for prosecuting criminal charges, but afforded no relief for tribes seeking to resolve civil matters. The new courts' rules targeted tribal religious practices which it called "heathenish rites" and the commissioner urged courts to "destroy the tribal relations as fast as possible". Another five years Congress began providing funds to operate the Indian courts. While U. S. courts clarified some of the rights and responsibilities of states and the federal government toward the Indian nations within the new nation's first century, it was another century before United States courts determined what powers remained vested in the tribal nations. In the interim, as a trustee charged with protecting their interests and property, the federal government was entrusted with ownership and administration of the assets, land and treaty rights of the tribal nations. Passed by Congress in 1887, the "Dawes Act" was named for Senator Henry L
In the United States, the Miranda warning is a type of notification customarily given by police to criminal suspects in police custody advising them of their right to silence. These rights are referred to as Miranda rights; the purpose of such notification is to preserve the admissibility of their statements made during custodial interrogation in criminal proceedings. The language used in a Miranda warning varies between jurisdictions, but the warning is deemed adequate as long as the defendant's rights are properly disclosed such that any waiver of those rights by the defendant is knowing and intelligent. For example, the warning may be phrased. Anything you say can be used against you in court. You have the right to talk to a lawyer for advice. You have the right to have a lawyer with you during questioning. If you can not afford a lawyer, one will be appointed for you before any questioning. If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you have the right to stop answering at any time.
The Miranda warning is part of a preventive criminal procedure rule that law enforcement are required to administer to protect an individual, in custody and subject to direct questioning or its functional equivalent from a violation of his or her Fifth Amendment right against compelled self-incrimination. In Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court held that the admission of an elicited incriminating statement by a suspect not informed of these rights violates the Fifth Amendment and the Sixth Amendment right to counsel, through the incorporation of these rights into state law. Thus, if law enforcement officials decline to offer a Miranda warning to an individual in their custody, they may interrogate that person and act upon the knowledge gained, but may not use that person's statements as evidence against them in a criminal trial; the concept of "Miranda rights" was enshrined in U. S. law following the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona Supreme Court decision, which found that the Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights of Ernesto Arturo Miranda had been violated during his arrest and trial for armed robbery and rape of a mentally handicapped young woman.
The circumstances triggering the Miranda safeguards, i.e. Miranda rights, are "custody" and "interrogation". Custody means formal arrest or the deprivation of freedom to an extent associated with formal arrest. Interrogation means explicit questioning or actions that are reasonably to elicit an incriminating response; the Supreme Court did not specify the exact wording to use. However, the Court did create a set of guidelines; the ruling states:... The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be informed that he/she has the right to remain silent, that anything the person says will be used against that person in court. In Berkemer v. McCarty, the Supreme Court decided that a person subjected to custodial interrogation is entitled to the benefit of the procedural safeguards enunciated in Miranda, regardless of the nature or severity of the offense of which they are suspected or for which they were arrested; as a result, American English developed the verb Mirandize, meaning "read the Miranda rights to" a suspect.
Notably, the Miranda rights do not have to be read in any particular order, they do not have to match the language of the Miranda case as long as they are adequately and conveyed. In Berghuis v. Thompkins, the Supreme Court held that unless a suspect expressly states that they are invoking this right, subsequent voluntary statements made to an officer can be used against them in court, police can continue to interact with the alleged criminal; every U. S. jurisdiction has its own regulations regarding what must be said to a person arrested or placed in a custodial situation. The typical warning states: You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Anything you say may be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. If you can not afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning. If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present, you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney.
Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present? The courts have since ruled that the warning must be "meaningful", so it is required that the suspect be asked if they understand their rights. Sometimes, firm answers of "yes" are required; some departments and jurisdictions require that an officer ask "do you understand?" after every sentence in the warning. An arrestee's silence is not a waiver, but on June 1, 2010, the Supreme Court ruled 5–4 that police are allowed to i
Capital punishment in the United States
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States used by 30 states, the federal government, the military. Its existence can be traced to the beginning of the American colonies; the United States is the only developed Western nation. It is one of 54 countries worldwide applying it, was the first to develop lethal injection as a method of execution, which has since been adopted by five other countries; the Philippines has since abolished executions, Guatemala has done so for civil offenses, leaving the United States one of 4 countries to use this method, along with China and Vietnam. There were no executions in the United States between 1967 and 1977. In 1972, the U. S. Supreme Court struck down capital punishment statutes in Furman v. Georgia, reducing all death sentences pending at the time to life imprisonment. Subsequently, a majority of states passed new death penalty statutes, the court affirmed the legality of capital punishment in the 1976 case Gregg v. Georgia. Since more than 7,800 defendants have been sentenced to death.
A total of 161 who were sentenced to death in the modern era were exonerated before their execution. As of April 1, 2018, 2,743 are still on death row; the first recorded death sentence in the British North American colonies was carried out in 1608 on Captain George Kendall, executed by firing squad at the Jamestown colony for spying for the Spanish government. The Bill of Rights adopted in 1789 included the Eighth Amendment which prohibited cruel and unusual punishment; the Fifth Amendment was drafted with language implying a possible use of the death penalty, requiring a grand jury indictment for "capital crime" and a due process of law for deprivation of "life" by the government. The Fourteenth Amendment adopted in 1868 requires a due process of law for deprivation of life by any states; the Espy file, compiled by M. Watt Espy and John Ortiz Smykla, lists 15,269 people executed in the United States and its predecessor colonies between 1608 and 1991. From 1930 to 2002, there were 4,661 executions in the U.
S. about two-thirds of them in the first 20 years. Additionally, the United States Army executed 135 soldiers between 1916 and 1955. Three states abolished the death penalty for murder during the 19th century: Michigan in 1846, Wisconsin in 1853 and Maine in 1887. Rhode Island is a state with a long abolitionist background, having repealed the death penalty in 1852, though it was theoretically available for murder committed by a prisoner between 1872 and 1984. Other states which abolished the death penalty for murder before Gregg v. Georgia include: Minnesota in 1911, Vermont in 1964, Iowa and West Virginia in 1965 and North Dakota in 1973. Hawaii abolished the death penalty in 1948 and Alaska both before their statehood. Puerto Rico repealed it in 1929 and the District of Columbia in 1981. Arizona and Oregon abolished the death penalty by popular vote in 1916 and 1964 but both reinstated it, again by popular vote, some years later. Puerto Rico and Michigan are the only two U. S. jurisdictions to have explicitly prohibited capital punishment in their constitutions: in 1952 and 1964, respectively.
Capital punishment continued to be used by a majority of states and the federal government for various crimes murder and rape, from the creation of the United States up to the beginning of the 1960s. Until "save for a few mavericks, no one gave any credence to the possibility of ending the death penalty by judicial interpretation of constitutional law", according to abolitionist Hugo Bedau; the possibility of challenging the constitutionality of the death penalty became progressively more realistic after the Supreme Court of the United States decided on Trop v. Dulles in 1958; the Supreme court declared explicitly, for the first time, that the Eighth Amendment's cruel and unusual clause must draw its meaning from the "evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society", rather than from its original meaning. In the 1932 case Powell v. Alabama, the court made the first step of what would be called "death is different" jurisprudence, when it held that any indigent defendant was entitled to a court-appointed attorney in capital cases – a right, only extended to non-capital defendants in 1963, with Gideon v. Wainwright.
In Furman v. Georgia, the U. S. Supreme Court considered a group of consolidated cases; the lead case involved an individual convicted under Georgia's death penalty statute, which featured a "unitary trial" procedure in which the jury was asked to return a verdict of guilt or innocence and determine whether the defendant would be punished by death or life imprisonment. The last pre-Furman execution was that of Luis Monge on June 2, 1967. In a 5–4 decision, the Supreme Court struck down the impositions of the death penalty in each of the consolidated cases as unconstitutional in violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution; the Supreme Court has never ruled the death penalty to be per se unconstitutional. The five justices in the majority did not produce a common opinion or rationale for their decision and agreed only on a short statement announcing the result; the narrowest opinions, those of Byron White and Potter Stewart, expressed generalized concerns about the inconsistent application of the death penalty across a variety of cases, but did not exclude the possibility of a constitutional death penalty law.
Stewart and William O. Douglas worried explicitly about racial discrimination in en
Police uniforms of the United States
Police uniforms in the United States vary due to the nation's tradition of decentralized law enforcement. Over time, however, a number of general conventions and styles have become representative of American police fashion. Police officers wear uniforms to deter crime by establishing a visible presence while on patrol, to make themselves identifiable to non-police officers or their colleagues who require assistance, to identify each other at crime scenes for ease of coordination. Centralized, municipally-managed police departments were unknown in the United States prior to the 1830s. Early law enforcement functions were performed by volunteer watchmen as well as elected or appointed constables and sheriffs, who were paid by the fee system for warrants they served; the advent of professional police forces in the United States foreshadowed the introduction of standardized police uniforms. While uniforms for police had been introduced in the United Kingdom as early as 1828, adoption of standardized dress in the United States took longer, with many of the new police objecting to uniforms out of concern they would be subject to public ridicule.
Nonetheless, in 1854, the New York City Police Department became the United States' first municipal police force to issue uniforms to its officers. New York City was followed, in 1858, by Boston and soon thereafter, other cities; the navy blue uniforms adopted by many police departments in this early period were surplus United States Army uniforms from the Civil War. Cover took the form of stovepipe hats, a starched woolen head cover similar in appearance to a top hat but with a squatter dimension, or British-style custodian helmets. In rural areas, where preventative policing was limited or non-existent, sheriff's deputies continued to wear civilian attire, using only their badge as a mark of identification. In many states this practice continued well into the following century; the Orange County, California sheriff's office, for instance, did not adopt a uniform until 1938. By the early 20th century, the style and form of American police uniforms had settled into its modern pattern of button-up shirts, neckties and military-style blouses with unbanded collars, all worn with peaked hats.
Many early uniforms had loose-fitting jackets that would conceal a police officer's equipment, such as truncheon and sidearm. Beginning in the 1930s, officers more began wearing their personal gear on a Sam Browne belt worn outside the coat, for ease of access. One of the biggest evolutionary experiments in police uniform design began in 1969, when the police department in Menlo Park, California moved away from typical police uniforms, opting instead for a dress style designed to better emulate civilian fashion trends and communicate a "softer" appearance; the new uniforms consisted of black slacks, a white shirt and black necktie. Officers wore their weapons concealed under their coats. Many other police departments soon followed the Menlo Park lead. In psychological tests, it was discovered police - after using the new uniform - displayed less authoritarian personality characteristics. In addition and suspects injured during arrests by police dropped by 50-percent and assaults on officers by suspects plummeted by nearly a third.
Despite these promising signs, however, it was subsequently determined that other factors, including increased police recruitment of college graduates and adoption of more responsive management techniques, had accounted for the statistical shifts. By the eighth year of the uniform experiment, assaults on police had more than doubled from what they were prior to the dress change and the "civilian" style uniforms were subsequently dropped. Despite the wide variety of uniforms used by United States police departments all incorporate the use of metallic badges as a means of primary identification. Unlike in the United Kingdom, where officers both in and out of uniform carry - but do not publicly display - paper or plastic warrant cards, US police badges are the official symbol of office and are prominently worn over the left chest of the uniform. In Virginia, for instance, police only have the power to make arrests when "in uniform, or displaying a badge of office."Badges are engraved with a unique identification number matched to the officer to whom it is issued.
Some departments - most notably the New York City Police Department - traditionally pass individual badges through several generations of police so that current officers can establish a symbolic connection with the retired and deceased officers to whom their badge had been issued. In the case of the NYPD, officers who misplace their badge are docked five days of vacation time and many officers wear replica badges to avoid losing their issued badge. Federal law prohibits the sale or purchase of counterfeit police badges and many states have laws regulating the wearing of metallic badges by persons other than law enforcement. Florida, for instance, prohibits unauthorized persons from wearing or displaying badges if their wear or display would be to deceive someone. New York, Massachusetts and New Jersey, allow private security guards to wear badges provided they are in the shape of a square and not the more traditional shield or star shape used by police. Badges are constructed out of metal with an enamel finish in either a gold and/or silver.
As a general rule, the badges issued by county sheriff's offices take the form of a five, six, or seven-pointed star, while municipal police have shiel
United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the chief lawyer of the federal government of the United States, head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U. S. C. § 503, oversees all governmental legal affairs. Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution, the officeholder is nominated by the President of the United States and appointed with the advice and consent of the United States Senate; the U. S. Constitution provides that civil officers of the United States, which would include the U. S. Attorney General, may be impeached by Congress for treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors; the United States Attorney General may be removed at will by the President of the United States under the Supreme Court decision Myers v. United States, which found that executive branch officials may be removed without the consent of any entity. In cases of the federal death penalty, the power to seek the death penalty rests with the U. S. Attorney General; the current Attorney General is William Barr.
Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 which, among other things, established the Office of the Attorney General. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments"; the Department of Justice was established in 1870 to support the Attorney General in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important Cabinet officials in the United States because of the significance and age of their respective departments, it is the practice for the Attorney General, along with many other public officials, to give resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day of a new President. The Deputy Attorney General, required to tender their resignation, is requested to stay on and act as Attorney General pending the confirmation by the Senate of the new Attorney General.
For example, on the inauguration of President Donald Trump on January 20, 2017, the tenure of the Attorney General Loretta Lynch was brought to an end, the Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates, who had tendered her resignation, was asked to stay on and be Acting Attorney General until the confirmation of the new Attorney General Jeff Sessions, nominated for the office in November 2016 by then-President-elect Donald Trump. Parties Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of April 2019, there are ten, living former US Attorneys General, the oldest being Ramsey Clark; the most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7, 2016. William Barr, who served from 1991-1993, returned to the post and is serving, excluding him from this list. U. S. C. Title 28, §508 establishes the first two positions in the line of succession, while allowing the Attorney General to designate other high-ranking officers of the Department of Justice as subsequent successors. Furthermore, an Executive Order defines subsequent positions, the most recent from March 31, 2017, signed by President Donald Trump.
The current line of succession is: United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General Other Officers designated by the Attorney General: Solicitor General of the United States Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division Assistant Attorney General, National Security Division Assistant Attorney General and Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General, Justice Management Division Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legislative Affairs United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia United States Attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina United States Attorney for the Northern District of Texas United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General United States Assistant Attorney General United States Solicitor General List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Executive Order 13787 for "Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Justice" Official website
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
Campus police or university police in the United States, Canada are sworn police officers employed by a college or university to protect that private property of the campus and surrounding areas and the people who live and visit it. McMaster University Security Service University of Alberta Protective Services University of Toronto Campus Community Police Service University of Guelph Campus Community Police Service University of Waterloo Police University of Western Ontario Police University of Windsor Police Fanshawe College Special Constable Service Wilfred Laurier University Police Brock University Special Constable Service Carleton University Department of Safety/Special Constable Service University of Saskatchewan Protective Services In the UK, universities do not have a specific police force that responds to crime on university campuses, with the exception of Cambridge University Constabulary and, until 2003, Oxford University Police. Most universities will liaise with the local police service through a designated police officer from a Neighbourhood Policing Team.
In addition, some universities have dedicated security teams which fulfil a similar role to traditional campus police forces, such as University of Reading's Security Services. Some college campus public safety departments are actual police departments and able to perform all the duties of sworn police officers including make arrests, issue citations, etc; these departments operate either as individual police departments on campus in cooperation with local law enforcement, or as a part of the local police force. These officers go through the same training as local police officers do, but they only operate within the campus property, they could, in theory, assist local law enforcement when necessary if that agreement exists between the two departments. If it is not an actual police department, officers cannot perform the same functions as sworn police officers such as arrest perpetrators or issue citations; some college security departments have the equivalent of armed security officers that are allowed to carry a firearm under that state's individual licensing requirements.
For example, Pennsylvania has Act 235 Lethal Weapons Certification that allows public safety officers or private security guards to carry firearms for their employment - including on college campuses. Other states have similar certifications and training requirements. Non-police officer certifications do not give them the right to perform police-specific duties, but does allow for additional security that could be essential should an active shooter or terrorist act come to fruition on a college or university campus. College campus safety officer defensive tactics should be taught to all officers who are hired to protect students on campus, regardless of if they are able to carry a firearm or not. Many university police officers are commissioned through their state Police Officer Standards and Training after completing established training and pre-licensure preparation; this is equivalent to that of a municipal or state police officer. They attend the same police academy as local or state police officers.
Many campus public safety departments operate some of the same units as municipal agencies such as detective units, special response teams, canine units, bicycle patrol units, motorcycle patrol units, community policing units. In some cases, campus police agencies are better equipped and staffed than municipal and county agencies in their area due to the significant amount of funding available in a college environment; the campus police in some state-owned schools may have statewide authority and jurisdiction similar to that afforded to state police. However, this will vary state-by-state. Hawaii and New Hampshire are the only states in the US to not have a statutory provision for the commissioning of sworn campus police officers, they were joined by Oregon until 2009, when that state revised its system of campus law enforcement in Oregon. In the 2004-05 school year, 74% of college campuses had sworn officers with the power to arrest, 90% of these departments were armed92% of campus police departments are responsible for handling their own dispatching, which means that they are self-sufficient agencies.
They do not rely on the city police around them to take on their responsibilities. Some public school districts maintain their own police. In Augusta, Richmond County Board of Education officers have the same police powers on Board of Education property and facilities including the power of arrest as any other law enforcement official in Richmond County. I.e. Los Angeles School Police Department, Miami-Dade County Public Schools Police Department, New York City Police Department School Safety Division, Richmond County Board of Education Department of Public Safety, just to name a few. Arizona State University Police Department Arizona Western College Police Central Arizona College Police Department Chinle School District Police Eastern Arizona College Police Department Grand Canyon University Police Department Northern Arizona University Police Department Pima Community College Police Department Tuba City School District Security University of Arizona Police Department Yavapai College Police Department In California several state laws establish the sworn peace officer authority for campus police agencies.
Public institutions of higher education. Private universities and colleges are authorized under California Penal Code 830.75