Politics of Malaysia
Politics of Malaysia takes place in the framework of a federal representative democratic constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the 13 state governments. Federal legislative power is vested in the 13 state assemblies; the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a certain level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts. The Constitution of Malaysia is codified and the system of government is based on the Westminster system; the hierarchy of authority in Malaysia, in accordance to the Federal Constitution, stipulates the three branches of the Malaysian government as consisting of the Executive and Legislative branch. Whereas, the Parliament consists of the Dewan Dewan Rakyat. Malaysia has had a multi-party system since the first direct election of the Federal Legislative Council of Malaya in 1955 on a first-past-the-post basis.
The ruling party was the Alliance Party coalition and from 1973 onwards, its successor, the Barisan Nasional coalition. Together with its predecessor, the Barisan Nasional government served for 61 years and was one of the world's longest serving governments until it lost power to the Pakatan Harapan coalition in the 14th general election, held on 9 May 2018; the Pakatan Harapan coalition consists of People's Justice Party, Democratic Action Party, National Trust Party and Malaysian United Indigenous Party with Sabah Heritage Party and United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation as confidence-and-supply partner. The opposition is made up of Barisan Nasional, Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party and other smaller parties. Although Malaysian politics has been stable, critics allege that "the government, ruling party, administration are intertwined with few countervailing forces." However, since the 8 March 2008 General Election, the media's coverage on the country's politics has noticeably increased.
After the 14th general elections, media freedom was promised by the new government of Malaysia. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Malaysia a "flawed democracy" in 2016. However, Malaysia was a runner up to the Economist 2018 "Country of the Year" in 2018 due to the peaceful transfer of power following the 14th general elections, losing out at least due to Mahathir Mohamad's seeming reluctance to relax the country's divisive racial politics or to hand over power, as agreed, to Anwar Ibrahim. Early organised political movements in Malaysia were organised along regional and ethnic groups and were not political parties in the modern sense, they were loose alliances of interest groups and individuals concerned with social welfare, social progress and religious reform among the Muslim Malay communities similar to interest groups and civil society organisations of today. Religious reformers played a large role in developing and disseminating ideas with magazines and periodicals like al-Imam published in Singapore by Tahir Jalaluddin between 1906 and 1908, al-Munir published in Penang by Abdullah Ahmad between 1911 and 1916.
These in turn were influenced by the Egyptian Islamic reform magazine, al-Manar published in Cairo by Rashid Rida from 1898 to 1936. While these publications were concerned with the Islamic religion, it touched extensively on the social and economic conditions of the Malays. One of the first such movements was the New Hope Society, established in Johor Bahru in 1916. On 14 September 1923, a movement was established in Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt by students from British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies known as the Al-Jam'iyah Al-Khairiyah lit-tholabah Al-Azhariyah Al-Jawiyah. Composed of students influenced by the Young Turks movement and the Muslim Brotherhood, the movement encouraged intentional political and religious discourse through periodicals like Osman Abdullah's Seruan Al-Azhar and Pilehan Timur; the Sultan Idris Training College for Malay teachers in Tanjung Malim was fertile ground for the exchange of ideas. The establishment of the Selangor Malay Teachers Association in 1921 by Muhammad Yusof paved the way for similar organisations to be set up in the other Federated Malay States and a magazine known as Majalah Guru was published in 1923.
This magazine allowed for the discussion of larger socio-economic issues as well political issues, establishing itself as one of the influences in the development of Malay nationalism. Various self-help societies like the Maharani Company in Muar and the Serikat Pembaikan Hidup organised by Mohamad Eunos Abdullah of the Singapore Malay Union established co-operatives and communes to help improve the socio-economic conditions of the Malay peasants and smallholders, they too utilised newspapers and periodicals like the Maharani Company published Perjumpaan Melayu to disseminate ideas and encourage discourse on issues pertaining to the social and economic conditions of the Malay people. The Malay Union was established in 1926 by Mohamad Eunos Abdullah, Tengku Kadir Ali and Embok Suloh with the aim of increasing the role of Malays in public life, u
The Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states. When the Sultanate of Malacca empire fell to Portugal in 1511, Sultan Mahmud Syah I retreated to Kampar and died there in 1528, he left behind two princes named Sultan Muzaffar Syah. The former went on to establish the Sultanate of Johor. Muzaffar Syah was invited to rule Perak: he became the first sultan of Perak. In contrast to the other Malay sultanates, the ruling dynasty of Perak utilises a somewhat complex order of succession; the reigning Sultan appoints princes in the male line of descent from a Sultan to certain high princely titles. They are arranged in a strict order of precedence indicating the order of succession to the throne; as per ruling of 25 February 1953, the present hierarchy of titles and the corresponding order of succession is as follows: Raja Muda Raja di-Hilir Raja Kecil Besar Raja Kecil Sulong Raja Kecil Tengah Raja Kecil Bongsu. While titleholders are appointed for life, titles may be revoked in cases of proven incompetence or disability.
On the death or promotion of an existing titleholder, the holder of the next most senior title succeeds him. The Raja Muda is the heir apparent, succeeds the ruling sultan on his demise, whereupon the prince holding the title of Raja Di-Hilir becomes the new Raja Muda; the Raja Kechil Besar becomes the Raja Di-Hilir. The new Sultan may appoint his own nominee to the junior-most title made vacant by these successions; the Perak royal regalia consists of items that are said to have been with the Perak Sultanate from its inception, some of which pre-dating the Malacca Sultanate. The regalia is used during the installation ceremony of Sultan of Perak and few other royal ceremonies. Royal headress Royal aigrette Royal tiara Royal sword Cura Si Manja Kini Royal blade Taming Sari Royal blade Sari Gading Mestika Embun - known as ‘Ball of Petrified Dew. ’Given to Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah I on his installation as the first Sultan of Perak by Tok Temong, a local official. Mohor Kecil Cap Halilintar - seal made of silver, placed behind the right ear of the Sultan during installation.
Ceremony Royal Musical Ensemble Pontoh - golden armlets worn by the Sultan and his consort around both arms during the installation ceremony. Agok - golden pendant, worn around the neck of the Queen Consort during installation ceremony. Dokoh - golden brooch, worn by the Queen Consort during installation ceremony. Royal seal Royal coat of arms Panji Di-Raja Royal umbrella State umbrella State spear Kancing Halkah - decorative ornament worn around the neck of a tunic, believed to be a gift from the Emperor of China to Parameswara of Malacca. Sundang Keris Panjang Baur-Baur Orang Besar Negeri Kamar Rantai Bunga Nyiur Geluk Puan - Betel leaves container. Presented to Tok Temong by Sultan Muzaffar Riayat Shah I on his installation as the first Sultan of Perak but returned to be royal regalia of Perak. Batil Emas The following is the orders and medals given by Sultan of Perak; when applicable, post-nominal letters and non-hereditary titles are indicated. The Most Esteemed Royal Family Order of Perak: founded by Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah in 1957.
Conferred on members of the Perak and foreign royal houses. The Most Esteemed Perak Royal Family Order of Sultan Azlan Shah: founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2000. Conferred on members of the Perak and foreign royal houses; the Most Esteemed Azlanii Royal Family Order founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2010. Awarded in two classes: First Class - Darjah Kerabat Azlanii Second Class - Darjah Kerabat Azlanii II The Most Esteemed Perak Order of Sultan Azlan Shah: founded by Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah in 2000. Conferred for distinguished services to the Sultan of Perak; the Most Esteemed Perak Order of Sultan Nazrin Shah: founded by Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah. The Most Illustrious Order of Cura Si Manja Kini: founded by Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II in 1969 and 1989. Awarded in four classes: Grand Knight or Dato'Seri - Darjah Dato’ Seri Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Knight or Dato' - Darjah Dato’ Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Commander or Ahli Paduka - Darjah Ahli Paduka Cura Si Manja Kini Member or Ahli - Darjah Ahli Cura Si Manja Kini The Most Valliant Order of Taming Sari: founded by Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah II in 1977.
Awarded to military and police personnel in six classes: Dato' Seri Panglima - Darjah Dato’ Seri Panglima Taming Sari Dato' Pahlawanan - Darjah Dato’ Pahlawan Taming Sari Ahli Perwira - Darjah Ahli Perwira Taming Sari Ahli Hulubalang - Darjah Ahli Hulubalang Taming Sari Ahli Kesatria - Darjah Ahli Kesatria Taming Sari Ahli Perajurit - Darjah Ahli Perajurit Taming Sari The Most Illustrious Order of the Perak State Crown: founded by Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah in 1957. Awarded in four classes: Knight Grand Commander or Dato' Seri - Darjah Dato’ Seri Paduka M
Kingdom of Besut Darul Iman
The Kingdom of Besut Darul Iman was a historical Malay Kingdom located in the northeastern coast of the Malay Peninsula, precursor of the present-day Besut District and most of Setiu, Terengganu. A principality of Terengganu, the state was established in 1780 following the crowing of a Terengganuan prince, Tengku Kadir as the Raja Palembang Besut; the House of Palembang, a cadet branch of Terengganu nobility continued to rule the territory before it was being unified with Terengganu in 1899. Based on the narration by Kisah Pelayaran Abdullah ke Kelantan and Tuhfat al-Nafis, Besut was founded by a group of Pattani and Sumatran pioneers led by Cik Latif, a Palembangese chief. Upon their arrival, they were met with a group of indigenous Orang Asli community who had settled in the area. To resolved this issue, Cik Latiff negotiated for a relocation program for the natives, he offered fishing equipments to the community as a return for their agreement on the transfer; the Aslians agreed to relinquish their rights on the territory and departed to Hulu Besut where they established new settlement in the hinterland.
Following the departure of the Aslians, Cik Latiff and the pioneers constructed a settlement around the Besut riverbanks. The soil is suitable for rice-cultivation; the pioneers built a wharf to engage with regional trade network. The settlement was named Palembang, derived from their place of origin. Upon the death of Cik Latif, the local administration was succeeded by his son, Cik Kamat, it was during his time that Besut was plagued by the piratical activities coming from the surrounding archipelago. It was believed that the raiders were led by Panglima Garang; the local chief decided to request aid from the Terengganu Sultanate to combat the sea bandits. The request was granted by Mansur I of Terengganu, with the army being mobilised into the territory led by Tengku Kadir, a terengganese prince; the campaign was proven to be successful with the piratical activities were fully being eradicated. The bandits were forced to retreat to Pulau Perhentian following their defeat; as a reward for incapacitating the piratical traffic, Tengku Kadir was granted the crown of Besut, with the style of Raja Palembang, while Cik Kamat was elected as an Orang Besar, a local lord with administrative powers in Pulau Rhu.
In wake of the establishment of the kingdom, the raja ordered the construction forts along the Besut River, close to Kota Palembang. He relocated the capital to Kampong Raja, his rule witnessed a period of relative stability in the territory. Tengku Ali acceded the throne as the second Raja Palembang following the death of Tengku Kadir in 1835; the reign of Tengku Ali witnessed the growing intervention pertaining to the domestic Besut administration from the Terengganuan central government. On 22 November 1876, the second Raja Palembang staged a revolt for independence against the Terengganu rule; the armed conflict known as Perang Besut. The revolt commenced during the absence of Tengku Ali at the time of the crowing ceremony of Tengku Ahmad as the Yang Dipertuan Muda of Terengganu. In wake of the peculiar absence, the Sultan of Terengganu, Omar mobilise its armed forces to Besut. On arrival, they were met by Besut resistant movement led by Tengku Ali, he was supported of an assembly of Kelantanese militia ready to launch an attack.
Omar petitioned his objection letter to the King of Siam and the Governor of Singgora, he warned the Kelantanese government not to interfere with his dependencies. He launch an army strength of about 8,000 men commanded by General Panglima Besar Orang Kaya Megat Seri Mahkota Raja to Besut; the General was assisted by Tengku Yusof Panglima Kedai Payang, Tengku Long bin Mustaffa and Tengku Nik, while the commander consist of Encik Musa, Datuk Bandar Jaafar, Tok Kaya Mahkota Haji Abdul Rahman and Tun Setia Wan Ismail Kampung Gedung. The tactical control was planned by Engku Saiyed Seri Perdana, who held the position equal as the Prime Minister of Terengganu, he drafted a plan for a severe cannon bombardment launched into the coast. The battle was successful which led to the retreat of Tengku Ali north to Kelantan where he lived in exile in the state until his death. Following the revolt, Besut was governed by Tengku Ngah, appointed by the Sultan of Terengganu; the appointment of Tengku Ngah as the Raja of Besut was objected by Tengku Muda.
Amidst the chaos ensured, Tengku Ngah abdicated from his position and elected his brother, Tengku Chik Haji as a successor. The crisis escalated into the division of Besut, with Tengku Muda ruled over Kampung Lampu, while Tengku Chik Haji has his jurisdiction in Kampong Raja; the severity of the crisis led the Sultan of Terengganu to arrive in Besut in order to reconcile the matter. To resolve the conflict, the sultan take into consideration of the geographical locations of the respective rulers, his verdict was in favour of Tengku Chik Haji as the King of Besut, due to his advantageous geographical location in Kampung Raja, compared to the western Kampung Lampu. The ratification of Tengku Chick Haji as the ruler of Besut ushered a period of peace and stability in the area, he was awarded an autonomous power equal to a local King to preside over criminal trials. He is received taxation rights over the land, it was during his rule that witnessed the role of Islam continued to flourish in the area with the construction of religious institutions, various waqfs, police stations, among few.
The palatial residence, built during his reign in 1878 still stands today. The last king in the Royal House
Putra of Perlis
Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail, KCMG was the third Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya, of Malaysia, sixth Raja of Perlis. He was the son of Syed Hassan bin Syed Mahmud Jamalullail, sometime Bakal Raja or heir presumptive to the throne of Perlis, by his commoner wife Wan Teh binti Wan Endut. Born in Arau, he was educated at the Arau Malay School and at Penang Free School between 1937 and 1939. At the age of 18, he joined the Perlis administrative service, becoming a magistrate and in 1940, was transferred to Kuala Lumpur to serve as Second Magistrate in the Criminal Court; the fourth Raja of Perlis, Syed Alwi ibni Syed Safi Jamalullail was childless. However, he had several half-brothers; the succession to the Perlis throne was not automatic and an heir presumptive had to be confirmed in that post by the State Council comprising the Raja and several others. Syed Putra's paternal grandfather Syed Mahmud, was the oldest son of Raja Syed Safi ibni Almarhum Syed Alwi Jamalullail.
He was a half brother of Raja Syed Alwi. He served as Raja Muda until 1912 when he was convicted and jailed in Alor Star, Kedah until 1917. Two years he died in Alor Star. On 6 December 1934, Syed Mahmud's son Syed Hassan was, by a three to one vote, selected by the State Council as Bakal Raja or heir presumptive. However, Syed Hassan died on 18 October 1935. On 30 April 1938, again by a three to one vote, the State Council chose Syed Putra as the Bakal Raja; this choice was opposed by Syed Hamzah, the younger half-brother of Raja Syed Alwi and himself Vice-President of the State Council on the grounds that Syed Putra was too far removed from the throne under the Islamic inheritance laws. However, the British colonial rulers supported Syed Putra. On the outbreak of the World War II, Raja Syed Alwi retreated to Perak, he returned to Perlis on 28 December 1941 but was very ill and state affairs were exercised by Syed Hamzah. Syed Putra was at the time serving in the judiciary in Kuala Lumpur and had been advised by Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah of Selangor to remain there.
In May 1942, Syed Hamzah persuaded Raja Syed Alwi to withdraw Syed Putra's appointment as Bakal Raja and instead Syed Hamzah himself was appointed to that post. Raja Syed Alwi died in Arau on 1 February 1943 and a day before the funeral, Syed Hamzah was proclaimed fifth Raja of Perlis, by the consent of the Japanese Military Governor of Kedah and Perlis. Syed Putra and his family stayed in Klang until 15 May 1942, he lived in a hut near the Arau railway station and received a $90 a month allowance from Raja Syed Alwi but this ceased on the latter's death. On 29 March 1945 he left for Kelantan, the home state of his consort Tengku Budriah, where he sold cakes and sundry goods for a living; the British Military Administration under Lord Louis Mountbatten refused to recognise Syed Hamzah as Raja. On 18 September 1945, Syed Hamzah abdicated, he went into exile in Thailand and died in Arau on 20 February 1958. On 4 December 1945 the British proclaimed Syed Putra as sixth Raja of Perlis, he returned to Perlis via Padang Besar.
He was installed on 12 March 1949. Raja Syed Putra objected to the Malayan Union treaty on the grounds that it contravened the 1930 British-Perlis Treaty giving governing power to the Raja-in-council. However, his protests that he signed under duress was rejected by the British. Subsequently, like all other Malay rulers, Raja Syed Putra repudiated the Malayan Union treaty. Raja Syed Putra was elected Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong by the Malay rulers and served in that office from 14 April 1960 until the death of Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah on 1 September 1960. Raja Syed Putra was elected third Yang di-Pertuan Agong of independent Malaya and served in that office from 21 September 1960, he was installed at Istana Negara on 4 January 1961. On 16 September 1963 upon the proclamation of the Malaysian Federation comprising Malaya, British Borneo and Singapore, he became Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, he completed his term of office on 20 September 1965. His son, Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was elected as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and served from 2001 to 2006 after the death of the incumbent, Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah of Selangor.
In September 1963, Malaysia was formed and Tuanku Syed Putra became known as the last King of Malaya, the first King of Malaysia and the only Malay King that Singapore has had in modern history. Raja Syed Putra's term of office as Yang di-Pertuan Agong was marked by the Indonesian Confrontation between newly created Malaysia and its larger neighbour, Indonesia, he offered to stay on as Yang di-Pertuan Agong at the end of his term, to see out the end of Confrontation, but this suggestion was rejected by prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman. As Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he instructed proper treatment of the royal regalia, which he believed was responsible for the mysterious final illness and death of Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah, his immediate predecessor; the Stadium Negara, the Parliament House, the Muzium Negara, the Subang International Airport, the Masjid Negara and the wharves at Klang Straits represent some of the milestones of progress which marked the King's happy reign. But there were sad times as well.
Tuanku Syed Putra was perturbed that the separation of Singapore from Malaysia had to happen on 9 August 1965, just three weeks before the Merdeka celebrations, a
Crown Colony of Labuan
The Crown Colony of Labuan was a British Crown colony on the northwestern shore of the island of Borneo established in 1848 after the acquisition of the island of Labuan from the Sultanate of Brunei in 1846. Apart from the main island, Labuan consists of six smaller islands. Labuan was expected by the British to be a second Singapore, but it did not fulfill its promise after the failure of its coal production that did not become fruitful, causing investors to withdraw their money, leaving all machinery equipment and Chinese workers that had entered the colony previously; the Chinese workers began involving themselves in other businesses with many becoming chief traders of the island's produce of edible bird's nest, pearl and camphor, with the main successful production being the coconut and sago. World War II brought the invasion of Japanese forces. Subsequently, Labuan became the place where the Japanese commander in Borneo surrendered to the Allied forces, with the territory placed under a military administration before merging into a new crown colony.
Since 1841, when James Brooke had established a solid presence in northwestern Borneo with the establishment of the Kingdom of Sarawak and began to assist in the suppression of piracy along the island coast, he had persistently promoted the island of Labuan to the British government. Brooke urged the British to establish a naval station, colony or protectorate along the northern coast to prevent other European powers from doing so which being responded by the Admiralty with the arrival of Admiral Drinkwater Bethune to look for a site for a naval station and to investigate Labuan in November 1844, along with Admiral Edward Belcher with his HMS Samarang to survey the island; the British Foreign Office appointed Brooke as a diplomat to Brunei in 1845 and asked him to co-operate with Bethune. At the same time, Lord Aberdeen, the British Foreign Minister at the time sent a letter to the Sultan of Brunei requesting the Sultan to not enter any treaties with other foreign powers while the island was under consideration as a British base.
On 24 February 1845, Admiral Bethune with his HMS Driver and several other political commissions left Hong Kong to survey the island more. The crews found that it was the most suitable for inhabitants than any other island in the coast of Borneo with its coal deposits; the British saw the potential the island could be the next Singapore. Brooke acquired the island for Britain through the Treaty of Labuan with the Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin II on 18 December 1846. Admiral Rodney Mundy visited Brunei with his ship HMS Iris to keep the Sultan in line until the British government made a final decision to take the island and he took Pengiran Mumin to witness the island's accession to the British Crown on 24 December 1846. Brooke supervised the transferring process and by 1848, the island was made a crown colony and free port with him appointed as the first Governor. From 1890, Labuan came to be administered by the North Borneo Chartered Company before been reverted to British government rule in 1904.
By 30 October 1906, the British government proposed to extend the boundaries of the Straits Settlements to include Labuan. The proposal took effect from 1 January 1907, with the administration area being taken directly from Singapore, the capital of the Straits Settlements; as part of the World War II, the Japanese navy anchored at Labuan on 3 January 1942 without being met by any strong resistance. Most treasury notes on the island had been burned and destroyed by the British to prevent them from falling into Japanese hands; the remaining Japanese forces proceeded to Mempakul in the western coast of neighbouring North Borneo to strengthen their main forces there. Following the complete takeover of the rest of Borneo island, Labuan was ruled as part of the Empire of Japan and garrisoned by units of the Japanese 37th Army, which controlled northern Borneo; the island was renamed Maida Island after Marquis Toshinari Maeda, the first commander of Japanese forces in northern Borneo. The Japanese planned to construct two airfields on the island with eleven others to be located in different parts of Borneo.
To achieve this, the Japanese brought one hundred thousand Javanese forced labourers from Java to work for them. The liberation of the whole of Borneo began on 10 June 1945 when the Allied forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur and Lieutenant-General Leslie Morshead landed at Labuan with a convoy of 100 ships; the 9th Australian Division launched an attack, with its 24th Brigade landing two battalions at the island southeast protrudance and the north side of Victoria Harbour on Brown Beach while being supported by massive air and sea bombardments. The landings was witnessed by MacArthur on board the USS Boise when he decided to proceed further south from the southern Philippines to Labuan. Following the surrender of Japan on 15 August 1945, Lieutenant General Masao Baba, the last commander of the Japanese army in northern Borneo surrendered at the island's Layang-layang beach on 9 September 1945, he was brought to the 9th Division headquarters on the island to sign the surrender document in front of the commander of the 9th Division, Major General George Wootten.
The official surrender ceremony was held on the next day on 10 September at Surrender Point. The town of Victoria was rebuilt after the war; the island assumed its former name and was under British Military Administration along with the rest of the British territories in Borneo before joining the Crown Colony of North Borneo on 15 J
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong known as the Supreme Head or the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state; the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world. In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution on paper; the constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under Cabinet authority; the Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament. Among them, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing prime minister if no party has won a majority vote.
It, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the prime minister. He can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament, he may discontinue or dissolve Parliament but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister. He can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him; the queen consort for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is known as the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the couple are styled in English as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty". The 16th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Al-Sultan Abdullah of Pahang, replacing Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan, who abdicated on 6 January 2019, he was elected on 24 January, at a special meeting of the Conference of Rulers. He was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 31 January; the full style and title in Malay is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia means Under the dust of the Almighty referring to how the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's power is dust compared to God's power and the ruler is always subservient to God.
Seri Paduka Baginda refers to Seri as in a person. Paduka means victorious and the term Baginda is in Malay for a royal in the third person. Yang di-Pertuan Agong in literal English is "He Who is Made Supreme Lord", it is an archaic term for a presiding head, "Yang di-Pertuan" or means "the one-in-charge. "Agong" means "supreme". The term Agong is not translated, as in the Constitution of Malaysia. Common English terms used in the media and by the general public include "King", "Supreme King", "Paramount Ruler", "Head of State", "Head of the Federation" and "Head of State of the Federation". In Malaysian passports before 2010, the title "The Supreme Head of Malaysia" was used in the English version of the passport note. Since the issuance of ICAO-compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title "His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia" is used, but in all English correspondence, the King is referred to as "His Majesty The Yang di-Pertuan Agong" In August 1957, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Conference of Rulers elected the first occupant of the throne.
By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, did not secure the necessary votes. Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one; the first Conference of Rulers comprised: The Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad The Sultan of Selangor, Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah The Raja of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail The Sultan of Terengganu, Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainal Abidin III The Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Badlishah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah The Sultan of Kelantan, Sultan Ibrahim ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV The Sultan of Pahang, Sultan Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah, Tunku Ismail ibni Sultan Ibrahim The Sultan of Perak, Sultan Sultan Yussuff Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Karamatullah Nasiruddin Mukhataram Shah Radziallah Hu'an-hu The following rulers have served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong: The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is formally elected to a five-year term by and from the nine rulers of the Malay states, who form the Conference of Rulers.
After a ruler has served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the other states have stood for election. In the event of a vacancy of the office, the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the previous term had expired; the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term. After his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected; the position de facto rotates among the nine rulers. The selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong follow
The earliest anatomically modern humans skeleton in Peninsular Malaysia, Perak Man, dates back 11,000 years and Perak Woman dating back 8,000 years, were both discovered in Lenggong. The site has an undisturbed stone tool production area, created using equipment such as anvils and hammer stones; the Tambun Cave paintings are situated in Perak. From East Malaysia, Sarawak's Niah Caves, there is evidence of the oldest human remains in Malaysia, dating back 40,000 years. Niah Caves in Sarawak is an important prehistoric site where human remains dating to ca. 40,000 years ago have been found. Archeologists have claimed a much earlier date for stone tools found in the Mansuli valley, near Lahad Datu in Sabah, but precise dating analysis has not yet been published. Archaeological finds from the Lenggong valley in Perak show that people were making stone tools and using jewellery; the archaeological data from this period come from cave and rock shelter sites, are associated with Hoabinhian hunter-gatherers.
It is believed. More people arrived, including new seafarers; the Malay Peninsula became the crossroads in maritime trades of the ancient age. Seafarers who came to Malaysia's shores included Indians and Chinese among others. Ptolemy named the Malay Peninsula the Golden Chersonese. A study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution, examining mitochondrial DNA lineages, suggested that humans had been occupying the islands of Southeast Asia for a longer period than believed. Population dispersals seem to have occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which may have resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years; the population migrations were most to have been driven by climate change – the effects of the drowning of an ancient continent. Rising sea levels in three massive pulses may have caused flooding and the submerging of the Sunda continent, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today.
A 2009 genetic study published by the 2009 Human Genome Organization Pan-Asian SNP Consortium found that Asia was settled by humans via a single southern route. The migration came from Africa via India, into Southeast Asia and what are now islands in the Pacific, later up to the eastern and northern Asian mainland. Genetic similarities were found between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Although the Chinese population is large, it has less variation than the smaller number of individuals living in Southeast Asia, because the Chinese expansion occurred recently, following the development of rice agriculture – within only the last 10,000 years. Oppenheimer locates the origin of the Austronesians in its upper regions. Genetic research reported in 2008 indicates that the islands which are the remnants of Sundaland were populated as early as 50,000 years ago, contrary to a previous hypothesis that they were populated as late as 10,000 years ago from Taiwan.
The theory of the Proto Malay people originating from Yunnan is supported by R. H Geldern, J. H. C Kern, J. R Foster, J. R Logen and Asmah Haji Omar; the Proto Malay who first arrived had agricultural skills while the second wave Deutero Malay who arrived around 1500 BC to dwell along the coastlines had advanced fishery skills. During the migration, both groups intermarried with peoples of the southern islands, such as those from Java, with aboriginal peoples of Australoid and Melanesoid origin. Other evidences that support this theory include: Stone tools found in the Malay archipelago are analogous to Central Asian tools. Similarities between Malay customs and Assamese customs. According to Kedah Annals, Kedah Kingdom was founded by Merong Mahawangsa, claimed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great. Combination of the colonial Kambujas of Hindu-Buddhism faith, the Indo-Persian royalties and traders as well as traders from southern China and elsewhere along the ancient trade routes, these peoples together with the aborigine Negrito Orang Asli and native seafarers and Proto Malays intermarried each other's and thus a new group of peoples was formed and became to be known as the Deutero Malays, today they are known as the Malays.
According to the earliest written records, the first recorded civilisation in the Mekong Delta was the 1st century Indianised-Khmer culture of Funan. The Khmer empire of Angkor followed. Neolithic inhabitants of coastal parts of the modern Cambodia region were cultivating rice, it is believed that they were the ancestors of the people living in insular Southeast Asia and islands of Pacific Ocean. They were knowledgeable in iron and bronze works as well as possessing good navigational skills; the Đông Yên Châu inscription around the 4th century AD is the oldest Malay text found. It was written in Old Malay-Cham language, found near Vietnam; the Kedukan Bukit Inscription of 682 CE was found at Indonesia. The similarity of the Cambodian Cham language and the Malay language can be found in names of places such as Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, etc. and Sejarah Melayu mentioned a Cham community in Parameswara's Malacca around the 15th century. Cham is related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
In the mid 15th century, when Cham was defeated by the Vietnamese, some 120,000 were killed and in the 17th centur