Australian Manufacturing Workers Union
The Australian Manufacturing Workers Union, or more the Automotive, Metals, Engineering and Kindred Industries Union, is an Australian trade union. The AMWU represents a broad range of workers in the manufacturing sector, as well as associated industries, is affiliated to the Australian Council of Trade Unions; the union is organised into six state branches, as well as four divisions, representing different industries or occupational groups: the Manufacturing Division, the Food and Confectionery Division, the Vehicle Division and the Printing Division. The Amalgamated Metal Workers Union was formed in 1972 with the amalgamation of three metal trade unions - the Boilermakers and Blacksmiths Society of Australia, the Sheet Metal Working Industrial Union of Australia and the Amalgamated Engineering Union. In 1937, BBS was the Boilermakers' Society of Australia, following the merger with the Blacksmiths' Society of Australia in 1965, the union was renamed the Boilermakers' and Blacksmiths' Society of Australia.
At its formation the AMWU had a membership of 171,000, making it the largest organisation in Australia by membership. In 1979, the Federated Shipwrights and Ship Constructors Union of Australia amalgamated with the AMWU, which changed its name to the Amalgamated Metal Workers and Shipwrights Union; when the Federated Moulders’ Union amalgamated in 1983, the union's name changed to the Amalgamated Metals Foundry & Shipwrights’ Union, but in 1985 reverted to be the Amalgamated Metal Workers’ Union. By 1987 the union's membership had declined to 163,400. During the 1980s the AMWU played a pivotal role in securing the support of the left wing of the Australian union movement for the Prices and Incomes Accord, which involved unions agreeing to restrict their demands for wage increases in exchange for the federal government implementing policies to advance the'social wage', including universal health insurance, investment in education and social welfare. In 1991 the AMWU amalgamated with the Association of Draughting Supervisory & Technical Employees created the Metals and Engineering Workers’ Union.
Two years a further amalgamation with the Vehicle Builders Employees’ Federation of Australia resulted in the Automotive Metals & Engineering Union. In 1994 the union merged with the Confectionery Workers' and Food Preservers’ Union, itself a recent amalgamation of the Food Preservers' Union of Australia and the Confectionery Workers' Union of Australia, to form the Automotive Food Metals and Engineering Union; the Printing and Kindred Industries Union amalgamated to form the printing division of the Automotive, Metals, Engineering and Kindred Industries Union. During the 1990s and 2000s membership of the AMWU declined reflecting the rapid decline of the manufacturing sector in Australia, falling from 200,000 in 1995 to 157,000 in 2005. Losses accelerated, membership more than halving over the following decade to 68,008 in 2017. 1973: Jack Garland 1981: Jack Kidd 1988: George Campbell 1996: Doug Cameron 2008: Dave Oliver 2012: Paul Bastian During the 2010 Australian federal election the CFMEU and AMWU donated a total of $60,000 to the Greens.
Reeves and Andrew Dettmer Organise, control: the AMWU in Australia, 1852-2012. Clayton, Victoria: Monash University Publishing, 2013. ISBN 9781922235008. Official Website Australian Trade Union Archive entry for AMWU
Port of Melbourne
The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia. It is located in Melbourne and covers an area at the mouth of the Yarra River, downstream of Bolte Bridge, at the head of Port Phillip, as well as several piers on the bay itself. Since 1 July 2003, the Port of Melbourne has been managed by the Port of Melbourne Corporation, a statutory corporation created by the State of Victoria. Most of the port is in the suburb of West Melbourne and should not be confused with the Melbourne suburb of Port Melbourne although Webb Dock and Station Pier, parts of the Port of Melbourne, are in Port Melbourne. Port Melbourne was a busy port early in the history of Melbourne, but declined as a cargo port with the development of the Port of Melbourne in the late 19th century, it retains Melbourne's passenger terminal however, with cruise ferries using Station Pier. In 2011, the port was projected to reach its full capacity in 2015. In September 2016, the port’s commercial operations were leased to the Lonsdale Consortium, comprising the Australian Government Future Fund, Queensland Investment Corporation, GIP and OMERS, for a term of 50 years for more than $9.7 billion.
The Port of Melbourne consists of several major man-made docks on the Yarra River and Port Melbourne, including: Victoria Dock Appleton Dock South Wharves Swanson Dock Maribyrnong Berth Yarraville Wharves Holden Oil Dock Webb Dock Station Pier In Melbourne's early days, large ships were unable to navigate the Yarra River, so cargo destined for Melbourne had to be unloaded at either Hobsons Bay or Sandridge and transferred either by rail or by cargo lighter to warehouses which were concentrated around King Street. This was an inefficient process. In 1877, Victoria's colonial government resolved to make the Yarra more navigable and engaged English engineer Sir John Coode to devise a solution, his solution was to change the course of the river by cutting a canal south of the original course of the river. This made it much wider, it created Coode Island, a name still used today although the northern course of the river has long since disappeared. With these works, ships were now able to sail as far up the river as Queensbridge where a turning basin was constructed.
Coode oversaw the construction of Victoria Dock in swampland to the west of the city. This opened in 1889. Over time the docks moved progressively downstream as ships became larger and road bridges were built across the Yarra; the construction of the Spencer Street Bridge in 1928 and the Charles Grimes Bridge in 1975 each closed access to docks to the east. The barque Polly Woodside lying in the old Duke and Orr drydock, the warehouses of South Wharf and the Mission to Seafarers building are now the only reminders of the maritime history of this area. Development slowed during the Great Depression and World War II but resumed after the war with construction of Appleton Dock, Webb Dock at the mouth of the Yarra and Swanson Dock, the first container terminal, on what was Coode Island. Victoria Dock became too small to handle large container ships and was closed, its fate was permanently sealed by the construction of the Bolte Bridge, part of CityLink, across its entrance in 1999. It now forms the centrepiece of the Melbourne Docklands redevelopment.
In 1991 a large fire at the Coode Island bulk liquid handling facility blanketed much of Melbourne in toxic fumes. The public outrage forced the government to investigate relocating the facility. Point Lillias near Geelong was considered. However, due to the high cost involved and local opposition the facility has remained at Coode Island; the Port of Melbourne was the scene of a watershed industrial battle in 1998 between Patrick Corporation and the Maritime Union of Australia. Further controversy has resulted from plans to dredge Port Phillip to deepen shipping channels to allow larger ships into the Port of Melbourne; this process commenced in 2008 and was completed in November 2009. It involved removing more than 22 million cubic metres of sand and silt to provide a minimum 14 metre draught at all times. Opposition to this project stems from potential environmental damage due to silting and loss of amenity for bayside residents due to the noise produced by the dredges; the project was subject to the strictest environmental testing and monitoring requirements in the world at the time.
These activities will continue on for many years to help protect the Port Phillip Bay ecosystems. In the future the Victorian Government will redevelop the Port of Melbourne to better integrate it with other modes of transport; the Melbourne wholesale fruit and vegetable market was relocated to Epping in 2013. Footscray Road is planned to be raised so that port users will have improved access to the rail facilities at South Dynon; the Port of Melbourne is made up of the following: Swanson Dock West has four berths and is used for containerised cargo. It is managed by D. P. World a division of DUBAI WORLD Swanson Dock East has four berths and is used for containerised cargo, it is managed by Patrick Terminals. Appleton Dock berths C and D are used for general cargo, they are managed by DP World. Appleton Dock E is used for general cargo destined from Tasmania. Appleton Dock F is used for bulk dry cargo. Maribyrnong is a bulk liquid facility. Webb Dock West is a roll-on-roll-off facility for motor vehicles.
It is managed by Toll Stevedores. Webb Dock East 1 is managed by Toll Shipping for Tasmanian general cargo. Webb Dock East 2 is for general Tasmanian cargo but managed by Patrick. Webb Dock East 3,4,5 are managed by Patrick for general and automotive c
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".
Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated.
There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩. Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. In 1954, Labor MP Ted Johnson complained in the Parliament of Western Australia that both Hansard and the daily newspapers were still using the spelling "Labour"; as late as the 1980s, historian Finlay Crisp used the spelling "Labour" in academic works about the party. McMullin has observed that "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official decision to use "Labor" to King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform.
It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties"; the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies.
The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of
Garden Island (New South Wales)
Garden Island is an inner-city locality of Sydney and the location of a major Royal Australian Navy base. It is located to the north-east of the Sydney central business district and juts out into Port Jackson to the north of the suburb of Potts Point. Used for government and naval purposes since the earliest days of the colony of Sydney, it was a completely-detached island but was joined to the Potts Point shoreline by major land reclamation work during World War II. Garden Island today forms a major part of the RAN's Fleet Base East, it includes naval wharves and a naval heritage and museum precinct. Half of the major fleet units of the RAN use the wharves as their home port; the northern tip of Garden Island is open to the public and contains the Royal Australian Navy Heritage Centre museum and an outdoor heritage precinct. South and above Garden Island on the Potts Point ridgeline is HMAS Kuttabul, the RAN's major administrative and logistics support establishment for the Sydney area. Although HMAS Kuttabul is administratively a separate facility to Garden Island, the two names are referred to interchangeably.
Garden Island was an island in Sydney Harbour, but extension of the base and the construction of a dry dock in the channel between the island and the mainland have resulted in its connection to the mainland shore at Potts Point from the 1940s. The wharves of the naval base now stretch the length of the eastern side of Woolloomooloo Bay, from the suburb of Woolloomooloo to the end of the original island. Garden Island is so-called because it was planted in 1788, in the first months of European settlement in Australia, to serve as a kitchen-garden by officers and crew of the First Fleet vessel HMS Sirius. Initials carved into a sandstone rock on the site are believed to be the oldest colonial graffiti in Australia, comprising the letters "FM 1788," representing Frederick Meredith who served as Sirius' steward. On 7 September 1811, ownership of Garden Island was declared to have transferred to the Governor's estate with produce dedicated for the exclusive use of Government House; the transfer had practical effect but due to an administrative error it was not formally registered, leaving the land in the legal ownership of the Navy, which sought its return in 1866.
Sandstone fortifications, built on the island during the 1820s to protect Sydney from a much-feared Russian attack survive. Garden Island boasts what is claimed to be Australia's first lawn tennis court. Built in 1880, it is still in use, although the lawn was replaced in 1960. Prior to World War II, the nearest sizable naval graving dock was at Singapore Naval Base. In 1938, the Australian cabinet approved the idea of building a large naval graving dock; the cost of construction was predicted at around A£3 million. A far cheaper alternative, a second-hand floating drydock being sold by Southern Railway was considered early on. Despite the A£175,000 cost, the acquisition was opposed by Admiral Ragnar Colvin, as it would be expensive and difficult to maintain, would be unable to accommodate the draught of ships being acquired for the RAN, would be risky to tow from England to Australia. Three sites were considered, with Potts Point chosen as the cheapest location; the dock itself was built by the reclamation of 30 acres of land, connecting Garden Island to the mainland.
By September 1944, work had been completed to the stage. On 2 March 1945, the British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious underwent an emergency docking: although the drydock was not due to open for another three weeks, the advanced state of building made the docking possible; the Captain Cook Graving Dock was formally opened by Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester in his role as the Governor-General of Australia, with the ribbon cutting performed by the bow of the frigate HMAS Lachlan. During the first year of operations, the drydock received the British battleship HMS Anson; the dock is 1,139 feet 5 inches long, with a width of 147 feet 7.5 inches. The dock is 45 feet deep at spring tide; when filled, the dock has a capacity of 50,000,000 imperial gallons. The dock can be drained in a four-hour period through the use of three 60-inch centrifugal pumps; the hammerhead crane was built between 1951 on the Fitting Out Wharf at Garden Island. The electrically powered crane had a total height of 203 feet.
The electrical and mechanical equipment was sourced from England, while the steel frame was fabricated in Sydney. Although declared completed in January 1952, the crane was operational from March 1951; the crane's primary purpose was the removal and installation of warship gun turrets, although it was used for other machinery and loads, had a lifting capacity of up to 250 tonnes. It was last used in 1996. In August 2013, the Federal Government announced the removal of the hammerhead crane, at an estimated cost of $10.3 million. Other options, such as preserving the crane as a heritage structure and tourist attraction, restoring it to working order, or converting it to a new purpose, were ruled out due to cost and the risk to security at the naval base; the removal was seen as necessar
Robert James Lee Hawke, is an Australian former politician, the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1983 to 1991. He is the longest-serving Labor Party Prime Minister. Hawke was moved to Western Australia as a child, he attended the University of Western Australia and went on to Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1956, Hawke joined the Australian Council of Trade Unions as a research officer. Having risen to become responsible for wage arbitration, he was elected ACTU President in 1969, where he achieved a high public profile. After a decade in that role, Hawke announced his intention to enter politics, was elected to the House of Representatives as the Labor MP for Wills. Three years he led Labor to a landslide victory at the 1983 election and was sworn in as Prime Minister, he led Labor to victory three more times, in 1984, 1987 and 1990, making him the most electorally successful Labor Leader. The Hawke Government created Medicare and Landcare, brokered the Prices and Incomes Accord, established APEC, floated the Australian dollar, deregulated the financial sector, introduced the Family Assistance Scheme, announced "Advance Australia Fair" as the official national anthem, initiated superannuation pension schemes for all workers and oversaw passage of the Australia Act that removed all remaining jurisdiction by the United Kingdom from Australia.
Hawke was replaced by his deputy Paul Keating at the end of 1991. Hawke remains Labor's longest-serving Prime Minister, Australia's third-longest-serving Prime Minister, at the age of 89 years, 123 days, Hawke is the oldest living former Australian Prime Minister. Hawke is the only Australian Prime Minister to be born in South Australia, the only one raised and educated in Western Australia. Hawke was born in Bordertown, South Australia, the second child of Arthur Hawke, a Congregationalist minister, his wife Edith Emily, a schoolteacher, his uncle, was the Labor Premier of Western Australia between 1953 and 1959, was a close friend of Prime Minister John Curtin, in many ways Bob Hawke's role model. Hawke's elder brother Neil, seven years his senior, died at the age of seventeen after contracting meningitis, for which there was no cure at the time. Ellie Hawke subsequently developed an messianic belief in her son's destiny, this contributed to Hawke's supreme self-confidence throughout his career.
At the age of fifteen, he presciently boasted to friends that he would one day become the Prime Minister of Australia. At the age of seventeen, the same age that his brother Neil had died, Hawke had a serious accident while riding his Panther motorcycle that left him in a critical condition for several days; this near-death experience acted as his catalyst, driving him to make the most of his talents and not let his abilities go to waste. He joined the Labor Party in 1947 at the age of eighteen. Hawke was educated at Perth Modern School and the University of Western Australia, graduating in 1952 with a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws, he was president of the university's guild during the same year. The following year, Hawke won a Rhodes Scholarship to attend University College, where he undertook a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and Economics, he soon found he was covering much the same ground as he did in his education at the University of Western Australia, transferred to a Bachelor of Letters.
He wrote his thesis on wage-fixing in Australia and presented it in January 1956. His academic achievements were complemented by setting a new world record for beer drinking. In his memoirs, Hawke suggested that this single feat may have contributed to his political success more than any other, by endearing him to an electorate with a strong beer culture. In 1956, Hawke accepted a scholarship to undertake doctoral studies in the area of arbitration law in the law department at the Australian National University in Canberra. Soon after his arrival at ANU, Hawke became the students' representative on the University Council. A year Hawke was recommended to the President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions to become a research officer, replacing Harold Souter who had become ACTU Secretary; the recommendation was made by Hawke's mentor at ANU, H. P. Brown, who for a number of years had assisted the ACTU in national wage cases. Hawke decided to abandon his doctoral studies and accept the offer, moving to Melbourne with his wife Hazel.
Not long after Hawke began work at the ACTU, he became responsible for the presentation of its annual case for higher wages to the national wages tribunal, the Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. He was first appointed as an ACTU advocate in 1959; the 1958 case, under previous advocate R. L. Eggleston, had yielded only a five-shilling increase; the 1959 case found for a fifteen-shilling increase, was regarded as a personal triumph for Hawke. He went on to attain such success and prominence in his role as an ACTU advocate that, in 1969, he was encouraged to run for the position of ACTU President, despite the fact that he had never held elected office in a trade union, he was elected ACTU President in 1969 on a modernising platform by the narrow margin of 399 to 350, with the support of the left of the union movement, including some associated with the Communist Party. He credited Ray Gietzelt, General Secretary of the FMWU, as the single most significant union figure in helping him achieve this outcome.
Hawke declared publicly that "socialist is not a word I would use to desc
North Sydney, New South Wales
North Sydney is a suburb and major district on the Lower North Shore of Sydney, Australia. North Sydney is located 3 kilometres north of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre for the local government area of North Sydney Council. Aborigines on the southern side of Port Jackson called the north side warung which meant the other side, while those on the northern side used the same name to describe the southern side; the first name used by European settlers was Hunterhill, named after a property owned by Thomas Muir of Huntershill, a Scottish political reformer. He purchased land in 1794 near the location of north pylon of the Sydney Harbour Bridge is now located, built a house which he named after his childhood home; this area north to Gore Hill became known as St Leonards. The township of St Leonards was laid out in 1836 in what is now North Sydney, bounded by what is now Miller, Walker and Berry Streets. By 1846 there were 106 houses here and by 1859, the commercial centre had extended from Milsons Point to Miller Street.
A bus service operated by Jeremiah Wall ran between Milsons Point and North Sydney Shops, North Sydney thus developed its own identity. The North Sydney municipality was incorporated in 1890 and after naming disputes, North Sydney was settled upon; the post office which opened in 1854 as St Leonards was changed to North Sydney in 1890. The first public school which opened in 1874 as St Leonards was renamed North Sydney in 1910. North Sydney underwent a dramatic transformation into a commercial hub in 1971–72. In this period no less than 27 skyscrapers were built; the history of the North Sydney tramway system can be divided into three periods – the first from the original opening in 1886 to 1909, when the McMahons Point line opened. The second period covers the time until the Wynyard line was opened across the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932, the third until construction of the Cahill Expressway on the eastern side of Sydney Harbour Bridge and the wider closure of the system in 1962; the first part of the North Sydney tramway system was a double-track cable tramway which commenced at the original Milsons Point Ferry wharf, located where the north pylon of the Harbour Bridge is now.
The line extended via Alfred St, Junction St, Blue St and Miller Sts to the engine house and depot in Ridge St. It used. A feature of these lines was the underground tram terminus at Wynyard railway station, the tracks over the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Trams ran from Blue St, North Sydney over a now-demolished steel arch bridge over the Harbour Bridge Roadway over the eastern side of the harbour bridge, through a tram platform at Milsons Point railway station, before descending underground into platforms 1 and 2 of Wynyard station. North Sydney has a number of heritage-listed sites, including those listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register: 36 Blue Street: Former North Sydney Technical High School 20 Edward Street: Graythwaite Falcon Street: North Sydney Sewer Vent 283a Miller Street: St Leonards Park 6 Napier Street: Don Bank 92-94 Pacific Highway: North Sydney Post Office 44 Union Street: KailoaThe following buildings are heritage-listed on other heritage registers: Chinese Christian Church, Alfred Street Christ Church and Lavender Streets Church of England Rectory, Lavender Street Houses: 11–37 Walker Street and 20–30 Walker Street Mercedes, 9 Walker Street St Francis Xavier's War Memorial Church, Mackenzie Street St Francis Xavier's Presbytery, Mackenzie Street St Francis Xavier's Church School Hall, Mackenzie Street St Peter's Presbyterian Church and Manse, Blues Point Road St Thomas's Church of England and Church Streets St Thomas's Kindergarten Hall, Church and McLaren Streets St Thomas's Church Rectory, McLaren Street Woodstock, Pacific Highway The commercial district of North Sydney includes the second largest concentration of office buildings in New South Wales, with a large representation from the advertising and information technology industries.
Advertising, marketing businesses and associated trades such as printing have traditionally dominated the business life of the area though these have been supplanted to a certain extent by information technology businesses. Corporations whose offices are in North Sydney include, Cisco Systems, Vocus Communications, NBN Co, Sun Microsystems, AGL, Hyundai, AAMI, Symantec, Nando's, Vodafone NAB and until October 2007, Optus. Unlike other major suburban hubs within the Sydney metropolitan area, North Sydney has limited shopping facilities and no Sunday trading. There are four supermarkets; the main shopping complex is the Greenwood Plaza, connected to North Sydney station. Berry Square is another shopping centre in Berry Street known as North Sydney Shopping World. According to the 2016 census, there were 7,705 residents in North Sydney. 48.1% of residents were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5.5%, India 4.3%, China 3.6%, New Zealand 3.2% and United States 1.9%. 63.6% of residents spoke only English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 4.1%, Cantonese 2.9%, Hindi 2.0%, Spanish 1.7% and Japanese 1.7%. The most common responses for religion in North Sydney were No Religion 36.7% and Catholic 21.4%. North Sydney is directly linked to the Sydney CBD by rail across the Sydney Harbour Bridge. North Sydney railway station is on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network. Bus services by State Transit are present in Blue Street, connecting train and bus services towards North S