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Federalism

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established. Federalism can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level, it represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include the United States, Brazil, Russia, Canada, Switzerland and Australia.

Some today characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the federal union of states. The terms'federalism' and'confederalism' both have a root in the Latin word foedus, meaning "treaty, pact or covenant." Their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. They were therefore synonyms, it was in this sense that James Madison in Federalist 39 had referred to the new US Constitution as'neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both'. In the course of the nineteenth century the meaning of federalism would come to shift, strengthening to refer uniquely to the novel compound political form established, while the meaning of confederalism would remain at a league of states. Thus, this article relates to the modern usage of the word'federalism'. Modern federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments.

The term federalist describes several political beliefs around the world depending on context. Federalism is sometimes viewed as in the context of international negotiation as "the best system for integrating diverse nations, ethnic groups, or combatant parties, all of whom may have cause to fear control by an overly powerful center." However, in some countries, those skeptical of federal prescriptions believe that increased regional autonomy is to lead to secession or dissolution of the nation. In Syria, federalization proposals have failed in part because "Syrians fear that these borders could turn out to be the same as the ones that the fighting parties have carved out."Federations such as Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia collapsed as soon as it was possible to put the model to the test. An early historical example of federalism is the Achaean League in Hellenistic Greece. Unlike the Greek city states of Classical Greece, each of which insisted on keeping its complete independence, changing conditions in the Hellenistic period drove many city states to band together at the cost of losing part of their sovereignty - similar to the process leading to the formation of federations.

According to Daniel Ziblatt's Structuring the State, there are four competing theoretical explanations in the academic literature for the adoption of federal systems: Ideational theories, which hold that a greater degree of ideological commitment to decentralist ideas in society makes federalism more to be adopted. Cultural-historical theories, which hold that federal institutions are more to be adopted in societies with culturally or ethnically fragmented populations. "Social contract" theories, which hold that federalism emerges as a bargain between a center and a periphery where the center is not powerful enough to dominate the periphery and the periphery is not powerful enough to secede from the center. "Infrastructural power" theories, which hold that federalism is to emerge when the subunits of a potential federation have developed infrastructures. Immanuel Kant was an advocate of federalism, noting that "the problem of setting up a state can be solved by a nation of devils" so long as they possess an appropriate constitution which pits opposing factions against each other with a system of checks and balances.

In particular individual states required a federation as a safeguard against the possibility of war. On 1 January 1901, the dominion of Australia came into existence as a federation; the Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom in 1788, which subsequently established six self-governing, colonies there. In the 1890s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire; when all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia commenced, resulting in the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The model of Australian federalism adheres to the original model of the United States of America, although it does so through a parliamentary Westminster system rather than a presidential system. In Brazil, the fall of the monarchy in 1889 by a military coup d'état led to the rise of the presidential system, headed by Deodoro da Fons

San Juan Reservoir

The San Juan reservoir is located along the Alberche river between the municipalities of San Martín de Valdeiglesias, El Tiemblo and Pelayos de la Presa, at the south-eastern end of the Autonomous Community of Madrid, bordering on the province of Ávila. The reservoir was built in 1955 and has a capacity of 138 km3, covers a surface area of 650 hectares, is managed by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Tajo. One of its main functions is to deliver water to the city of Toledo along the canal known as the Trasvase Picadas-Toledo, it generates electricity and supplies water to the south-eastern part of the Autonomous Community of Madrid. In addition, recreational use is permitted and is a popular destination for the inhabitants of Madrid

Sony Alpha 230

The Sony α 230 is Sony's entry-level digital single-lens reflex camera. The 10.2 megapixel α230 is available in the United States in two kit versions, one with a DT 18-55mm SAM Sony lens and the other with the same DT 18-55mm SAM lens and a DT 55-200mm SAM Sony lens. The single lens kit is $449.99 and the two lens kit is for $649.99. The Sony α230 takes all Sony α/Minolta AF mount lenses; the 10.2 megapixel APS-C sized CCD sensor has a max ISO of 3200, however when using ISO 800 the photos start to get noisy and 1600 and 3200 have bad noise. The Sony α230 has a BIONZ images processor and can take 7.5 frames per second. The Sony α230 includes Creative Style, or preset color settings; the Sony α230's anti-dust system is a charge protection coating on a low pass filter and image-sensor shift mechanism. The α230 features Sony's SteadyShot INSIDE in-body stabilization; the Sony α230 takes the Sony NP-FH50 rechargeable battery and can take about 510 photos on a full charge. The viewfinder on the Sony α230 has a 95% field of view and has.83x magnification is better than its older brother, the Sony α350, the same camera except its bigger-tilt screen and live preview.

A disadvantage to the Sony α230 is its proprietary hot shoe, or where an external flash unit attaches. The Sony α230, like all other Sony Alpha DSLRs, has the iISO flash shoe; the Sony α230 succeeded the Sony α 200, however the α 230 seems to be targeted towards a more entry-level market as it is much lighter, several features have been removed and direct buttons to several options have been replaced with on-screen menus, unlike the α200 which uses CompactFlash memory cards, the α230 will take either a Memory Stick PRO Duo or an SD/SDHC card. The camera weighs 452 grams without the battery, memory card and other accessories and has the approximate dimensions of 128 mm × 97 mm × 67.5 mm. The Sony α230 has a standard USB 2.0 port along with its mini HDMI port. The camera sends a review image to HDMI output after taking a photo. There is no need to switch to playback mode to review; the flash on the α230 is a standard pop-up with a recycling time of 4 seconds. The hot shoe is, like most other Sony Alpha camera, a proprietary iISO.

The Sony α230 has a capability to work with infrared remote control and wired remote. Remote control is sold separately, is enabled through the Drive mode menu by selecting'Remote Commander'; the Sony α230 has a capability to take power from AC Power Supply. Power supply is sold separately. Sony discontinued the α230 in May 2010, replacing it with the α290. Media related to Sony DSLR-A230 at Wikimedia Commons